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Memory by Mind Map: Memory

1. If you see a picture that could be two things (ex. Bunny or duck) -> watching before bunny cartoon -> identify a bunny

2. Conditioning

2.1. Instrumental Conditioning

2.1.1. Thorndike - Law of effect

2.1.1.1. Any behavior followed by pleasant consequences, is likely to be repeated

2.1.1.2. Behavior followed by unpleasant consequences, likely to be stopped

2.2. Appetitive conditioning

2.2.1. Conditioned reinforcer

2.2.1.1. Money

2.2.1.1.1. Although you might not need it at the moment, money (secondary reinforcer) can work as a reinforcer (-> continue to save it) because you know that in a certain of saving, you will get a big reward (primary reinforcer) (buying something big)

2.2.1.1.2. We are working just to get to the thing that predicts the reward

2.2.2. Rat presses lever and gets a drug. In a room there are several levers, some which give the drug and some not. After conditioning, rat prefers and chooses levers that give the drug

2.2.2.1. Rat learns behavior

2.2.2.1.1. Associated with reward

2.3. Classical Conditioning

2.3.1. Trace Conditioning

2.3.1.1. CS and UCS dont overlap

2.3.2. Delay Conditioning

2.3.2.1. CS comes before and overlaps UCS

2.3.3. An automatic response becomes associated with another stimuli that usually does not produce this response

2.3.4. Cerebellum

2.3.5. Eyeblink Conditioning

2.3.5.1. Puff and sound

2.3.5.1.1. -> blink after sound

2.3.5.1.2. Also in amnesic

2.3.5.1.3. They dont remember the procedure but they are conditioned to blink after sound

2.3.5.1.4. -> conclusion: conditioning is independent from declarative memory, other brain mechanisms are involved

2.4. PIT Pavlovian to instrumental Transfer

2.4.1. Stimulus - reward training

2.4.1.1. Light - reward

2.4.2. Action outcome training

2.4.2.1. Pressing lever - leward

2.4.3. Pulling the lever

2.4.3.1. Light goes on

2.4.3.1.1. But no food

2.4.3.1.2. -> no extinction

2.4.3.1.3. Rat continues to press lever

2.4.3.1.4. Drug addicts

2.5. Conditioned desire

2.5.1. They paired blue light (CS) with female fish (CS), wall separating the male from the female.

2.5.2. After a while, the male fish showed courting behavior when seeing the blue light

2.5.3. -> conditioning led to more reproductive success

2.6. Fear conditioning

2.6.1. Context dependent fear

2.6.1.1. After few days, same cage, NO TONE -> FREEZE

2.6.2. Tone dependent fear

2.6.2.1. After few days, different cage WITH TONE -> Freeze

2.6.3. Fear parameter

2.6.3.1. Freezing/Total Time

2.6.4. Auditory Fear Conditioning

2.6.4.1. Tone needs to be BEFORE the shock in order to condition the rat to freeze after hearing only the tone

2.6.4.1.1. When shock and tone was unpaired

2.6.5. Patient with Korsakoff,

2.6.5.1. Could not remember that doctor shaked his hand with a needle hurting him

2.6.5.1.1. But next time he came to shake his hand, he hesitated

2.6.6. Amygdala

2.6.7. Brain mechanisms of Fear conditioning

2.6.7.1. Neural plasticity of the LA in the Amygdala -> allows association of tone with shock. UR of freezing after shock -> conditioned response of freezing after hearing the tone

