Atomic Habits - James Clear

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Atomic Habits - James Clear by Mind Map: Atomic Habits - James Clear

1. Overall feedback

1.1. 1. Share more

1.1.1. Stories

1.1.2. Data

1.1.3. Experiments

1.2. 2. Give more context

1.2.1. Why

1.2.2. How this will benefit the end reader

1.2.3. How they can apply

1.3. 3. Make it applicable

1.3.1. Make it actionable

1.4. 4. Don't edit YET

1.4.1. Just get it all out

1.5. Make the sentences and Nodes shorter

1.5.1. Easier to read

1.5.2. More modular

1.6. Stories

1.6.1. Provide details like

1.6.1.1. Numbers

1.6.1.2. Names

1.6.1.3. Institution

1.6.1.4. Company etc

2. Make it Obvious

2.1. "Implementation Intention"

2.1.1. Improvements

2.1.1.1. Implementation intention will increase the odds that you perform a certain behavior/habit.

2.1.1.2. In 2001, a group of 248 people from Great Britain were divided into 3 groups.

2.1.1.2.1. 1st group = control group

2.1.1.2.2. 2nd group = "motivation group"

2.1.1.2.3. 3rd group = "implementation intention group"

2.1.1.2.4. Results

2.1.1.3. The government used implementation intention to increase voter turnout by asking questions like:

2.1.1.3.1. What route are you taking to the polling station?

2.1.1.3.2. What bus will get you there?

2.1.1.3.3. What time are you planning to go?

2.1.1.4. How to do Implementation Intention

2.1.1.4.1. "When situation X arises, I will perform response Y."

2.1.1.4.2. I will [BEHAVIOR] at [TIME] in [LOCATION].

2.1.2. A plan you make ahead of time about when and where to act

2.1.2.1. It's not motivation that many people lack, but clarity.

2.1.3. 2 most common cues

2.1.3.1. Time

2.1.3.2. Location

2.2. Habit Stacking

2.2.1. Why Habit stacking

2.2.1.1. Increases the odds of sticking with the new habit

2.2.1.2. A lot of people fail at maintaining new habits/behaviors because they don't use proper tools like habit stacking

2.2.1.3. Habit stacking is a special form of implementation intention. Instead of pairing a new habit with time and location, you link it to an existing habit.

2.2.2. The French philosopher Denis Diderot acquired wealth for the first time in his life and bought a luxury robe.

2.2.2.1. After this purchase, he noticed he had to upgrade everything he owned to match the quality of the fine robe.

2.2.2.2. One purchase led to the next, a chain reaction of purchases known as the Diderot Effect.

2.2.2.2.1. We often decide what to do next

2.2.2.2.2. Going to bathroom which leads to

2.2.2.2.3. Each action becomes a cue that triggers the next behavior.

2.2.3. Why is this important?

2.2.3.1. When it comes to building new habits, you can use the connectedness of behavior to your advantage.

2.2.4. How do I do this?

2.2.4.1. Identify an existing habit

2.2.4.2. Stack a new behavior on top of an old one

2.2.4.2.1. General Habit stacks

2.2.4.2.2. Frequency

2.2.4.2.3. Habit stacks

2.3. Habit Awareness

2.3.1. With practice, you will pick up on the cues that predict certain habits automatically

2.3.2. Give me more context

2.3.3. Habit Awareness will make you conscious of

2.3.3.1. Bad habits so you can

2.3.3.1.1. Fix them

2.3.3.1.2. Vanquish them

2.3.3.2. Good habits so you can improve them

2.3.4. Make the unconscious conscious

2.3.4.1. Point-and-call method

2.3.4.1.1. Raises your level of awareness

2.3.4.1.2. Allows you to realize habits you don't notice you posses due to their automaticity

2.3.4.1.3. The Habit Scorecard

2.3.4.1.4. Say the action you are thinking of taking out loud and what the outcome will be

2.3.5. We can possess habits we don't even know exist.

2.3.5.1. Examples

2.3.5.1.1. During the Gulf War, Lieutenant Commander Michael Riley saved an entire Battleship when he ordered a missile shot down, despite the fact that on radar it looked like one of the Battleship's own planes.

