Second Language Learning

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Second Language Learning by Mind Map: Second  Language Learning

1. Aspects of communicative competence

1.1. Discouse competence

1.1.1. linking ideas in written texts, participation and interaction, opening and closing conversation. core concep of Celce Murcia model linguistic competence actional competence

1.2. Pragmatic competence

1.2.1. convey and interpret meanings in real situation

1.3. Sociolinguistic competence

1.3.1. knowledge of how use language in social situation

1.4. Sociocultural competence

1.4.1. awareness of the background and cultural knowledge

2. Processes

2.1. Transfer

2.1.1. knowledge the learners possess of their mother tongue particularly when the 2nd language shares a wide range of structures with the mother tongue

2.2. Generalization

2.3. Simplification

2.3.1. takes place in early stages of learning the speaker omits elements that are redundant and produces something similar to the "telegraphic speach" which allows speakers to convey essencial meanings with aminimum of linguistic competence knowledge they already possess about the 2nd language itself the ability to go "beyond the information given" in experience and make generalizations, which can then be used to understand and create new instances of experience, is fundamental to learning

2.4. Imitation

2.4.1. is provided by a set of phrases (formulaic speach) that learners often produce as a means of coping with a common or important situations in their environment

2.5. Conscious and unconscious learning proccessess

2.5.1. the four processess mentioned before may all occur subconsciously or consciously in natural situations may all occur subconsciously but in formal learning situations, it is consciously (when the teacher highlight a rule)

3. Sequences of development

3.1. Acquisition of the negative

3.2. Acquisition of morphemes

3.3. acquisition of the interrogative

3.4. Built-in sllabus

4. The effects of classroom instruction

4.1. The rate and course of learning

4.1.1. instructions can accelerate the rate of learning but not cause learners to skip a natural stage

4.2. Focus on form

4.3. Conscious learning strategies

4.3.1. for example Learners repeat silently to themselves what the teacher or other students say or they pay attention to the meaning of the language they are preacticing and they seek opptunities to use the language outside the class.

5. Theories

5.1. cognition-oriented theories

5.1.1. Creative construction hypothesis or Interlanguage theory Innate mechanisms for processing languageand creating their own internal grammar called "interlanguage", a language located between their mother tongue and the target language. According to Selinker it is an individual linguistic system created by 2nd language learners as a result of five cognitive processes. interference from the native language, effect of instruction, overgeneralization of target language rules,strategies such as memorization or the use of formal rules and strategies such as the use of gestures.

5.1.2. Input hypothesis or monitor model The most important distinction is between "acquisition" and "learning" Learning is conscious and often occurs through instruction or error correction.Plays a role as a "monitor" of speach or writing and can never pass through into the acquired system. According to Krashen Input processing theory is focused on how learners process input to connect grammatical forms with their meaning to convert input in intake(it is language that is comprehend and used by learners to develop a linguistic system that they then use to produce output in the language)

5.1.3. Universal grammar hypothesis It claims that there is a set of principles thar are universal to all languages which govern all languages and are already connected into the human brain when we are born Chompsky proposed that humans are born with an innate language acquisition device(LAD)that enables them to process language. When children pay attention to features of the language they hear, the LAD is activated, it trigges and selects the innate rules specific to the language they hear. Chompsky viewed Competence as the intuitive knowledge of rules of grammar and syntax and of how the linguistic system of a language operates. Performance is the individual s ability to produce language.

5.1.4. Lons interaction hypothesis According to Long input comes to the individual from a variety of sources, including others. individuals make their input cpmprehensible in three ways. By simplifying the input, by using linguistic and extralinguistic features and by modifying the interactional structure of conversation. Speakers make changes in their language as they interact or negotiate meaning with each other as they attempt to resolve communication breakdown and to work toward mutual comprehension.

5.2. Cognitive skill-learning model

5.2.1. A unique form of learning which requires explanations specific to itself.

5.2.2. The creative construction model sees language learning as poceeding in natural sequences, as a result of internal mechanisms which are "triggered"by input from the environment

5.3. context-oriented theories

5.3.1. Interaction hypothesis This is most likely to occure in situations of social interaction providing opportunities for the negociation of meaning, requests for clarificaion and comprehension checks. Vygotsky highlights the role of social interaction in learning and development. the learner brings two levels of development to the learning task, an actual development level (what the learner can do without assistance) and a potencial development level(what the learner can do with the assistance of adults. Between the two levels is the the learner s Zone of proximal Development.

5.3.2. Output hypothesis It argues that input is not sufficient and that output too plays a significant role in acquisition. The need to speak or write makes learners pay attention to aspects of grammar which they would not need for comprehension purposes alone Swain argues that input is a necessary but not sufficient condition for language development. Learners also need opportunities to produce output( or speaking the language to communicate their ideas)which facilitates acquisition.

5.3.3. Scaffolding hypothesis It´s based on sociocultural theory. Social interaction provides the substantive means by which learning occurs. "scaffolding". With support from others, learners can reach levels of achievement which they would be unable to reach independently.This support comes from experts(teachers) According to Vygotsky the language of the expert serves as directives and moves the learner through his or her ZPD to the point where the learner is able to perform a task alone.

5.3.4. the acculturation model and social identity They are concerned mainly with the experience of immigrants in their new host country Acculturation model language learning involves a process of accumulation and is heaviy dependent on the degree of social and pscological distance that learners percieve between themselves and the seakers of the target language. This distance is smaller when the learner´s own community shares social facilities with the target language community. The social identity model is based on the mutual influences that link language and identity, language is one means by which identity is constructed and identity affects the way in which we use language.