2.7. Conditioned taste aversion

2.7.1. Eating spoiled food -> nauseous and vomit -> disgust

2.7.2. Next time you see, smell this food, you get disgusted

2.7.3. Aversion therapy

2.7.3.1. Alcohol (CS) + Nausea drug (UCS) = Nausea (UCR)

2.7.3.2. After conditioning: Alcohol (CS) -> Nausea (CR)

2.7.3.3. Limitations

2.7.3.4. To inhibit unwanted behaviors

2.7.3.4.1. Associating behavior with aversive stimulus

2.8. Aversive experiences in the Office

2.8.1. Making association between office and aversive experience (getting fired)

2.8.2. Every time you think about office, you Experience the stress associated with the event of getting fired

2.9. Extinction - when CS doesnt lead to CR anymore

2.9.1. Reinstatement - after extinction giving unpaired shock again

2.9.1.1. Fear conditioning -> Extinction -> Shocks

2.9.1.1.1. Testing

2.9.2. Renewal - extinction in Context B but will again freeze in Context A

2.9.2.1. Fear conditioning context A

2.9.2.1.1. -> Extinction Context B

2.9.3. Spontaneous recovery - extinction but then long interval and then hearing tone again

2.9.3.1. Fear conditioning

2.9.3.1.1. -> Extinction

2.9.4. Extinction mechanism in the Brain

2.9.4.1. MPFC can inhibit Amygdala

2.9.4.2. NMDA receptors in amygdala are involved in extinction initiation

2.9.5. Fear Extinction & cognitive behavioral therapy

2.9.5.1. D-cycloserin (partial NMDA agonist)

2.9.5.2. -> together with therapist replacing fear memories with healthy memories, D-closerine facilitates this process!

2.9.6. Reconsolidation Interference for erasure of fear Memory

2.9.6.1. If you have the extinction immediately after the reactivating (10min vs. 6hrs) -> extinction of fear works better

