NATURAL DISASTERS

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NATURAL DISASTERS by Mind Map: NATURAL DISASTERS

1. Earthquakes

1.1. What is an earthquake?Earthquakes are the shaking, rolling or sudden shock of the earth’s surface.

1.2. What causes an earthquake? There are about 20 plates along the surface of the earth that move continuously and slowly past each other. When the plates squeeze or stretch, huge rocks form at their edges and the rocks shift with great force, causing an earthquake

1.3. What is a fault? A fault is an area of stress in the earth where broken rocks slide past each other, causing a crack in the Earth's surface.

1.4. What are plate tectonics? The theory of plate tectonics is a interesting story of continents drifting from place to place breaking apart, colliding, and grinding against each other.

1.5. What is a seismograph? A seismograph is an instrument used for recording the intensity and duration of an earthquake.

2. Volcanoes

2.1. What is a volcano? A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth.

2.2. How are volcanoes formed? Volcanoes are formed when magma from within the Earth's upper mantle works its way to the surface.

3. Tornadoes

3.1. What is a tornado? A tornado is a violent rotating column of air extending from a thunderstorm to the ground.

3.2. How do tornadoes form? Most tornadoes form from thunderstorms. You need warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and cool, dry air from Canada. When these two air masses meet, they create instability in the atmosphere.

4. Hurricanes

4.1. What is a hurricane? A hurricane is a huge storm! It can be up to 600 miles across and have strong winds spiraling inward and upward at speeds of 75 to 200 mph. Each hurricane usually lasts for over a week, moving 10-20 miles per hour over the open ocean.

4.2. How do hurricanes form? Hurricanes only form over really warm ocean water of 80°F or warmer. The atmosphere (the air) must cool off very quickly the higher you go. Also, the wind must be blowing in the same direction and at the same speed to force air upward from the ocean surface.

4.3. What is storm surge? Storm surges are frequently the most devastating element of a hurricane. As a hurricane’s winds spiral around and around the storm, they push water into a mound at the storm’s center.

4.4. What is storm surge? Storm surges are frequently the most devastating element of a hurricane. As a hurricane’s winds spiral around and around the storm, they push water into a mound at the storm’s center.

4.5. What is storm surge? Storm surges are frequently the most devastating element of a hurricane. As a hurricane’s winds spiral around and around the storm, they push water into a mound at the storm’s center.

4.6. What is a flood? A flood results from days of heavy rain and/or melting snows, when rivers rise and go over their banks.

4.7. What is a monsoon? A monsoon is a seasonal wind, found especially in Asia that reverses direction between summer and winter and often brings heavy rains.

4.8. What is a monsoon? A monsoon is a seasonal wind, found especially in Asia that reverses direction between summer and winter and often brings heavy rains.

5. Winter Storms

5.1. How do winter storms form? Winter storms derive their energy from the clash of two air masses of different temperatures and moisture levels.

5.2. How is snow formed? Snow is commonly formed when water vapor undergoes deposition, which is when water vapor changes directly to ice without first becoming a liquid, high in the atmosphere at a temperature of less than 32°F and then falls to the ground.

5.3. How do blizzards form? A blizzard is a long-lasting snowstorm with very strong winds and intense snowfall. You need three things to have a blizzard; cold air at the surface, lots of moisture, and lift.

5.4. What is an avalanche? An avalanche is a moving mass of snow that may contain ice, soil, rocks, and uprooted trees.

5.5. What is a wildfire? A wildfire also known as a wildland fire, forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, peat fire, bushfire (in Australia), or hill fire is an uncontrolled fire often occurring in wildland areas, but which can also consume houses or agricultural resources.

6. Wind

6.1. What is wind? Wind is air in motion. It is produced by the uneven heating of the earth’s surface by the sun.

6.2. What is lightning? Lightning is a bright flash of electricity produced by a thunderstorm. All thunderstorms produce lightning and are very dangerous.

6.3. What causes lightning? Lightning is an electric current. Within a thundercloud way up in the sky, many small bits of ice (frozen raindrops) bump into each other as they move around in the air.

7. Climate

7.1. What is climate? Climate is the average weather usually taken over a 30-year time period for a particular region and time period. Climate is not the same as weather, but rather, it is the average pattern of weather for a particular region

7.2. What is weather? The weather is just the state of the atmosphere at any time, including things such as temperature, precipitation, air pressure and cloud cover.

7.3. What causes weather? Because the Earth is round and not flat, the Sun's rays don't fall evenly on the land and oceans. The Sun shines more directly near the equator bringing these areas more warmth.

7.4. Why do mountains affect weather and climate? There are two sides to a mountain: wayward and leeward. Whenever it is raining, the wayward side gets the rain. As a cloud goes up the mountain, it keeps raining until there is no more water in the cloud.

8. Tsunami

8.1. What is a tsunami? A tsunami is a large ocean wave usually caused by an underwater earthquake or a volcanic explosion