2.3.5.1.2. Some paramedics can tell just by looking at a person that they have a blockage in an artery and are at major risk for a stroke or heart attack.

2.4. Secret to Self Control

2.4.1. Why

2.4.1.1. People assume that they can make big changes/remove bad habits using self control/ discipline/ willpower

2.4.1.2. But that seldom works

2.4.2. What we need to do instead

2.4.2.1. Cut off bad habits at the source

2.4.3. How to hack self control

2.4.3.1. Spending less time in tempting situations

2.4.3.1.1. When the context changes, so will the habit.

2.4.3.2. Remove the cue that causes it

2.4.3.2.1. "Cue-induced wanting"

2.4.3.3. Optimize your environment

2.4.3.3.1. Remove the TV from your bedroom if it is causing you to stay up too late.

2.4.3.3.2. Get rid of all the junk food in your kitchen to prevent you from eating unhealthy.

2.5. Change Your Environment for Success

2.5.1. Why

2.5.1.1. How to install better habits by designing your environment

2.5.2. Place triggers around your surroundings to make you think of the habit throughout the day

2.5.2.1. Take your musical instrument out of the closet and place it in the living room where you can't miss it.

2.5.2.2. Display fruit and healthy snacks on the counter in plain site

2.5.2.3. Leave your gym bag and shoes by the door

2.5.3. Create obvious visual cues to draw your attention toward a desired habit

2.5.3.1. Cleaning staff in Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam put small stickers that looked like a fly on the center of each urinal.

2.5.3.1.1. Stickers improved aim

2.5.3.1.2. Reduced spillage

2.5.3.1.3. Cut bathroom cleaning costs by 8% each year

2.5.4. "1 space, 1 use"

2.5.4.1. Every habit should have it's own place

2.5.4.1.1. Divide your room into activity zones

2.5.5. Try a new environment

2.5.5.1. This will help you avoid subtle triggers and cues associated with old habits

2.5.5.2. It is easier to associate a new habit with a new context than to build a new habit in the presence of competing cues

2.5.5.3. Or redesign and rearrange your current environment

2.5.5.4. Your habits will eventually be associated not with a single trigger, but the entire context surrounding the behavior.

2.5.5.4.1. Many people consume more alcohol in social situations than they would on their own.

2.5.5.4.2. The trigger is not just a single cue, but the entire situation: hearing the music in the club/bar, watching your friends order drinks, seeing the bottles of alcohol, etc.

2.5.5.5. Go to a new coffee shop to answer emails if you get too distracted by technology to do it at home.

2.5.5.5.1. Every time you arrive at this new location, you will automatically begin your new habit of answering emails there.

2.5.5.6. Think more creatively by visiting these inspiring locations:

2.5.5.6.1. Rooftop patios

2.5.5.6.2. Rooms with vaulted ceilings

2.5.5.6.3. Large rooms with expansive architecture

3. Make it Attractive

3.1. Irresistible Habits

3.1.1. Why are irresistible habits important?

3.1.1.1. An opportunity is more likely to form into a habit if it is highly attractive

3.1.1.2. It is the expectation of a rewarding experience that motivates us to act

3.1.2. How do I apply this concept?

3.1.2.1. Temptation Bundling

3.1.2.1.1. Links an action you want to do with an action you need to do

3.1.2.1.2. Premack's Principle

3.1.2.1.3. Habit Stacking + Temptation Bundling

3.1.3. Example

3.1.3.1. The food industry uses methods to make their food highly addictive and attractive to make a habit out of consuming their product.