2.9.7. Eyeblink Conditioning

2.9.7.1. When you puff in someone’s eye and at the same time give a tone -> conditioned to blink after the tone

3. Encoding & Retrieval

3.1. Rehearsal

3.1.1. Def.

3.1.2. Maintenance rehearsal

3.1.2.1. Repeating

3.1.2.2. No meaning and connection

3.1.2.3. STM or WM

3.1.2.4. No into LTM

3.1.3. Elaborative rehearsal

3.1.3.1. Meaning, connections

3.1.3.2. Into LTM

3.2. LOT - Levels of Processing theory

3.2.1. Def.

3.2.1.1. Information is encoded and retrieved better when we deeply encode it

3.2.2. Deep

3.2.2.1. Animacy

3.2.2.2. Liking

3.2.2.3. Categories

3.2.2.4. Self generation

3.2.3. Shallow

3.2.3.1. Physical properties

3.2.4. EXP: Tulving

3.3. How encoding influences Retrieval?

3.3.1. Complex sentence

3.3.2. Visual images

3.3.2.1. EXP:

3.3.3. Self-reference Effect

3.3.3.1. EXP:

3.3.4. Generation Effect

3.3.4.1. EXP:

3.3.5. Organizing

3.3.5.1. EXP: categories - Cues

3.3.5.2. EXP: Tree - Metalls/Stones

3.3.5.3. Meaningful framework

3.3.5.3.1. Getting a picture before reading a highly complicated paragraph

3.3.6. Testing effect

3.3.6.1. Results

3.3.6.1.1. Better memory when testing yourself then rereading!

3.4. Retrieval Cues

3.4.1. Free Recall

3.4.1.1. Who was at the party

3.4.1.2. Context is the cue

3.4.2. Cued Recall - Categories

3.4.2.1. Cued Recall - self created Cues

3.5. Y/N Recognition

3.5.1. Was Sarah at the Party?

3.6. Forced Choice Recognition

3.6.1. Who was at the party, Sarah or Peter?

3.7. Serial recall

3.7.1. In what order did items appear

3.8. Matching Encoding and Retrieval Conditions

3.8.1. Encoding specificity

3.8.1.1. EXP: Underwater

3.8.1.1.1. Shallow processing can overpower deep processing

3.8.1.2. EXP: Noise & Silence

3.8.2. State dependent learning

3.8.3. Transfer appropriate Processing

3.9. How to study more effectively?

3.9.1. Elaborate

3.9.2. Generate and Test

3.9.3. Organize

3.9.4. Take breaks

3.9.4.1. Spacing effect

3.9.5. Match learning and testing conditions

3.9.6. Avoid illusions of learning

3.9.6.1. Highlighting

3.9.6.2. Rereading

3.10. Imagery

3.10.1. Method of Loci

3.10.2. Pegword technique

3.11. Remembering experience depends on

3.11.1. Ebbinghouse learning curve

3.11.1.1. Nonsense syllables

3.11.1.2. Repetition effect

3.11.1.2.1. Repeated items -> better recall

3.11.1.3. 5th repetition almost perfect

3.11.1.4. Memory is measured according to how many trials it takes you to gain perfect recall

3.11.2. Repetition only effective for recognition (ex. Multiple choice) but not recall (-> number of contexts)

3.11.3. EXP: Thorndike - Association

3.11.3.1. Temporally contiguity not enough, we need association

3.11.3.2. Bread 29, Texas 78

3.11.3.3. Word with number

3.11.3.3.1. Many ppl had it right

3.11.3.4. Asked about number before word

3.11.3.4.1. Almost no one

3.11.4. What do we need to remember experience?

3.11.4.1. Attention

3.11.4.2. Distinctiveness

3.11.4.2.1. Salient

3.11.4.2.2. Emotional motivating

3.11.4.3. Organization

3.11.5. Von Restorff Effect

3.11.5.1. Unusual, outstanding stimuli is easier to recall

3.11.6. Word frequency

3.11.6.1. Recall

3.11.6.1.1. Better more frequent words

3.11.6.2. Recognition

3.11.6.2.1. Better less frequent words

3.11.7. Survival memory

3.11.7.1. 3 conditions

3.11.7.1.1. Survival

3.11.7.1.2. Moving

3.11.7.1.3. Pleasantness

3.11.7.2. “How relevant/pleasant are the following items for you?”

3.11.7.3. -> better memory in survival condition

3.11.8. Mnemonic devices

3.11.8.1. Taxonomy

3.11.8.1.1. Pyramid, letters -> sentence

3.11.8.2. For encoding meaningful information

4. LTM - Long term Memory

4.1. Declarative (Explicit)

4.1.1. Semantic (Facts)

4.1.1.1. MTL

4.1.2. Episodic (Events)

4.1.2.1. Hippocampus

4.1.2.2. MTL

4.1.2.3. Mental time travel

4.1.2.4. Can enhance semantic knowledge (-> adds meaning)

4.2. Non-Declarative (Implicit)

4.2.1. Procedural

4.2.1.1. Skill memory

4.2.1.1.1. New Topic

4.2.1.2. Amnesia patients can master a skill without remembering the practice that led to mastery

4.2.1.3. Mirror drawing

4.2.2. Priming

4.2.2.1. Repetition Priming

4.2.2.2. Conceptual Priming

4.2.2.3. EXP: Implilcit Memory for Amnesics

4.2.2.4. Immediate semantic priming

4.2.2.4.1. 2 conditions: 1: neutral words, 2: night related words. Then ask: what word you associate with “dream”? -> more ppl responded “night” in the 2nd condition

4.2.2.5. Propaganda effect

4.2.2.5.1. Rating statements as being true simply because they have been exposed to them (even if told that they are not true or unaware of message)

4.2.3. Classical Conditioning

4.2.3.1. Emotional Memory

4.2.3.1.1. Amygdala

4.2.3.2. Motor skill Memory

4.2.3.2.1. Skeletal responses

4.2.3.3. Delay conditioning - classic (implicit)

4.2.3.4. Trace conditioning - less cerebellum activity -> more forebrain activity (explicit)

4.3. EXP: Incomplete Pictures

4.3.1. Results

4.4. WM

4.5. Two paths to LTM

4.5.1. Arousing event

4.5.1.1. Attention

4.5.1.2. Distinctive

4.5.1.3. Organized

4.5.2. Not arousing

4.5.2.1. Mnemonic devices

5. Stages

5.1. Encoding

5.1.1. Def. New fragile memories become strengthened (less prone to disruptions)

5.2. Consolidation

5.2.1. Synaptic

5.2.1.1. At synapses

5.2.1.2. Rapidly over period of minutes

5.2.2. Systems

5.2.2.1. Gradual organization of brain regions, over long time (years, months)

5.2.2.1.1. One part of brain is important at encoding

5.3. Reconsolidation

5.3.1. after consolidation, when we reactivate a memory it can be come interrupted

