Emulsifiers are substances which act to reduce the interfacial tension between 2 immiscible phases (oil & water) and allow (W/O or O/W) emulsion to form.
Insensitive to effects of pH and salt content
Example, Mono & Diglyceride, Sucrose Esters, Sorbitan monosterate, Polyoxyethylene glycol oleates
-ve electrical charge
Influenced by pH and ionic strength
Example, Stearoyl lactylates, DATEM, Succinylated monoglycerides
+ve electrical charge
Not used as food additive (Toxic)
Possess both +ve & -ve charges
Combination of oil and water in a compatible dispersion.
All food products with Oil & Water
To improve the stability or quality of an emulsion.
Vegetable dairy products
To initiate or control gas-in- liquid dispersion.
De-emulsification of gas-in-liquid emulsions usually on top of liquid systems.
Complexing action on starch, to reduce firming of crumb.
Reduction of interfacial tension between liquid and solid surfaces to cause the liquid to spread more quickly and evenly.
Spray-dried dessert mixes
Complexing action on starch to reduce clumping, and improve consistency and uniformity.
Modification of polymorphic form, and size and rate of growth in fat crystals.
Improvingability of liquid-in-liquid dispersions to form clear solution.
High lipophilic (HLB 1-10)
W/O emulsifier, Baked products, Peanut butter, Frozen desserts
- HLB 7-13 - Can be W/O or O/W emulsifiers
Mono- esters, HLB >16, O/W emulsions
Di-esters, HLB <10, W/O emulsions
Tri-esters, HLB ~1, Antifoaming agent
Used with polysorbates
O/W emulsifier, toppings, cake icings, cake mixes
O/W emulsifier, ice cream, ice milk
O/W emulsifier, oils in special dietary foods, vitamin and mineral preparation, fat-soluble vitamins
High hydrophilic emulsifier
Application in baked products
Has wide range of HLB
Applications, baked goods, chocolate, instants food
Dough conditioner, Stearoyl lactylate, Polysorbate 60
Crumb softener, Mono- & diglycerides, DATEM
Emulsifier in cakes: - stabilize the aerated structure - promote finer distribution of fat droplets - increase viscosity of the water phases
Alpha- tending emulsifier, Acetic acid esters of monoglycerides, Lactic acid esters of monoglycerides, Propylene glycol esters
Emulsifier in confectionery products: - inhibit bloom (stabilize the intermediate beta' form of the fat) - stabilize gloss - improve palatability
Crystal modifier, Distilled monoglycerides, Lactic acid esters of monoglycerides, Sorbitan monostearate, Polysorbate 60
Emulsifier in ice- cream: - aerating agent - foam stabilizer ( destabilizing the products emulsion)
Fresh & Instant noodles, Increase water absorption by 1-2 %, Decrease cooking time
Macaroni & spaghetti, Provide a feeling of elasticity and smooth uniform surface which inhibit sticking after boiling.
HLB values 1- 10, Mono- & Diglycerides, Sucrose Esters, Sorbitan Monostearate
HLB values >10, Polysorbate 60, Polysorbate 65, Polysorbate 80
Antifoaming agents, Syrup, Yeast
Wetting agent, Spray-dried dessert mixes, Coffee whiteners, Instant breakfasts
W/O or O/W emulsifier