3.1.3.1.1. Supernormal stimuli

3.1.3.2. While we cannot transform every habit into a supernormal stimulus, we can make any habit more enticing.

3.2. Find + Fix the Causes of Your Bad Habits

3.2.1. Understanding Cravings

3.2.1.1. What is a craving?

3.2.1.1.1. A specific manifestation of a deeper, underlying motive

3.2.1.1.2. A sense that something is missing

3.2.1.1.3. A desire to change your current state

3.2.1.1.4. When a habit satisfies a motive, you develop a craving to do it again

3.2.1.2. Why does understanding cravings matter?

3.2.1.2.1. Cravings are a cause of bad habits

3.2.1.2.2. If we understand the deeper, underlying motives behind our cravings, it will allow us to fix bad habits by finding healthier/more productive ways to address these motives.

3.2.1.3. How to cut cravings

3.2.1.3.1. Make it unattractive

3.2.1.4. Example

3.2.1.4.1. Surface level craving = smoking cigarettes

3.2.1.4.2. Surface level craving = Using Tinder

3.2.1.4.3. Surface level craving = Searching on Google

3.2.2. Enjoy Hard Habits

3.2.2.1. What is a hard habit?

3.2.2.1.1. A habit that is difficult for you to perform

3.2.2.2. How can I enjoy hard habits?

3.2.2.2.1. Associate hard habits with a positive experience

3.2.2.2.2. Reframe your habits to highlight their benefits to make them seem more attractive

3.2.2.3. Example

3.2.2.3.1. Instead of telling yourself "I have to work out today" say "I get to increase my strength and endurance today"

3.2.2.3.2. Before a sports game, instead of telling yourself "I'm nervous" say "I am excited and getting an adrenaline rush to help me concentrate"

3.2.2.4. Tool ---> Motivation Rituals

3.2.2.4.1. Associate your habits with something you enjoy

3.2.2.4.2. Use that cue when you need motivation

3.3. Society Shapes our Habits

3.3.1. Why are the people we surround ourselves with important?

3.3.1.1. Surrounding yourself with people who possess the habits/behaviors you desire will increase the likelihood that you

3.3.1.1.1. Soak up their qualities

3.3.1.1.2. Maintain your new habits

3.3.1.2. Whatever habits are normal in your culture are the most enticing behaviors to you

3.3.1.2.1. Behaviors that allow us to fit in are the most attractive

3.3.2. Example

3.3.2.1. In the late 1960s, a Hungarian man named Laszlo Polgar had 3 daughters who's lives revolved around chess.

3.3.2.1.1. The daughters were homeschooled, practiced chess hours a day from a very young age, and were surrounded by chess books and photos.