5.3.1.1. Interference in reconsolidation

5.3.1.1.1. Can weaken or erase memory

5.4. Retrieval

6. Prospective Memory

6.1. Doing something particular in the future

6.2. Intention

6.3. Delayed

6.4. Not held in WM

6.5. Ex. Buying milk on way home

6.6. 2 types

6.6.1. Event based

6.6.2. Time based

6.7. Will i remember it? Depends on

6.7.1. Importance

6.7.2. Will i get interrupted

6.7.3. Cues

6.8. 2 Theories

6.8.1. PAM

6.8.1.1. Always some attention is needed

6.8.2. Multiprocess model

6.8.2.1. The kind of task, what i do at the moment determine if cue finding is effortful or automatic

6.9. Older adults

6.9.1. -> delay in execution

7. Decision Making

7.1. Expected Utility

7.1.1. My value

7.1.2. My chances

7.2. Consistency

7.2.1. A=B, B=C, -> A=C

7.3. Loss aversion -> leads to risk taking

7.3.1. We are conservative about winning

7.3.2. Adventurous to avoid losses

7.3.3. Amygdala Damage

7.3.3.1. -> eliminates the loss aversion

7.4. Sunk-cost effect

7.4.1. Continuing to invest in something that clearly is not working, just in order to avoid failure and quitting

7.5. Endowment effect

7.5.1. If something is yours, it is more worth than if i dont own it

7.5.1.1. Coffee mug

7.6. Framing effect

7.6.1. Avoiding risks when positive frame

7.6.2. Seeking risks when negative frame

7.6.3. Participant gets 50 dollars

7.6.3.1. -> 2 diff. Frames

7.6.3.1.1. Keep 20 or: gamble all or nothing

7.6.3.1.2. Lose 30 or: gamble all or nothing

7.6.3.2. Brain areas

7.6.3.2.1. Going with the frame (in both)

7.6.3.2.2. Going against the frame (in both)

7.7. Omission Bias

7.7.1. Rather doing nothing and having bad things happening to you, rather than to do something and bad is happening

7.8. Prospect theory

7.8.1. Tversky and Kahneman proposed that losses cause a greater emotional impact on an individual than does an equivalent amount of gain, so given choices presented two ways—with both offering the same result—an individual will pick the option offering perceived gains.

7.8.2. For example, assume that the end result is receiving $25. One option is being given the straight $25. The other option is gaining $50 and losing $25. The utility of the $25 is exactly the same in both options. However, individuals are most likely to choose to receive straight cash because a single gain is generally observed as more favorable than initially having more cash and then suffering a loss.

7.9. Subjective value of food rewards

7.9.1. The more we are willing to pay for a food, OFC increased

7.10. Reward prediction

7.10.1. Expecting a juice after a light signal

7.10.2. Once learned (light=CS), dopamine Neurons respond not to the reward but to the light. When no reward -> dopamine neurons decrease

7.10.3. Dopamine

7.10.3.1. High when Expecting a reward not when getting the reward

7.11. Evaluation of free goods

7.11.1. Linds vs hersheys

7.12. Decoy effect

7.12.1. Ex. Menu in restaurant

7.12.1.1. One expensive item

7.12.1.1.1. -> increases possibility to choose the other items (seem cheaper)

7.12.1.1.2. Dating

7.12.1.1.3. Small expensive TV increases chances to buy the bigger and cheaper ones

7.13. Prospective vs. Retrospective Devaluation -> Bear

7.13.1. 2 beer choices: microbrew or goldstar, taste both. When choosing microbrew (because its tasty) and getting the information AFTER tasting that its regular beer with vinegar, ppl will still take it (retrospective)

7.13.2. When getting info before trying it -> will less likely choose it, even if its the same taste

7.14. Overbidding in Auctions

7.14.1. Overbidding someone -> defeating competition -> dopamine boosth

7.14.2. Loosing -> inhibits dopamine

7.15. Social ID number and willingness to pay for wine

7.16. Anchoring

7.16.1. Relying on initial information in order to make decisions

7.17. OFC

7.17.1. -> decision making

7.18. Iowa Gambling task

7.18.1. ABCD

7.18.1.1. Bad cards/Good cards

7.18.1.2. Getting the bad cards -> stress responses

7.18.1.3. Ppl with Frontallobe dysfunction -> dont feel the Stress and continue playing the bad cards

7.19. Temporal discounting

7.19.1. When rewards are so distant in the future, they tend to lose their value for ppl

7.19.2. Patience connected to IQ

7.19.3. Less patience in gambler, drug and alcohol addicts, impulsive ppl (kids)

7.20. Implicit risk theory

7.20.1. ?

