Conceptual Map Composition I Paragraphs

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Conceptual Map Composition I Paragraphs by Mind Map: Conceptual Map Composition I       Paragraphs

1. Chapter # 3 Giving Instructions

1.1. - Prewriting -Listing helps you generate ideas for writing. Listing is a brainstorming activity. Think about your topic, then make a list of words or phrases that come to mind until you run out of ideas.

1.2. - "How-To " Paragraphs explain how to do or make something. Four keys to write one: Topic sentence, Divide the instructions into a series of steps. You can use time order and time order transition signals: Example: First, Next, After, Second, In addition,

1.3. -Topic Sentences and Concluding Sentences The topic sentence names the topic. The controlling idea part tells what you will learn, it also explains what the paragraph will say Example: Anyone can fix a flat tire by following these steps. The concluding sentence mentions the topic again to remind you what the paragraph was about. Example: In no time at all, your flat time will be repaired, and you will be on your way again. -Time-Order are used to signal steps in an specific order. Example: First, First of all, After that, Then, Finally, Next. Listing-Order Transition Signals if your paragraph contains a number of tips that can be discussed in any order. Example: First, Second, Third, In addition, Also.

1.4. -Creating an Outline from an Edited List The listing technique helps you get ideas. The you edit the list by crossing out repeated ideas or information that is unimportant. Then decide the main steps and then number then using time order. Then create the outline from an edited list, Nark the ideas you will be using in alphabetical order, then add the topic sentence and a concluding sentence.

1.5. -Independent clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb and expresses complete thought. It can stand alone as a sentence by itself. Example: Paris has excellent art museums. Dependent Clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb. The dependent clause always begins with an introductory word known as subordinator. Example: because Washington DC has excellent museums.

2. Chapter #2 Listing - Order Paragraphs

2.1. 1 - Prewriting -Clustering is a prewriting technique that allows you to brainstorm and develop your ideas with the help of a diagram called cluster. Write your topic in the middle. Draw a circle around it. Think of ideas related to the topic. Write key words or phrases in circles around the topic and connect them with lines to the main circle. write any idea that comes to mind. Then think of the word or phrase you want to use to build your draft. Remove those ideas that you will not use.

2.2. 2 - Listing-Order Paragraphs Three keys to writing a listing-order paragraph. Begin with a topic sentence that names the topic and says it has several points. Write about (or list) each point separately. End with a concluding sentence that reminds the reader about the points just discussed.

2.3. - Organization A paragraph has three parts: A topic sentence, supporting sentences and a concluding sentence. The Topic Sentence tells the reader what the main idea of the paragraph is. It has two parts: the topic tells what it will be about and the controlling idea which tells what it will say about the topic.

2.4. Supporting Sentences follow the topic sentence, explain or probe the ideas in the main topic sentence. Listing-Order Transition Signals: they alert the reader that we are moving to the next supporting idea. Examples: First, First of all, Second, Third, In Addition.

2.5. The Concluding Sentence: Paragraphs that stand alone and it is no longer part of the composition. It signal the close of the paragraph to the reader. Example: To conclude, To sum up, In short.

3. Chapter #1 Describing people

3.1. 5-Sentences: A sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb and expresses complete thought. -Capitalizalize the first letter of: First word in a sentence, Pronoun "I", names of people and their titles, nationalities, languages, religions and ethnic groups.

3.2. 6- Sentence Structure -Simple Sentences is a sentence that has one subject-verb pair. It may have one subject or two (compound) -Sentence Combining. Conjunctions "and" & "or" are used to combine short sentences

3.3. 7- The Writing Process. Writing involves thinking, planning, writing and revising: Preview to get ideas. Write the first draft. Revise and edit the first draft. Write a new draft.

4. Chapter #1 Describing people

4.1. 1- Prewriting Asking questions and taking notes is a technique used to get and gather ideas to write a paragraph.

4.2. 2- Organization -A paragraph is a group related sentences about a single topic. -The topic sentence names the topic and tells what the paragraph will say about it. -The supporting sentences give examples or other ideas about the topic. -The concluding sentence restates the topic sentence indifferent words or summarizes the main points.

4.3. 3- Descriptive Adjectives are important when you describe people. Synonyms for common adjectives are helpful when writing.

4.4. 4- Formatting the Page. Page Format for Computer.

