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Input/Output by Mind Map: Input/Output

1. I/O Issues

1.1. Wide variety of peripherals

1.2. Data Transfer Rate is slower than memory/processor

1.3. Data Transfer Rate is faster than memory/processor

1.4. Peripherals use different data formats

2. I/O Module

2.1. Functions

2.1.1. Interface to processor & memory via system bus / central switch

2.1.2. Interface to or more peripheral devices

3. External Devices

3.1. Human Readable

3.1.1. Suitable to communicate with computer user

3.1.2. Eg ; Printers

3.2. Machine Readable

3.2.1. Suitable to communicate with equipment

3.2.2. Eg ; Magnetic disks

3.3. Communication

3.3.1. Suitable to ocmmunicate with remote devices

3.3.2. Eg ; Human/Machine Readable

4. Modules

4.1. Control & Timing

4.1.1. To coordinate flow of traffic between internal resources and external device

4.2. Processor Communication

4.2.1. Command decoding I/O module accepts commands from processor

4.2.2. Data Exchanged data between processor and I/O Modules via data bus

4.2.3. Status Reporting Peripherals is slow so its important to know the status

4.2.4. Address recognition I/O modules must recognize one unique address for each peripheral

4.3. Device Communication

4.3.1. Command

4.3.2. Statuts Info

4.3.3. Data

4.4. Data Buffering

4.4.1. Data are buffered in I/O module and sent to peripheral devices at its data rate

4.5. Error

4.5.1. Mechanical & Electrical Malfunctions

4.5.2. Unintentional Changes

4.5.3. Transmission

5. Direct Memory Access

5.1. A way for I/O Devices to bypass CPU when accessing memory

6. Programmed I/O (PIO)

6.1. Data transfers initiated by CPU under driver software control to access registers/memory on device

7. Interrupt Driven I/O

7.1. Overcomes CPU waiting

7.2. No repeated CPU checking

7.3. I/O module interrupts when ready

8. Interface To External

8.1. Control SIgnal

8.1.1. Determines the function that device will perform

8.2. Data Signal

8.2.1. Send or receive data from I/O module in form of bits

8.3. Status Signal

8.3.1. Indicates the status of signal