7.21. Delayed monetary rewards

7.21.1. The longer I need to wait for someone paying me money, the value of the reward declines.

7.21.2. Salary paid 3 days late -> much bonus, after a week -> less bonus expected

7.21.3. Connected to mPFC

7.21.3.1. The more reward expected, The higher activity in mPFC

7.21.4. Immediate reward

7.21.4.1. Mesolimbic dopamine circuits (VTA-Accumbens)

7.21.5. Delayed reward

7.21.5.1. Mesocortical pathway (VTA-PFC)

8. Structure

8.1. Sensory

8.1.1. WM

8.2. Short term

8.3. Long term

9. Memory problems

9.1. Amnesia

9.1.1. Anterograde

9.1.2. Retrograde

9.1.2.1. Temporally retrograded Amnesia

9.1.2.1.1. Remember remote memories similar to healthy ppl

9.1.2.1.2. Recent memories -> much less then healthy

9.1.3. Infantile Amnesia

9.1.3.1. Recalling only few memories of childhood

9.1.4. Concussion

9.1.4.1. Retrograde amnesia less severe for remote memories

9.2. Korsakofs Syndrom

9.2.1. Vitamine B1 deficiency

9.2.1.1. Alcoholism

9.2.1.1.1. Destroys frontal and temporal lobes

9.3. HM

9.3.1. Hippocampus removed

9.3.1.1. -> Anterograde Amnesia

9.3.2. No explicit but implicit memory

9.3.2.1. Motor skills learning (mirror drawing)

9.3.2.2. Cognitive skills learning (Tower of Hauoi)

9.3.3. Memory from long time ago was less affected

9.3.3.1. -> Hippocampus plays a role in encoding and consolidation

9.4. Dissociative Amnesia (Mnestic Block Syndrom, Psychogenic Fugue)

9.4.1. Rare psychiatric disorder

9.4.2. Reversible

9.4.3. Spontaneous Recovery

9.4.4. Usually short, but can also take longer

9.4.5. Forgetting past & identity

9.4.5.1. Sometimes involved with establishing new identity

9.4.6. Triggered by trauma or stressful event

9.4.7. Unplanned traveling or wandering

9.4.8. Not enough activity in RVLPFC (area for emotions+self concept)

9.5. Transient Global Amnesia

9.5.1. Sudden and short (minutes - hours)

9.5.2. Anterograde memory loss and a bit retrograde amnesia

9.5.3. Know personal identity

9.5.4. Normal cognition

9.5.5. No brain damage

9.5.6. Less blood flow in Hippocampus

9.6. Confabulation - Honest lying

9.6.1. Inventing bizarre, false realities (ex. Being pirate)

9.6.2. Often together with amnesia

9.6.3. Provoked or spontaneous

9.6.4. Confusion about time

9.6.4.1. Thinking past is present

9.6.5. Trying to transform stressful event into a more bearable one

9.6.6. Lack of memory monitoring

9.6.6.1. Checking if memory is plausible

9.6.7. VMPFC

9.7. Dementia

9.7.1. Dentate gyrus

9.8. Trauma

9.8.1. Stress - Defense mechanisms

9.8.1.1. Repress explicit memory

9.8.1.1.1. But not implicit

9.8.2. Dissociation

9.8.2.1. Things that happen in memories that we cant bring to the conscious

9.8.2.1.1. Unconscious memories

10. Problem Solving

10.1. Well defined problem

10.1.1. Algorithmic paths to solution

10.2. Ill defined problem

10.2.1. Involves more thinking

10.2.2. Reproductive thinking

10.2.2.1. Experience approach

10.2.3. Productive thinking

10.2.3.1. Novel approach

10.3. Insight

10.3.1. Solution suddenly becomes clear -> obvious, simple solution

10.3.2. Requires reconstruction of the problem

10.3.3. How?

10.3.3.1. After trying to apply well known solution and failing, stop trying to find one

10.3.3.1.1. -> incubation time -> Heureka -> AHA -? Solution is fully formed

10.3.3.1.2. Putting problem aside for awhile

10.3.3.2. Insight overcomes functional fixedness to reach novel solution

10.4. Representational Change Theory

10.4.1. When you try to retrieve from LTM information to solve a problem, but it doesnt lead to a solution (block)

10.4.2. The way the problem is represented needs to change:

10.4.2.1. Elaboration (adding new info)

10.4.2.2. Constraint relaxation (rules are formed new, reinvented)

10.4.2.2.1. Thinking outside of the box

10.4.2.3. Re-encoding

10.4.2.3.1. -> functional fixedness is removed

10.4.2.4. Checkerboard - Dominos

10.4.2.4.1. If each domino is represented as an object covering one black and one red square (re-encoding) And represent the draught-board as having lost 2 black squares (elaboration) It becomes clear that no arrangement will allow 31 dominoes to cover the 62 spaces (constraint relaxation) /.

