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FOOD EMULSIFIERS by Mind Map: FOOD EMULSIFIERS
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FOOD EMULSIFIERS

*Emulsion---a dispersed 2-phase system.*Dispersed phase---dispersed droplets/inner phase.*Continuous phase---medium in which droplets are dispersed.

STABILITY OF EMULSIFIER DEPENDS ON:

Degree of division of the inner phase.

Quality or stability of interfacial film.

Viscosity of the outer phase

Ratio and specific weight of the volumes of the 2 phases

FUNCTIONS OF EMULSIFIERS

Promote emulsion stability

stabilize aerated system

control agglomeration of fat globules

Modify texture, shelf life, rheological properties

Improve the texture of fat-based foods

TYPES OF EMULSIFIERS

Nonionic

Uncharged molecules, insensitive to pH and salt content

mono- and diglycerides

sorbitan esters

sucrose esters

polysorbates

polyoxyethylene glycol oleates

Anionic

posess a negative electrical charge

diacetyl tartaric esters of monoglycerides (DATEM)

stearoyl lactylates

succinylated monoglycerides

Cationic

posess a positive electrical charge

amine compound

Amphoteric

posess both positive and negatiive charges

various lecithin

HOE DOES EMULSIFIERS WORK

Reduce surface tension between 2 immiscible phases due to their molecular structure

Have both polar group with an affinity for water (hydrophilic) , and non-polar group with an affinity for oil (lipophilic)

Emulsifiers can orient at the phase interface and lower the interfacial energy that lead to instability

stabilize emulsion by means of monomolecular interfacial film and also formation of steric and/or electrical barriers that prevent coalescenceof dispersed droplets

HYDROPHILIC LIPOPHILIC BALANCE (HLB)

Express the balance of size and strength of hydrophilic and lipophilic groups on the emulsifier

HLB of 3-6

good w/o emulsifiers

HLB of 7-9

good wetting agent, can be used for w/o & o/w emulsifier

HLB of 10-18

good o/w emulsifiers

COMMON FOOD EMULSIFIERS

Mono & Diglycerides

*most common*highly lipophilic with HLB values range from 1 to 10.*produced by transesterification of glycerol and triacylcerides

Sucrose Esters

*mono-,di- and tri- ester of sucrose with fatty acids*usually with HLB values from 7-13*mono-esters have HLB > 16 for o/w emulsions*Di-esters are good for w/o emulsions*tri-ester have HLB~1

Sorbitan Esters

*produce by the reaction of sorbitol and stearic acid*HLB=4.7*SPAN 60

Polisorbates

*polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters*from reaction of sorbitan esters with ethylene oxide

polysorbate 60

polysorbate 65

polisorbate 80

Stearoyl Lactylates

*ionic emulsifier*most hydrophilic*lactic acid ester of monoglyceride with sodium or calcium*form strong complex with gluten in starch

Lecithin and Derivatives

*amphiphilic*a mixture of phospholipids including phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamines, inositol phosphatides, etc.*rich in egg yolk*derived commercially from soybeanscan be chemically modified to provide a wide range of HLB.

APPLICATION OF EMULSIFIERS

CAKES

*Emulsifiers added to fat-containing batters---stabilize aerated structure, promote finer distribution of fat droplets*Alpha-tending emulsifiers promote finer distribution of fat droplets, increase viscosity of water phase

CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS & COATING

*inhibit bloom, stabilize gloss, improve palatibility*Bloom---occur when fat crystals undergo transition from beta' form to the most stable crystalline form, beta, causing the cocoa butter to separate from the brown nonfat phase

FROZEN DAIRY PRODUCT

*stabilize the foam by de-stabilizing the product's emulsion*displace the protein from fat globule surface to the aqueous phase*so, increase liquid cream's viscosity, allows fat globules to agglomerate*Increased viscosity and promote aeration

NODDLES & PASTA

*make a rigid complex with starch to protect starch granules, improve quality of starchy foods*in fresh noodles,emulsifier makes it easier to handle dough, increase water absorption rate*Surface of noodle become smooth, unoform, less sticky*in instant noodles, emulsifier improve absorption and decrease cooking time*Macaroni and Spaghetti, emulsifier provide a feeling of elasticity and a smooth uniform surface which inhibits sticking after boiling.