Social and Political Philosophy: The Principles of Government

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Social and Political Philosophy: The Principles of Government by Mind Map: Social and Political Philosophy: The Principles of Government

1. Absolutism

1.1. According to the idea of absolutism, there needs to be a centralized sovereign individual holding full and unlimited power. There are no checks or balances, no electorate, and no other governing body-there is ' absolute ' power in the ruling individual (Elearning, 2019).

1.1.1. Pros: 1. Absolute monarchies can ensure efficiency in governance. 2. Speeding things up can lead to a more prosperous nation. The country’s citizens will be more efficient. 3. Absolute monarchy makes lawmaking easier, simpler and the enforcement of such laws or delivering justice also becomes more sure-fire.

1.1.2. Cons: 1. Absolute monarchies often lead to grave injustices. 2. Lack the binding factors associated with humanism. 3. If the king or queen is not up for the challenges, then the country can descend into chaos.

1.2. Proponents

1.2.1. Plato

1.2.1.1. Plato proposed that the ideal society: a utopian city called Kallipolis, would be divided into hierarchies based on a class system according to his Theory of Forms. The wisest of them all - the only one whose mind was trained to understand the truth of the Forms, was the gold class, the philosopher king. Beneath him, would be the silver class, the soldiers (military force) who defended the state. Everyone below that class is the bronze class: the workers, labourers, farmers, their minds were not educated enough to know the truth (Elearning, 2019).

1.2.1.1.1. Plato (start at 4:04)

1.2.2. Aristotle

1.2.2.1. Aristotle was concerned about the type of government that would best serve the common good. In the end, he believed that the most advantages were democracy. He was concerned, like Plato, that the average person was neither educated nor smart enough to make rational governance decisions. This then excluded women, children, and those enslaved, because Aristotle felt that they have no place in politics (Elearning, 2019).

1.2.3. Thomas Hobbes.

1.2.3.1. Hobbes vs Locke (Please tune down volume before you watch)

1.2.4. Thomas Aquinas

1.2.4.1. Aquinas focused on the idea of one ruler, whose supreme authority was a God-given right. According to Aquinas, a ruler who followed the natural hierarchy of order would be obeying the will of God. Aquinas believed though that most people were inherently good, as God had intended (Elearning, 2019).

1.2.5. Niccolò Machiavelli

1.2.5.1. Machiavelli defined a "successful ruler" as one who sets aside his morality for political gain. Whatever a ruler has to do to gain power and hold on to power is warranted, even if it means breaking moral codes. The Prince is often recognized as one of the first works of modern political philosophy, as it is less concerned with an abstract ideal than with effective governance and policy (Elearning, 2019).

1.3. Real life examples

1.3.1. Divine Right of Kings.

1.3.2. Much of the history of Western civilization has been dominated by absolutism, from pharaohs to chieftains, from sultans to queens-the belief that a single ruler should have control over every aspect of government and its people's lives.

1.3.2.1. Louis XIV

1.3.2.1.1. Louis XIV

1.3.3. Monarchy vs Dictatorship

1.4. relevant ideas

1.4.1. Define elitism

1.4.1.1. Scholar's thinking about elitism

2. Socialism

2.1. Proponents

2.1.1. Karl Marx

2.1.1.1. More explanation for Marx's idea

2.1.2. Karl Marx (1818–1883) He was the foremost Socialist intellectual. His work Das Capital formed the basis of Marxism. With Frederich Engels, he published The Communist Manifesto, a radical agenda for Communist revolution.

2.1.2.1. Frederich Engels (1818–1883) He was a great supporter and collaborator with Karl Marx. He helped write and publish The Communist Manifesto. His own work Conditions of the Working Classes was a landmark study into the industrial proletariat.

2.1.3. Robert Owen (1870–1924) He is an early socialist pioneer. His New Lanark factories were a model for giving workers better conditions. He also advocated a form of utopian socialism and co-operative communities.

2.1.4. Charles Fourier.

2.2. Central to socialism is the belief that the entire global population commonly owns the world's resources; that the sole purpose of production is to meet human needs; and that each person would consume fairly from what is produced collectively (Elearning, 2019).

2.2.1. Pros: 1. Based on public benefits, socialism has the greatest goal of the commonwealth; 2. Since the government controls almost all of society’s functions, it can make better use of resources, labours and lands; 3. Reduces disparity in wealth, not only in different areas but also in all societal ranks and classes. Those who suffer from illnesses or are too old to work are still provided for and valued in by the government, assuming that the government is more compassionate that the individual’s family; 4. Excess or insufficient production can be avoided; 5. Prices can be controlled to a proper extent; 6. Socialism can tackle unemployment to a great extent.

2.2.1.1. More

2.2.2. Cons: 1. Slow economic growth 2. Less entrepreneurial opportunity and competition 3. A potential lack of motivation by individuals due to lesser rewards.

2.3. Democratic socialism

2.3.1. Pros: 1. It reduces classism within local societies. 2. It gives everyone an opportunity to pursue success. 3. It eliminates the threat of price fixing.

