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GUMS & STABILIZERS by Mind Map: GUMS & STABILIZERS
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GUMS & STABILIZERS

HYDROCOLLOIDS

*A range of polysaccharides and proteins *Primary functions: Thickening agents, Gelling or texturizing agents *Secondary functions: Stabilisation of emulsions, suspension of particulates, control of crystallisation, encapsulation, formation of film

THICKENERS

xanthan gum

carboxy methyl cellulose

methylcellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose

galactomannas (guar and LBG)

GELLING AGENT

THERMOREVERSIBLE, gelatin, agar, kappa carrageen, iota carrageenan, low methoxy (LM) pectin, gellan gum, methyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose, xanthan gum and locust bean gum or konjac mannan

THERMO-IRREVERSIBLE, alginate, high methoxyl (HM) pectin, konjac mannan, locust bean gum

ACID STABILITY OF FOOD GUMS

GOOD

pectin

xanthan gum

gellan gum

gum arabic

locust bean gum

tragacanth

FAIR

guar gum

protein gylcol alginate(PGA)

carboxyl methyl cellulose(CMC)

gelatin

alginate

agar

POOR

carrageenan

cellulose derivatives

COMMON GUM & STABILIZERS

GELATIN

TYPE A

TYPE B

LOCUST BEAN GUM

insoluble in cold water, must be heated to dissolve-max viscosity develop when heated to~95 degree celcius, then cooled does not form gel by itself but form gel when combined with xanthan gum non-ionic, stable over pH 3.5-11.0 primary functions: hickening, stabilization of emulsions, inhibition of syneresis used in canned foods, sauces, desserts, ice-cream, processed meat

PECTIN

Derived from peel of citrus fruits, apple pomace, sugar beet, sunflower heads.

HIGH METHOXYL PECTIN

LOW METHOXYL PECTIN

GUAR GUM

more highly substituted than LBG, more soluble, hydrates fully in cold water giving high viscosity non-gelling---used as viscosity builder, stabilizer, water binder very stable from pH 4-10

GUM ARABIC

*the sap exuded from various species of Acacia trees.*dissolve easily in hot/cold water*least viscous and the most soluble of all hydrocolloids-up to 55% solid concentration can be used.*to retard sugar crystalization and to promote emulsification*to encapsulate volatile flavour compounds*promote stabilization of foam in beer*function as an emulsifier & stabilizer in soft drink emulsion

CELLULOSE DERIVATIVES

alkaline treatment converts cellulose into ether examples---carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) very clear solution, stable over pH 4-10 used as thickener, suspending and stabilizing agents. Modify flow characteristics. use in fried foods---create a barrier to oil absorption, retard loss in moisture, improve adhesion of batter.

ALGINATE

*derived from seaweed*made up of blocks of D-mannuronic acid & L-guluronic acid.*the ratio of M:G & the MW of polymer determine the solution and gelling properties of alginate* alginate can form gel in cold water in the presence of ca ion, the gel is thermo-irreversible.*provide excellent stabilizing effect in frozen products.

XANTHAN GUM

completely soluble in cold water, produce high viscosity at low concentration excellent stability to heat and pH viscosity remain unchanged across temperature range (0-100 degree celcius), pH 1-13 used as a thickening, suspending and stabilizing agents.

CARRAGEENAN

in a concentration as low as 0.5%, kappa and iota carrageenan can form thermoreversible gel upon cooling of hot aqueous solution containing various cations.

KAPPA

LAMBDA

IOTA