*Emulsion---a dispersed 2-phase system.*Dispersed phase---dispersed droplets/inner phase.*Continuous phase---medium in which droplets are dispersed.
Uncharged molecules, insensitive to pH and salt content
mono- and diglycerides
polyoxyethylene glycol oleates
posess a negative electrical charge
diacetyl tartaric esters of monoglycerides (DATEM)
posess a positive electrical charge
posess both positive and negatiive charges
Express the balance of size and strength of hydrophilic and lipophilic groups on the emulsifier
good w/o emulsifiers
good wetting agent, can be used for w/o & o/w emulsifier
good o/w emulsifiers
*most common*highly lipophilic with HLB values range from 1 to 10.*produced by transesterification of glycerol and triacylcerides
*mono-,di- and tri- ester of sucrose with fatty acids*usually with HLB values from 7-13*mono-esters have HLB > 16 for o/w emulsions*Di-esters are good for w/o emulsions*tri-ester have HLB~1
*produce by the reaction of sorbitol and stearic acid*HLB=4.7*SPAN 60
*polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters*from reaction of sorbitan esters with ethylene oxide
*ionic emulsifier*most hydrophilic*lactic acid ester of monoglyceride with sodium or calcium*form strong complex with gluten in starch
*amphiphilic*a mixture of phospholipids including phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamines, inositol phosphatides, etc.*rich in egg yolk*derived commercially from soybeanscan be chemically modified to provide a wide range of HLB.
*Emulsifiers added to fat-containing batters---stabilize aerated structure, promote finer distribution of fat droplets*Alpha-tending emulsifiers promote finer distribution of fat droplets, increase viscosity of water phase
*inhibit bloom, stabilize gloss, improve palatibility*Bloom---occur when fat crystals undergo transition from beta' form to the most stable crystalline form, beta, causing the cocoa butter to separate from the brown nonfat phase
*stabilize the foam by de-stabilizing the product's emulsion*displace the protein from fat globule surface to the aqueous phase*so, increase liquid cream's viscosity, allows fat globules to agglomerate*Increased viscosity and promote aeration
*make a rigid complex with starch to protect starch granules, improve quality of starchy foods*in fresh noodles,emulsifier makes it easier to handle dough, increase water absorption rate*Surface of noodle become smooth, unoform, less sticky*in instant noodles, emulsifier improve absorption and decrease cooking time*Macaroni and Spaghetti, emulsifier provide a feeling of elasticity and a smooth uniform surface which inhibits sticking after boiling.