2.3.2. Cons: 1. It cedes more control over basic needs to the government. 2. It could cause a net financial loss instead of gains for families. 3. It would limit the influence of unions, civilian oversight committees, and similar institutions.

2.4. Real life examples

2.4.1. Socialism arose at the end of the 18th century as a response to the Industrial Revolution in England when the emergence of technologies such as the steam engine and mass production created great economic divisions between the social classes.

2.4.1.1. Capitalism vs Socialism

2.4.1.2. The New Democratic Party (NDP), in Canada, is a federal political party which officially adheres to social democracy and democratic socialism while still being the most left-wing of Canada's mainstream parties.

2.4.1.3. Sweden is often considered a strong example of a socialist society.

2.4.1.3.1. Sweden socialism

3. Liberalism

3.1. Classical liberalism has a very profound influence on the modern world; it holds the idea that everyone, regardless of their class or background in society, should have liberty and equality. Such a liberalist idea was considered dangerous and provocative by traditional European governments.

3.2. Ideas

3.2.1. Individualism

3.2.2. Liberalism vs Communitarianism

3.2.3. Liberalism is based on a belief in human beings' essential goodness, as well as the individual's autonomy. Liberalism advocates the protection of political and civil liberties and sees the government as a crucial tool to reduce or eliminate social inequities (Elearning, 2019).

3.2.3.1. Pros: 1. Promotes economic growth: With less government regulation to inhibit business growth, businesses will be productive and innovative thus promoting economic growth. 2. Eliminates slavery: Liberalism ensures we have a great country free from injustices and slavery. 3. Stable economy: Liberalism results in a stable economy with fewer risks of recession and less wealth disparity. Many people can obtain an adequate amount of income with fewer people becoming wealthier.

3.2.3.2. Cons: 1. Unfair business activities: If businesses are left alone without any regulations or restriction, they may not automatically formulate themselves into the best and fair formation. 2. Exploitation of resources: Fewer regulations on business economic practices results in exploitation of natural resources. 3. Market Inconsistency: The government cannot easily control market growth; there are cases where the market is unstable and experiencing a recession or affected by human behaviours making it difficult to predict the competitive market system.

3.3. Proponents

3.3.1. Locke believed that all people were free and equal by nature. In Locke's version of the social contract, the state only exists to promote and protect individual rights without civil authority, he argued, the' rule of power' where a person could forcefully deprive another of his or her possessions or liberty would allow injustices. Organizing states was one way for people to ensure protection for all (Elearning, 2019).

3.3.1.1. John Locke

3.3.2. John Stuart Mill

3.3.2.1. More in detail

3.4. Real life example

3.4.1. Historical changes of Political ideology

3.4.1.1. Age of Enlightenment.

3.4.2. Two prominent revolutions for liberty

3.4.2.1. The American War of Independence (1776)

3.4.2.1.1. The French Revolution (1789)

3.4.3. President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."

3.4.3.1. America Civil War

4. Fundamentalism

4.1. Pros and Cons

4.1.1. Pros: 1. Gives simple answer to complicated questions, such as life and purpose. 2. Not violent in nature. 3. Gives people a sense of comfort.

4.1.1.1. Divine Command Theory

4.1.2. Cons: 1. Believes that a religious text is absolutely and literally right and that anything opposing that text must be wrong. Therefore, it can be destructive to society. 2. Seeks to remake all aspects of society and government on religious principles. 3. Can potentially uphold and perpetuate extremism, as it opposes any others who are outside of the group, or in response to a prior incident.

4.2. Fundamentalism is a movement or attitude stressing strict and literal adherence to a set of basic principles (Merriam-Webster, 2019).

4.2.1. Understanding Fundamentalism

4.2.2. While often used to describe a particular type of religious extremism, fundamentalism can still affect the political process.

4.3. Real life examples

4.3.1. Christian Fundamentalism

4.3.2. Islamic Fundamentalism

4.3.2.1. Islamic Fundamentalism

4.4. Proponents

4.4.1. Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby.

4.4.1.1. The Fundamentalism Project (1991–95), a series of five volumes published by American scholars Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, was the most influential and controversial study of fundamentalism in the late 20th century.

4.4.1.1.1. Marty and Appleby viewed fundamentalism as the militant rejection of secular modernity in the first place. They argued that fundamentalism is not only a traditional religiosity, but an inherently political phenomenon, although sometimes this dimension may be dormant. Marty and Appleby also argued that fundamentalism is inherently totalitarian to the extent that it seeks to renew all aspects of society and government on religious principles (Munson, 2019).

5. Marxism

5.1. Proponents:

5.1.1. Karl Marx

5.1.1.1. Marx and Engels' s manifesto and ideas

5.1.2. Friedrich Engels

5.2. A political ideology that advocates the abolition of private property and class divisions, through revolution and violence if necessary, to establish a classless society (Elearning, 2019). Also, it is considered a transitional stage between capitalism and communism and distinguished by unequal distribution of goods and pay according to work done (Merriam-Webster).

