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Emulsifier by Mind Map: Emulsifier
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Emulsifier

Emulsifiers are substances which act to reduce the interfacial tension between 2 immiscible phases (oil & water) and allow (W/O or O/W) emulsion to form.

Types

Nonionic

Uncharged particles

Insensitive to effects of pH and salt content

Example, Mono & Diglyceride, Sucrose Esters, Sorbitan monosterate, Polyoxyethylene glycol oleates

Anionic

-ve electrical charge

Influenced by pH and ionic strength

Example, Stearoyl lactylates, DATEM, Succinylated monoglycerides

Cationic

+ve electrical charge

Not used as food additive (Toxic)

Amphoteric

Possess both +ve & -ve charges

e.g. lecithin

Functions

Emulsification

Combination of oil and water in a compatible dispersion.

All food products with Oil & Water

Emulsion stabilization

To improve the stability or quality of an emulsion.

Frozen desserts

Salad dressings

Vegetable dairy products

Foaming

To initiate or control gas-in- liquid dispersion.

Toppings

Icings

Cakes

Defoaming

De-emulsification of gas-in-liquid emulsions usually on top of liquid systems.

Syrups

Yeasts

Antistailing

Complexing action on starch, to reduce firming of crumb.

Baked goods

Wetting

Reduction of interfacial tension between liquid and solid surfaces to cause the liquid to spread more quickly and evenly.

Spray-dried dessert mixes

Coffee whitener

Instant breakfast

Texture modification

Complexing action on starch to reduce clumping, and improve consistency and uniformity.

Macaroni

Bread

Cakes

Crystal modification

Modification of polymorphic form, and size and rate of growth in fat crystals.

Shortening

Coating

Peanut butter

Solubilizing

Improvingability of liquid-in-liquid dispersions to form clear solution.

Colours

Flavors

Perfumes

Properties of Emulsifiers

Mono- & Diglycerides

High lipophilic (HLB 1-10)

W/O emulsifier, Baked products, Peanut butter, Frozen desserts

Sucrose Esters

- HLB 7-13 - Can be W/O or O/W emulsifiers

Mono- esters, HLB >16, O/W emulsions

Di-esters, HLB <10, W/O emulsions

Tri-esters, HLB ~1, Antifoaming agent

Sorbitan Monostearate (SPAN 60)

HLB 4.7

Used with polysorbates

Polysorbate 60

HLB 14.9

O/W emulsifier, toppings, cake icings, cake mixes

Polysorbate 65

O/W emulsifier, ice cream, ice milk

Polysorbate 80

HLB 15.0

O/W emulsifier, oils in special dietary foods, vitamin and mineral preparation, fat-soluble vitamins

Stearoyl Lactylates

High hydrophilic emulsifier

Application in baked products

Lecithin

Has wide range of HLB

Applications, baked goods, chocolate, instants food

Applications

Bread, rolls, Buns

Dough conditioner, Stearoyl lactylate, Polysorbate 60

Crumb softener, Mono- & diglycerides, DATEM

Cakes

Emulsifier in cakes: - stabilize the aerated structure - promote finer distribution of fat droplets - increase viscosity of the water phases

Alpha- tending emulsifier, Acetic acid esters of monoglycerides, Lactic acid esters of monoglycerides, Propylene glycol esters

Confectionery products

Emulsifier in confectionery products: - inhibit bloom (stabilize the intermediate beta' form of the fat) - stabilize gloss - improve palatability

Crystal modifier, Distilled monoglycerides, Lactic acid esters of monoglycerides, Sorbitan monostearate, Polysorbate 60

Frozen dairy Products

Emulsifier in ice- cream: - aerating agent - foam stabilizer ( destabilizing the products emulsion)

Lecithin

Noodles & Pasta

Fresh & Instant noodles, Increase water absorption by 1-2 %, Decrease cooking time

Macaroni & spaghetti, Provide a feeling of elasticity and smooth uniform surface which inhibit sticking after boiling.

Emulsion Types

W/O emulsion

HLB values 1- 10, Mono- & Diglycerides, Sucrose Esters, Sorbitan Monostearate

O/W emulsion

HLB values >10, Polysorbate 60, Polysorbate 65, Polysorbate 80

Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance (HLB)

HLB 1-2

Antifoaming agents, Syrup, Yeast

HLB 3-6

W/O emulsifier

HLB 7-9

Wetting agent, Spray-dried dessert mixes, Coffee whiteners, Instant breakfasts

W/O or O/W emulsifier

HLB 10-18

O/W emulsifier

Selection Factors

Approved emulsifiers

Functional requirement of food system (antistaling, stabilise foam and etc.)

The method of processing

The form of finished product (W/O or O/W)

Usage level & method of incorporating

Combination of diff. emulsifiers to achieve most stable emulsion.