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TBI by Mind Map: TBI

1. skull/basilar

1.1. bleeding from nose/pharynx/ears

1.2. CSF leak (halo sign)

1.3. Racoon eyes

1.4. Battle sign

2. Concussion (Mild traumatic brain injury)

2.1. temporary loss of Neuro function but no apparent structural damage

2.2. will likely be sent home

2.2.1. report immediately any changes in LOC, difficulty in awakening, increasing lethargy, dizziness, confusion, irritability/anxiety, difficulty speaking/moving, severe H/A, projectile vomiting

2.3. S/S: emotional lability, sleeping more/less, H/A, concentration difficulty (symptoms increase w/ activity)

3. Contusion

3.1. bruising and damage in a specific areas

3.2. symptoms & recovery depend on amt. of damage/cerebral edema

3.3. similar s/s of concussion but more localized and could be moderate -> severe

3.4. usually not seen on the first CT obtained after trauma (seen in follow up scans)

4. diffuse axonal injury

4.1. widespread axon damage in the brain

4.2. severe injury, poor prognosis

4.3. no lucid interval, prolonged traumatic coma

4.4. posturing

5. epidural hematoma

5.1. blood collection between skull/dura

5.2. usually arterial

5.3. brief loss of consciousness but will return to lucid state

5.4. increases ICP, which reduces LOC

5.5. emergency

5.6. conservative t/x, reduce ICP, remove clot, stop bleeding, burr hole/craniotomy

6. subdural hematoma

6.1. collection of blood between dura and brain

6.1.1. acute s/s 24-48 hours

6.1.2. subacute s/s 48h-2 weeks control ICP, OBS, FFP/platelets, surgical decompression poor prognosis

6.1.3. chronic weeks-months causative injury may be minor & forgotten clinical s/s may fluctuate t/x obs, evacuation of clot, control ICP

7. intracerebral hemorrhage

7.1. hemorrhage into the brain

7.2. causes: trauma (bullets, stabbing, falls, MVS

7.3. causes: non traumatic: (8-13% of strokes) drug abuse, eclampsia, tumors, bleeding

7.4. t/x: supportive care, control ICP, F&E, antihypertensives, craniotomy or craniotomy to remove clots (may not be possible)

7.5. poor prognosis/ recovery poor