5.2.1. What is Marxism?

5.2.2. Pros and Cons of Marxism

5.3. Real life examples

5.3.1. In China

5.3.1.1. In Singapore

5.3.2. In America

5.3.2.1. In America

5.3.3. Class struggle in Britain

6. Confucianism

6.1. Confucian political theory upholds the concept that good government can bring about order, peace, and the good of society. Necessary for this is a good ruler, one who will educate and transform the people, not by coercion, but by moral example (Elearning, 2019).

6.1.1. Pros: 1. On an individual level, Confucianism provides a rational basis for why people should improve their moral character and encourages them to do so. 2. Confucianism links individual morality to the broader social structure and therefore encourages leaders to be good in order to create a harmonious society. 3. Although many might see hierarchy and inequality as bad, Confucianism suggests these things give people a sense of purpose, and if people are operating within a framework of morally-good superiors and subordinates then people will feel satisfied with their positions. 4. Encourages education and strong work-ethic for the greater good.

6.1.2. Cons: 1. People’s individuality is suppressed into obedience It promotes inequality as a good thing 2. Confucianism is too optimistic that the people it gives power to will not take advantage of the situation 3. By promoting inequality and creating a one-sided power system that is not free from corruption, we are led to: - Despotic leaders (authoritarianism/totalitarianism) - Castigating outsiders and minorities as ‘barbarians’ (nationalism) - Oppression of women (patriarchy)

6.2. Real life examples

6.2.1. It was during the Han dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) when Confucianism became the dominant political ideology and the Analects became known by that name. All early versions of this text have been displaced by a version compiled near the end of the Han dynasty. About 175 CE this version was carved on stone tablets and the surviving fragments of those stones were re-edited innumerable times.

6.2.1.1. During the Imperial Period (Qin dynasty), the Chinese government and society were based on Confucian philosophy.

6.2.2. The teachings of Confucius have come down to our days through his Analects, a collection of aphorisms, maxims and different anecdotes, probably but not certainly compiled by Confucius' students.

6.2.2.1. crash course of Chinese history

6.3. Proponents

6.3.1. The importance of Confucius

6.3.1.1. Confucianism

6.3.2. Who is Meng zi (Mencius)?

6.3.2.1. Meng zi's philosophy

7. Communitarianism

7.1. Communitarianism (audio definition)

7.2. A theory or system of social organization based on small self-governing communities. In contrast to Liberalism, Communitarianism emphasizes on the importance of the community, and the individual's connections with it (Elearning, 2019).

7.2.1. Pros: 1. Society as a whole can work to make the environment better, even at the expense of certain rights. 2. Focuses on common goods 3. Enhances social cohesion

7.2.2. Cons: 1. Raises the issue of individual rights and, essentially, individualism. 2. Creates conflicts within specific cultural beliefs (e.g. U. S. governmental idea of freedom ) 3. Threatens the idea of inalienable rights which is a primary concern of an individualist point of view.

7.3. Proponents

7.3.1. The term communitarian was coined in 1841 by John Goodwyn Barmby, a leader of the British Chartist movement, who used it to refer to utopian socialists and others who experimented with unusual communal lifestyles (Etzioni, 2013).

7.3.2. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

7.3.2.1. Rousseau proposed a new social contract in which society's rights as a whole are protected rather than those of the individual. His idea was based on a' general will' concept, the protection of the majority. Decisions that would benefit the masses would be made, even if those decisions would harm a small fraction of society. If anyone opposed the general will, they were to be regarded as anti-social and subject to punishment (Elearning, 2019).

7.3.3. Charles Taylor

7.3.3.1. Charles Taylor argued that moral and political judgment will depend on the language of reasons and the interpretive framework within which agents view their world, hence that it makes no sense to begin the political enterprise by abstracting from the interpretive dimensions of human beliefs, practices, and institutions (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2016).

7.3.4. Michael Walzer

7.3.4.1. He developed the additional argument that effective social criticism must derive from and resonate with the habits and traditions of actual people living in specific times and places. Even if there is nothing problematic about a formal procedure of universalizability meant to yield a determinate set of human goods and values, ‘any such set would have to be considered in terms so abstract that they would be of little use in thinking about particular distributions’ (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2016).

7.4. Real life example

7.4.1. Demonstrations of real life communitarianism

7.4.1.1. Community can be geographical, sociological, and ideological

7.4.1.1.1. For instance, the Montreal French community unites to promote their rights of sovereignty, and the Western University academic community comes together to learn, and in both of these examples the individuals leave their personal issues outside of the realm of the communities’ goals.

8. Legend box: Blue line - regular branching line Green line - similar idea Grey line -slightly similar idea Red line - opposite/conflicting idea Green highlight- political ideology Yellow highlight- political style Orange highlight - political ideology pros and cons Red flag - definition Green flag - real-life examples

9. Angela Cai HZT4U