10.4.2.5. Streichhölzer

10.4.2.5.1. Representational change

10.4.2.5.2. Constraint relaxation

11. EVERYDAY MEMORY & MEMORY ERRORS

11.1. Autobiographical Memory

11.1.1. Def.

11.1.1.1. Includes semantics and episodic

11.1.1.2. Mental time travel

11.1.1.3. Emotional significance

11.1.2. Multidimensional

11.1.2.1. Spatial, sensory and emotional

11.1.3. EXP: Photos

11.1.3.1. Had ppl take photos of places with own camera. In lab they looked at their own photos, other ppls photos from those places. A week later they saw again their own, others old and others new

11.1.3.1.1. For both their own photos and others old -> parietal cortex activation

11.1.3.1.2. For their own -> more hippocampus

11.1.4. Experiencing Self

11.1.4.1. Depends on how happy we are IN our life

11.1.5. Remembering Self

11.1.5.1. What we think about our life

11.1.6. Anticipating self

11.1.6.1. Future episodic thinking

11.1.7. Reminiscence bump

11.1.7.1. PPl aged 40 remember recent events and from adolescence and early adulthood.

11.1.7.2. Self image hypothesis

11.1.7.2.1. When you developed your adult identity

11.1.7.3. Cog. Hypothesis

11.1.7.3.1. Rapid changes in life (marriage, children) -> more memory (cognition)

11.1.7.4. Cultural Life script

11.1.7.4.1. Remember events that fit into our cultural script - doing something at a time when it is expected

11.1.8. Recency

11.1.8.1. More AM of recent events

11.1.9. Better Memory for

11.1.9.1. Personal milestones

11.1.9.2. Very emotional events

11.1.9.3. Events with significance for later (marriage)

11.1.9.4. Transition points (graduation, baby)

11.1.10. Highly deficient AM

11.1.11. New Topic

11.2. Exceptional Events

11.2.1. Memory & Emotions

11.2.1.1. EXP: Neutral & Arousing words

11.2.1.2. EXP: Neutral & Arousing Pictures

11.2.1.3. More Amygdala activation

11.2.2. Flashbulb Memories

11.2.2.1. Event around a shocking emotionally charged event

11.2.2.2. Remembered for a long time and detailed

11.2.2.2.1. Why?

11.2.2.3. EXP: Repeated Recall

11.3. Constructive Nature of Memory

11.3.1. Def.

11.3.2. Source Monitoring Error

11.3.2.1. EXP: Famous over Night

11.3.2.1.1. Happens because of sleep consolidation

11.3.2.1.2. Misidentification because of familiarity

11.3.2.2. EXP: Gender Stereotype Biases in Attribution

11.3.2.2.1. Chris and Pat - different statements - Reading, reveal gender

11.3.2.3. EXP: Female vs. Male Voice -> less source monitor errors

11.3.2.3.1. Hearing a story told by a woman

11.3.2.4. Def. Something is attributed to the wrong source

11.3.2.5. What else effects source monitoring errors?

11.3.2.5.1. Age

11.3.2.5.2. Frontal Lobe damage

11.3.3. Cryptomnesia

11.3.3.1. Incorporating events or content from books, movies, songs into autobiographical memory

11.3.3.1.1. You think it comes from you

11.3.4. Pragmatic Inference

11.3.4.1. EXP: Hammer pounding

11.3.5. Scripts & Schemas

11.3.5.1. Script

11.3.5.1.1. EXP: Dentist

11.3.5.1.2. Cultural script

11.3.5.2. Schema

11.3.5.2.1. EXP: Office

11.3.5.3. Top down processes

11.3.5.4. Memory for a List - DRM

11.3.5.4.1. EXP: words related to sleep - try to remember. When asked to write down as many as possible, mostly (and falsely) includes “sleep” -> like Schema

11.4. Suggestion

11.4.1. Misinformation Effect

11.4.1.1. Def.

11.4.1.2. EXP: Loftus

11.4.1.3. Explanation for MPI

11.4.1.3.1. Def. Misleading post event Information is incorporated into the memory of an event

11.4.1.3.2. Memory trace replacement

11.4.1.3.3. Retroactive interference

11.4.1.3.4. Source monitoring error

11.5. Eyewitness Testimony

11.5.1. Influenced by

11.5.1.1. Attention & bias at event (ENCODING)

11.5.1.2. Post event info (CONSOLIDATION)

11.5.1.3. Constructive nature of memory (RETRIEVAL)

11.5.2. Weapon focus

11.5.2.1. Shooting decreased details recalled

11.5.3. Familiarity effect

11.5.3.1. EXP: Eye witness testimony

11.5.3.1.1. Misattributing the source of something by choosing the criminal just because he looks familiar and we dont remember where we saw the familiar guy