4.4.1. a.The Paper: 8 1/2 inch by 11 inch. b. The Font: Standard font style (Times New Roman font, 12 point font size.

4.4.2. c. The Heading: Full Name in the upper left corner. In the next line, type the course number. On the Third line, type the date in month-day-year with a comma after the day.

4.4.3. d. The Title: Skip one line. type the title and center it.

4.4.4. e. The paragraph: Skip one line, and type on the next line. Indent the first word by using TAB key. Type the paragraph without line breaks. Only enter line breaks at the end of the paragraphs. Margins: Leave a 1 inch margin on the left and right margins.

4.4.5. f. Spacing: double-space your paragraph.

5. Chapter # 4 Describing with Space Order

5.1. 1 -Listing Descriptive Details are like "word pictures" to get ideas by using phrases beginning with prepositions such as: on, in, under, and on top of.

5.2. 2 - Descriptive Paragraphs - You can use space order to organize your ideas and use supporting sentences with specific detail to help the reader visualize what you describe. Space order: you can describe in this order: Clockwise: You may start your description at the doorway and work your way around the room in a clockwise direction until you reach the doorway again. Front to back: you might start describing at the front of the room and go from the front to the back. Common types of space order for describing include: top to bottom, far to near, right to left, outside to inside, bottom to top, near to far, left to right, inside to outside.

5.3. 3 Topic Sentences The topic sentence of a descriptive paragraph also has a topic and a controlling idea. The topic usually names the person, place, or thing to be described.

5.4. The controlling idea gives a general impression of the topic ( beautiful, neat, messy, interesting, unusual, crowded, busy, noisy and so on). Example: The club was full of young people having fun. The old house looked ready to fall down. ional Phrases.

5.5. A Concluding Sentence of a descriptive paragraph can do the following: It may repeat the idea stated in the topic sentence using different words or It may repeat the idea and also give the writer's opinion or feeling about the topic. Example: In short, I doubt the old house will survive one more winter (opinion). My friend and I were very happy when we got out of the cave (feeling).

5.6. Supporting Sentences with Specific Details. When you describe something your goal is to make the reader "see" what you have described. To accomplish this we use specific means exact or precise. the opposite of specific is general or vague. Example vague ( a lot of money), specific ($500) or "a nice car" " a read BMW convertible".

6. Chapter #2 Listing - Order Paragraphs

6.1. 3 - Outlining: Is another technique to help you organize your ideas. Parts of an Outline. Title. Topic Sentence. 1 Main Point, 2 Main Point, 3rd Main Point, Concluding Sentence.

6.2. 4 - Sentence Structure -A Compound Sentence is two simple sentences connected by a comma and a coordinating conjunction Example: My sister is good at math, and she always gets good grades. There are Simple sentences and compound sentences

6.3. Coordinating Conjunctions: And connects two sentences with similar ideas, But, connects two sentences with constructing or opposite ideas, Or connects two sentences that express alternative or choices and So, connects a reason and a result.

6.4. Common Sentence Errors: Run-ons and Comma Splices are common errors. A run on is two simple sentences incorrectly joined with no coordinating conjunction and no coma.

6.5. Run-on: My roommate wants to win the Tour de France someday he spends hours riding his bicycle. A comma splice is two simple sentences incorrectly joined with a comma but no coordinating conjunction.

6.6. There are two ways to fix these errors: Separate the sentences with a period. My roommate want to win the Tour de France someday. He spends hours riding his bicycle. Add (or Keep) the comma and add a coordinating conjunction. My roommate wants to win the Tour de France someday, so he spends hours riding his bicycle.

7. Chapter # 3 Giving Instructions

7.1. -Complex Sentences with Time Clauses. they have one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. A dependent clause that has a subject and a verb and begins with an introductory word known as time subordination. Anna's family eats dinner as soon as her father comes home. After, As soon as, before, since, until.

7.2. Common Sentences Errors: Fragments. The word fragment means a part of something Example Incorrect: before the test began. Correct: The teacher passed out paper before the test began. Summary: Simple sentence has one independent clause. Compound sentence has two or more independent clauses joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction.

7.3. Complex Sentences has one independent an one or more dependent clauses, In complex sentences with time clauses, a comma is needed when the dependent time clause comes before the independent clause.