3.3.2.1.2. The girls competed in chess tournaments and became grandmasters by the time they reached their teens.

3.3.2.1.3. The Polgar sisters grew up in a society that

3.3.3. We imitate the habits of

3.3.3.1. The close

3.3.3.1.1. We absorb the qualities of the people we surround ourselves with

3.3.3.1.2. To build better habits

3.3.3.2. The many

3.3.3.2.1. The normal behavior of the group often overpowers the behavior desired by the individual.

3.3.3.3. The powerful

3.3.3.3.1. We desire behaviors that offer respect, approval, and praise.

3.3.3.3.2. We copy behaviors of successful people because we desire success ourselves.

3.3.3.3.3. We avoid behaviors that would lower our status

3.3.4. Join a culture where your desired behavior is the normal behavior

3.3.4.1. This shared identity reinforces your own personal identity.

3.3.4.2. Remain part of the group to maintain your habits

3.3.4.2.1. The sense of community and friendship offer support and motivation to help keep your habits.

4. Make it Easy

4.1. Take Action to Master Your Habits

4.1.1. Motion vs. Action

4.1.1.1. Motion

4.1.1.1.1. Planning

4.1.1.1.2. Strategizing

4.1.1.1.3. Doesn't produce result

4.1.1.2. Action

4.1.1.2.1. Type of behavior that will deliver an outcome

4.1.2. Why do we stay in motion without taking action?

4.1.2.1. It makes us feel like we are making progress

4.1.2.2. To delay failure

4.1.3. Application

4.1.3.1. Instead of spending all your time researching, take action to get results.

4.1.3.2. To master a habit, the key is to start with repetition, not perfection.

4.1.3.2.1. Habits form based on frequency, not time.

4.1.4. Example

4.1.4.1. Photography professor Jerry Uelsmann divided his students into 2 groups

4.1.4.1.1. Group 1 = quality = graded on the quality of 1 photo submitted

4.1.4.1.2. Group 2 = quantity = graded on the number of photos submitted

4.1.4.1.3. Result

4.2. The Law of Least Effort

4.2.1. What is the law of least effort?

4.2.1.1. When deciding between 2 similar options, people naturally choose the easiest one.

4.2.1.2. The less energy a habit requires, the more likely it is to occur.

4.2.2. Why is this law important?

4.2.2.1. If we can make good habits more convenient, we are more likely to follow through with them.

4.2.3. How to achieve more with less effort

4.2.3.1. Reduce friction to encourage good habits

4.2.3.1.1. Optimize your environment

4.2.3.1.2. Prime your environment for future use

4.2.3.2. Increase friction to discourage bad habits

4.2.3.2.1. Put the TV in the closet after watching a show.

4.2.3.2.2. Leave your phone in a different room or with a friend/family member

4.2.3.2.3. Hide junk food in the back of the pantry

4.3. The 2 Minute Rule

4.3.1. What is it?

4.3.1.1. "When you start a new habit, it should take less than 2 minutes to do."

4.3.2. Why should you do it?

4.3.2.1. Before any habit can be improved, it must be established.

4.3.2.2. The first step on the path to long-lasting habits is to master the habit of showing up.

4.3.3. How do you do it?

4.3.3.1. Condense any habit to under 2 minutes

4.3.3.1.1. "Read after dinner" becomes "Read one page"

4.3.3.1.2. "Do 30 minutes of yoga" becomes "Take out my yoga mat"

4.3.3.1.3. "Run 2 miles" becomes "Tie my running shoes"

4.3.4. What's next?

4.3.4.1. Habit Shaping

4.3.4.1.1. How it works

4.3.4.1.2. Example

4.4. Guarantee Good Habits

4.4.1. We all want to

4.4.1.1. Avoid bad habits

4.4.1.2. Ensure good habits

4.4.1.2.1. This keeps us on the path to becoming the best version of ourself.

4.4.2. How can we make good habits inevitable?

4.4.2.1. Commitment Devices

4.4.2.1.1. What are they?

4.4.2.1.2. Why are they important?

4.4.2.1.3. Example

4.4.2.2. Strategic onetime decisions

4.4.2.2.1. What are they

4.4.2.2.2. Examples

4.4.2.3. Technology

4.4.2.3.1. Why?

4.4.2.3.2. Examples

5. The Fundamentals

5.1. 4 Stages of Habit

5.1.1. Edward Thorndike conducted an experiment by placing cats in a "puzzle box" that had a bowl of food outside the door.

5.1.1.1. The cats would press the lever to escape the box faster and faster after each trial, until the behavior became so automatic they could escape in seconds.

