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Week 1 by Mind Map: Week 1

1. simplest: chemical level

1.1. atoms: smallest particle of an element

1.1.1. Combine + water + charge = electrolytes

1.1.1.1. cations: positively charged ions E.g H+ ions and sodium ions (major cation in ECF)

1.1.1.2. anions: negatively charged ions E.g chloride ions (major anion in ICF)

1.1.1.2.1. 3 classes: salts- other than H+ ions acids- release H+ ions base- bind H+ ions

1.1.2. molecules: 2 or more atoms joined together by chemical bonds

1.2. macromolecules: molecules combined

1.2.1. carbohydrates

1.2.1.1. made of saccharides. carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

1.2.1.2. function: energy for all cellular functions

1.2.1.3. types of carbohydrates

1.2.1.3.1. monosaccharides - monomer E.g glucose

1.2.1.3.2. disccharides- dimer E.g sucrose

1.2.1.3.3. polysaccharides- polymer E.g glycogen

1.2.2. lipids

1.2.2.1. made of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen

1.2.2.2. types of lipids

1.2.2.2.1. triglycerides

1.2.2.2.2. phospholipids

1.2.2.2.3. steroids

1.2.3. proteins

1.2.3.1. made of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon

1.2.3.2. types of proteins

1.2.3.2.1. structural: fibouras proteins

1.2.3.2.2. functional: globular proteins

1.2.3.3. denaturation

1.2.3.3.1. decrease in pH or increase in temp = denaturation= loss of protein function = cell malfunction = disease and death

1.2.4. nucleic acid

1.2.4.1. contains oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus

1.2.4.2. types of nucleic acid

1.2.4.2.1. DNA

1.2.4.2.2. RNA

2. cellular level

2.1. organelles: perform specific metabolic functions

2.2. cells: structural unit of matter

2.2.1. ICF: fluid inside of cells ECF: fluid outside of cells inside of skin

2.2.1.1. 4 main elements in human body: oxygen carbon hydrogen nitrogen

2.2.2. ECF= ISF and plasma

2.2.3. homeostasis: maintains relatively stable conditions in the ECF. stable and dynamic equilibrium

2.2.3.1. goal: for cells to function properly conditions in the ECF need to be within the ranges otherwise proteins would denature

2.2.3.1.1. organ system maintains internal environment (ECF) helps cells to function properly = homeostasis

2.2.3.2. regulated variables: temperature, nutrient levels acid base balance

2.2.3.3. receptor

2.2.3.3.1. detects changes and sends message to control center via afferent pathways

2.2.3.4. control centre

2.2.3.4.1. figures out the changes that need to be done to maintain homeostasis (7.35-7.45) sends message to appropriate effector via efferent pathways

2.2.3.5. effector

2.2.3.5.1. responds and returns variable within the homeostatic range

2.2.3.6. feedback mechanism

2.2.3.6.1. negative feedback: response returns variable within homeostatic range and turns off

2.2.3.6.2. positive feedback: keeps variable outside normal ranges and response does not turn off (accelerates to completion E.g childbirth and the release of oxytocin)

2.2.3.6.3. negative feedback keeps the conditions within the normal range which is needed for survival

3. complex: macroscopic level

3.1. tissues: cells formed together that perform a similar function

3.1.1. blood: a fluid connective tissue composed of plasma and other elements. includes erythrocytes, leukocytes and plasma

3.1.1.1. structure: biconcave in shape no organelles only room for hemoglobin

3.1.1.2. function: gas transportation which is done through hemoglobin

3.1.1.3. hemoglobin: binds with oxygen in lungs where oxygen levels are high and releases them into tissues where oxygen levels are low. binds with carbon dioxide in tissues that are high and transports them in the lungs where carbon dioxide levels are low and vie versa

3.1.2. blood role in homeostasis

3.1.2.1. distribution

3.1.2.1.1. O.M.H

3.1.2.1.2. oxygen and nutrient levels

3.1.2.1.3. metabolic waste

3.1.2.1.4. hormones

3.1.2.2. regulation

3.1.2.2.1. I.P.F

3.1.2.2.2. ISF and electrolyte levels

3.1.2.2.3. pH using chemical buffers

3.1.2.2.4. fluid volume and body temp

3.1.2.3. protection

3.1.2.3.1. infection control

3.1.2.3.2. preventing blood loss

3.2. organs: greater than 2 tissue types working together to performa a similar function

3.3. organ system: organs working together

3.3.1. support and movement: muscular system, skeletal, integumentary

3.3.2. control and regulation: endocrine, nervous system

3.3.3. fluids, transport and defense: cardiovascular and lymphatic system

3.3.4. environmental exchange: urinary, digestive and respiratory system

3.3.5. continuity of life: reproduction system

3.4. organism: most complex requires 8 living functions

3.4.1. reproduction excretion responsiveness metabolism digestion movement growth maintaining boundaries

3.4.2. 5 survival needs: O.W.A.A.N = oxygen, water, atmospheric pressure, appropriate temperature, nutrition

4. enzymes

4.1. speed up chemical reactions using catalyst

4.2. chemical reactions

4.2.1. synthesized reaction

4.2.1.1. bonds are joined together to make complex structures

4.2.2. decomposition reaction

4.2.2.1. bonds are broken to make simple molecules

4.2.3. exchange reactions

4.2.3.1. both put together and broken