*A range of polysaccharides and proteins *Primary functions: Thickening agents, Gelling or texturizing agents *Secondary functions: Stabilisation of emulsions, suspension of particulates, control of crystallisation, encapsulation, formation of film
carboxy methyl cellulose
methylcellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose
galactomannas (guar and LBG)
THERMOREVERSIBLE, gelatin, agar, kappa carrageen, iota carrageenan, low methoxy (LM) pectin, gellan gum, methyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose, xanthan gum and locust bean gum or konjac mannan
THERMO-IRREVERSIBLE, alginate, high methoxyl (HM) pectin, konjac mannan, locust bean gum
locust bean gum
protein gylcol alginate(PGA)
carboxyl methyl cellulose(CMC)
insoluble in cold water, must be heated to dissolve-max viscosity develop when heated to~95 degree celcius, then cooled does not form gel by itself but form gel when combined with xanthan gum non-ionic, stable over pH 3.5-11.0 primary functions: hickening, stabilization of emulsions, inhibition of syneresis used in canned foods, sauces, desserts, ice-cream, processed meat
Derived from peel of citrus fruits, apple pomace, sugar beet, sunflower heads.
HIGH METHOXYL PECTIN
LOW METHOXYL PECTIN
more highly substituted than LBG, more soluble, hydrates fully in cold water giving high viscosity non-gelling---used as viscosity builder, stabilizer, water binder very stable from pH 4-10
*the sap exuded from various species of Acacia trees.*dissolve easily in hot/cold water*least viscous and the most soluble of all hydrocolloids-up to 55% solid concentration can be used.*to retard sugar crystalization and to promote emulsification*to encapsulate volatile flavour compounds*promote stabilization of foam in beer*function as an emulsifier & stabilizer in soft drink emulsion
alkaline treatment converts cellulose into ether examples---carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) very clear solution, stable over pH 4-10 used as thickener, suspending and stabilizing agents. Modify flow characteristics. use in fried foods---create a barrier to oil absorption, retard loss in moisture, improve adhesion of batter.
*derived from seaweed*made up of blocks of D-mannuronic acid & L-guluronic acid.*the ratio of M:G & the MW of polymer determine the solution and gelling properties of alginate* alginate can form gel in cold water in the presence of ca ion, the gel is thermo-irreversible.*provide excellent stabilizing effect in frozen products.
completely soluble in cold water, produce high viscosity at low concentration excellent stability to heat and pH viscosity remain unchanged across temperature range (0-100 degree celcius), pH 1-13 used as a thickening, suspending and stabilizing agents.
in a concentration as low as 0.5%, kappa and iota carrageenan can form thermoreversible gel upon cooling of hot aqueous solution containing various cations.