5.1.1.1.1. Action => pressing the lever

5.1.1.1.2. Reward => escaping the box and getting to the bowl of food

5.1.1.2. Less mistakes were made with each round of practice.

5.1.1.3. If a behavior is followed by a satisfying consequence, it is more likely to be repeated, and vice versa.

5.1.2. The Habit Loop

5.1.2.1. Try, fail, learn, try differently

5.1.2.1.1. Habits are automatic solutions that fix the problems and stresses we face every day

5.1.2.2. Cue

5.1.2.2.1. Triggers your brain to initiate the behavior

5.1.2.3. Craving

5.1.2.3.1. The motivational force behind every habit

5.1.2.4. Response

5.1.2.4.1. The actual habit you perform

5.1.2.4.2. Depends on

5.1.2.5. Reward

5.1.2.5.1. The end goal of every habit

5.1.2.5.2. 2 purposes

5.2. To change Habits at the deepest level => Change your Identity

5.2.1. 3 Layers of Behavior Change

5.2.1.1. Outcomes = Highest Level

5.2.1.1.1. Goals you make

5.2.1.2. Process = 2nd Level

5.2.1.2.1. Systems and habits you build

5.2.1.3. Identity = The Deepest Level of changes

5.2.1.3.1. Beliefs, assumptions, and biases you have

5.2.1.3.2. Identity-based habit

5.2.1.3.3. True behavior change is identity change

5.2.2. 2 Step Process to Changing Your Identity

5.2.2.1. Decide the type of person you want to be

5.2.2.1.1. What type of person is fit?

5.2.2.1.2. Someone who works out and eats clean

5.2.2.1.3. Your focus now shifts to being someone who

5.2.2.2. Prove it to yourself with small wins

5.2.2.2.1. Take small steps to reinforce the identity you want

5.2.2.2.2. If you want to lose weight, think to yourself "What would a healthy person do?" before you make different choices throughout the day. Choose the veggies instead of greasy pizza, walk up the stairs instead of taking the elevator, etc.

5.3. Small Habits - Big Difference

5.3.1. Our outcomes are a delayed measure of our habits

5.3.2. Most people

5.3.2.1. Make changes

5.3.2.2. Don't see results quickly enough

5.3.2.3. Give up

5.4. "Valley of Disappointment"

