Animal Evolution & Diversity (Vertebrae)

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Animal Evolution & Diversity (Vertebrae) by Mind Map: Animal Evolution & Diversity (Vertebrae)

1. FISHES

1.1. evolved about 542 mya

1.2. 2 major groups

1.2.1. Cartilaginous fishes

1.2.2. Bony fishes

1.3. Cartilaginous and bony fishes have a lateral line system that detects minor vibrations in the water

1.4. To provide lift off the bottom:

1.4.1. cartilaginous fish must swim but

1.4.2. bony fish have swim bladders, gas filled sacs that make them buoyant

1.5. Fish Diversity Lampreys

1.5.1. are vertebrates

1.5.2. have a cranium

1.5.3. but lack jaws

2. AMPHIBIANS

2.1. Exhibit a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial adaptations

2.2. Usually need water to reproduce

2.3. Typically undergo metamorphosis from an aquatic larva to a terrestrial adult

2.4. were the first vertebrates to colonize land

2.5. Descended from fishes that had lungs and fins with muscles

3. REPTILES

3.1. Nonbird reptiles are ectotherms, sometimes referred to as "cold-b;oaded,"

3.2. A nonbird reptile can survive on less than 10% of the calories required by a bird or mammal of equivalent size

3.3. reptiles diversified extensively during the Mesozoic era

3.4. Dinosour were the largest animals ever to live in land

4. BIRDS

4.1. birds evolved from a lineage of small, 2 legs dinosours

4.2. -honeycombed bones, one instead of two ovaries, a beak instead of teeth

4.3. endotherms

5. MAMMAMLS

5.1. monotremes

5.2. marsupials

5.3. eutherians

5.4. humans are primates, includes:-

5.4.1. apes

5.4.2. monkeys

5.4.3. pottos

5.4.4. evoloved from insect-eating mammals

5.4.5. characteristics

5.4.5.1. limber shoulder joints

5.4.5.2. eyes infront of the eyes

5.4.5.3. excellent eye-hand coordination

5.4.5.4. extensive parental care