7.4. -Capitalization: Four More Rules: 1- Names of specific structures, buildings, roads, and bridges. 2-Names of specific organizations, businesses, schools and clubs. 3- Names of days, months, holidays. not used for seasons. 4- Geographic areas: The Middle East, not used on compass directions: north, south.

7.5. Punctuation: Commas. Use comma: 1- After listing-order and time-order signals. 2- before coordinating conjunctions in a compound sentence. 3- In a complex sentence, when a dependent time clause comes before an independent clause. 4- to separate items in a series (three or more related things, people or actions that occur one after another one.

8. Chapter # 4 Describing with Space Order

8.1. -Adjectives describe nouns and pronouns. they tell what things (or people) look like, what kind they are, or how many or how much there are. They answer the questions: What kind? The old car has broken window. Which one? The red dress. the fourth chapter of the book. and How many/much? five students. Not much homework.

8.2. -Order of Adjectives 1. They may come in front of nouns, not after them. 2.Can also follow linking verbs. Be, seem look, smell, taste, feel. 3. Have only one form. Use same adjective with singular and plural nouns: "a terrible storm", "a cute child" 4. A compound adjective is two or more words that function as an adjective: a one-hour drive, a part-time job, a reddish-gold sunset.

8.3. 4. In compound adjectives with hyphenated number-noun combinations, the noun is always singular: a five-dollar bill, a two-year old child, a six-foot-high wall. 6. some nouns can also function as adjectives: The English book, tennis balls, a shoe store, the Japanese students.

8.4. 5. Proper adjectives ( that is , adjectives referring to nationalities, languages, places are capitalized: an Egyptian book, my Spanish class, the Cuban government, Asian languages. 8. Present and past particles can be used as adjectives: a boring class, bored students, a cooking class, a cooked meal, breaking news, a broken heart.

8.5. 6 - Prepositions are words such as of, from, in and at. Most prepositions are one word Examples: above, behind, during, across, below, except, in addition to, in back of, in front of in place of, down by, into, since, until, toward between, along, upon, against.

8.6. -Prepositional Phrases of Place: answer the question of Where? on the desk, next to the window, under the bed, in the middle of the room, opposite the door, in front of the house.

8.7. -Prepositional Phrases of Time: answer the question When? at the beginning, after that, after class, on New Year's Day, before the test, upon arrival, in the morning, at midnight.

8.8. -Prepositional Phrases of Possession: answer the question of Whose? (the father) of the bride, (the colors) of the rainbow, (the name) of my boss, (the director) of the company.

9. Chapter # 5 Stating Reasons and Using examples.

9.1. When writing it is recommended to use reason and examples to support the main idea. State your recommendation in your topic sentence. Give several reason for it, reasons why. Support each reason with examples. End with a concluding sentence restating your recommendation.

9.2. When you write a topic sentence you need to support it with reasons to help convince your reader. Support it with specific examples.

9.3. Transition Signals that Introduce Reasons: Example: First of all, Second, First of all, this small country has very diverse geography, so it has many different wildlife habitats.

9.4. Transition Signals that Introduce Examples: For example, (+ sentence), For Instance, (+ sentence)

9.5. Conclusion Signals: For these (two, three, four) reasons and Because of...

9.6. Complex Sentence with Reason Clauses and Condition Clauses: A reason clause is a dependent clause that explains why something happens or why someonedoes something. It has a subject and verb and begins with an introductory word known as a reason subordinator. Because ans since are reason subordinators.

10. Chapter # 5 Stating Reasons and Using examples.

10.1. Capitalization: Two More Rules: Capitalize Some abbreviations: IBM, USA, UCLA, UK, UAE, United States of America, City Colleges of Chicago. Capitalize the first Letter of the abbreviation of a person's title: Dr. Mr. Mrs. Prof.

10.2. Punctuation: four More Comma Rules. To separate thousands, millions, etc. The trip cost them over $3,000. Do not use comma in a number that is part of an address: 2935 main street. Do not use to separate dollars from cents or decimals: $59.95 4.5% $2,999.99.

10.3. To separate the parts of date and after years in the middle of a sentence: The third millennium started on January 1, 2001, not on January 1, 2000.

10.4. Separate parts of a U.S. address except between the state and zip code. 1410 NE Campus Parkway, Seattle, WA 98195.

10.5. After the greeting and closing of an email or letter. Dear Michiki, Love, Dear Mom, To Whom It May Concern,