5.4.1. People put in work for hours, days and weeks

5.4.1.1. Expecting linear growth

5.4.2. But the truth is different

5.4.3. Initially there is very little tangible progress

5.4.4. Most people get discouraged

5.4.4.1. And give up

5.4.4.2. Because the progress is not LINEAR as they expected

5.4.4.3. They feel all their work is wasted

5.4.4.3.1. But in fact it was just being stored

5.4.4.4. This is the Valley of disappointment

5.4.4.4.1. Expectations are much higher

5.4.4.5. The results from all the hard work come at a later time

5.4.5. Life is Non-Linear

5.4.5.1. Most people expect linear progress

5.4.5.2. But instead

5.4.5.2.1. Progress compounds over time

5.4.5.2.2. And hence results show up in a non-linear fashion

5.5. Goals vs. Systems

5.5.1. Goals = Results

5.5.1.1. Systems = Process you need to employ to get the results

5.5.2. If we want to make progress

5.5.2.1. We must implement systems

5.5.3. Goals delay happiness

5.5.3.1. If you fall in love with the process, you don't have to wait to accomplish the goal in order to feel happy

5.6. Changing Habits is Difficult

5.6.1. We try to change the wrong thing

5.6.2. We try to change our habits in the wrong way

6. Make it Satisfying

6.1. Reward Yourself for Good Habits

6.1.1. Why?

6.1.1.1. A habit needs to be enjoyable for it to last

6.1.1.2. Understanding Habits

6.1.1.2.1. Good habits = delayed pleasurable outcome

6.1.1.2.2. Bad habits = immediate pleasurable outcome

6.1.1.3. Add immediate pleasure to habits that won't pay off for an extended period of time

6.1.1.3.1. What is immediately rewarded will be repeated

6.1.2. How?

6.1.2.1. Reinforcement

6.1.2.1.1. Use an immediate reward to increase the rate of a behavior

6.1.2.2. Example

6.1.2.2.1. You want to stop eating out and cook more.

6.2. Tracking Habits

6.2.1. Why you need to track your habits

6.2.1.1. Making progress is satisfying

6.2.1.2. Visual measures provide clear evidence of your results

6.2.2. How to do it

6.2.2.1. Use a habit tracker

6.2.2.1.1. Basic format = calendar

6.2.2.1.2. Each date the habit is performed gets marked with an "X"

6.2.3. Benefits

6.2.3.1. Visual proof that you are becoming better

6.2.3.1.1. Form of instant gratification

6.2.3.2. Habit tracking is

6.2.3.2.1. Obvious

6.2.3.2.2. Attractive

6.2.3.2.3. Satisfying

6.2.4. Examples

6.2.4.1. Have one empty jar and another filled with 100 paperclips

6.2.4.1.1. Move one paperclip into the jar every time you make a sales call.

6.2.5. Pitfalls

6.2.5.1. Just because you can measure something doesn't mean it's the most important thing.

6.2.5.2. Sometimes you need to focus on other indictors of progress aside from numbers

6.3. Keep Yourself Accountable

6.3.1. Why?

6.3.1.1. To prevent bad habits and eliminate unhealthy behaviors

6.3.2. How

6.3.2.1. Increase the speed of the punishment associated with the behavior

6.3.3. Methods

6.3.3.1. The Habit Contract

6.3.3.1.1. What is it?

6.3.3.1.2. Example

6.3.3.2. Accountability Partner

6.3.3.2.1. Comedian Margaret Cho

6.4. Maximize Your Odds of Success

6.4.1. Work hard on things that come easy.

6.4.2. Choose the right field

6.4.2.1. Why?

6.4.2.1.1. Your genetics make you best suited for particular fields

6.4.2.2. How?

6.4.2.2.1. Choose a field according to the attributes you possess.

6.4.2.3. Example

6.4.2.3.1. Michael Phelps = ideal swimmer

6.4.3. Choose habits that best suit you

6.4.3.1. Why?

6.4.3.1.1. You will excel when habits align with your natural abilities

6.4.3.2. How?

6.4.3.2.1. Build habits that work for your personality

6.4.3.2.2. Ask yourself

6.4.4. Play a game that favors your strengths or create a new game

6.4.4.1. Why?

6.4.4.1.1. If you can't win by being better, you can win be being different.

6.4.4.2. How?

6.4.4.2.1. Combine areas where you are good, but not the best, and create something new.

6.4.4.3. Example

6.4.4.3.1. Scott Adams, the cartoonist behind Dilbert, knew he

6.4.4.3.2. He excelled by being the best in a narrow category

6.5. Stay Motivated

6.5.1. Why should we stay motivated?

6.5.1.1. To build and improve good habits

6.5.2. Example

6.5.2.1. Steve Martin's motivational story

6.5.2.1.1. Knew he wanted to be a comedian from first job in Disneyland as a child

6.5.2.1.2. Performed in LA clubs from teens

6.5.2.1.3. Spent a decade practicing, adjusting, experimenting

6.5.2.1.4. Became television writer ---> SNL regular ---> actor

6.5.3. How do we stay motivated to stick to our habits?

6.5.3.1. The Goldilocks Rule

6.5.3.1.1. We experience peak motivation when working on tasks right at the edge of our current abilities

6.5.3.1.2. A task must be roughly 4% beyond our current ability to achieve flow state

6.5.3.1.3. Not too easy, not too hard, but just right

6.5.3.1.4. Work on tasks of "just manageable difficulty"

6.5.3.2. Fall in love with boredom

6.5.3.2.1. The greatest threat to success is not failure, but boredom

6.5.3.2.2. Keep going when work isn't exciting

6.6. Prevent complacency

6.6.1. Why is this important?

6.6.1.1. When a habit becomes automatic, you stop thinking about how to improve it.

6.6.1.1.1. "good enough" mentality ---> complacency

6.6.1.2. Skill mastery --time--> decline in performance

6.6.1.3. To maximize our potential/achieve elite levels of performance

6.6.2. How to prevent complacency?

6.6.2.1. A combination of automatic habits and deliberate practice

6.6.2.1.1. Habits + Deliberate Practice = Mastery

6.6.2.2. Reflection and review

6.6.2.2.1. makes you aware of mistakes

6.6.2.2.2. helps you considerate paths for improvement

6.6.2.2.3. Example

6.6.2.3. Keep your identity small

6.6.2.3.1. Your identity creates "pride" that

6.6.2.3.2. Examples