11.5.4. Line up bias

11.5.4.1. -> just because there are ppl to choose from, means one is the criminal

11.5.4.1.1. Every participant chose on in the line up, even though the criminal was not present

11.5.5. Suggestion

11.5.5.1. Did you see the white car?

11.5.5.2. Or: Which one did it?

11.5.6. Post-identification feedback effect

11.5.7. Misleading postevent Information + Reconsolidation

11.5.7.1. -> Reverse testing effect

11.5.7.1.1. The ones that were tested after video (reconsolidation) were more affected my misinformation

11.5.8. Similarity

11.5.9. -> Solution: Enhanced Cognitive Interview

11.5.9.1. Report everything

11.5.9.2. Imaging everything again -> mental reinstatement

11.5.9.3. Change order & perspective

11.5.9.4. Open ended, neutral questions

11.5.10. Avoiding mistakes

11.5.10.1. Tell them the criminal might not be in the line up

11.5.10.2. Put similar looking ppl

11.5.10.3. Experimenter should not know who is the criminal

11.5.10.4. Show one at a time

11.5.10.5. Ask how confident they are with their choice

11.5.10.6. ECI

12. Brain

12.1. Heb

12.1.1. Neural record of all our experiences

12.1.1.1. Memories - patterns of neural activity

12.1.1.2. Neural activity strengthens synapse (Fire together, wire together)

12.1.1.2.1. Structural changes

12.1.1.2.2. More NT release

12.1.1.2.3. Increased firing of neurons after repeated stimulation (=LTP) -> more affective synapses

12.1.1.2.4. -> enhanced responding

12.1.2. Plasticity

12.1.2.1. Leads to a change in strenght of synapse

12.1.2.2. -> more Neurotransmitter released

12.1.2.3. Interneuron modulation

12.1.2.4. New synapses

12.1.2.5. Rearrangement of synapses

12.1.3. Roles of AMPA and NMDA receptors in transmission and plasticity

12.1.3.1. Glutamate -> activates AMPA -> when enough activates, neuron gets depolarized, Mg of NMDA goes away -> Ca influx to the cell -> activates protein kinases (Enzym)

12.1.3.2. Ca+CAM -> camkinase -> affects AMPA receptors to:

12.1.3.2.1. Phosphorylation (= activates receptors, longer open, more sodium, more depolarization)

12.1.3.2.2. Pushes receptors form inside out to the Membran

12.1.3.2.3. Retrograde signaling

12.1.3.3. CREB binds to CAMP in DNA promotor regions

12.1.3.3.1. Changes transcription rate

12.2. Brain Areas

12.2.1. MTL

12.2.1.1. Hippocampus

12.2.1.1.1. Forms new LTM

12.2.1.1.2. Context, association, recollection

12.2.1.1.3. 2 Neuron layers

12.2.1.2. Perirhinal Cortex

12.2.1.2.1. EXP: “old, new picture”

12.2.1.2.2. Visual, recognition, familarity

12.2.1.2.3. When new stimuli

12.2.1.2.4. Familiar stimuli

12.2.1.3. Entorhinal cortex

12.2.1.3.1. Recognition

12.2.1.4. Parahippocampus

12.2.1.4.1. Spatial

12.2.1.4.2. Item

12.2.2. Amygdala

12.2.2.1. Emotional

12.2.2.2. Stress

12.2.2.2.1. Cortisol and adrenaline

12.2.2.3. Mediation model vs Modulation model

12.2.2.3.1. Better memory with emotions

12.2.2.3.2. Emotional taboo words

12.2.2.4. Fear conditioning

12.2.2.4.1. Inter Positur nucleus (Cerebellum)

12.2.2.5. 2 Theories

12.2.2.5.1. Modulation

12.2.2.5.2. Mediation model

12.2.3. Fusiform gyrus

12.2.3.1. RH

12.2.3.1.1. Visual

12.2.3.2. LH

12.2.3.2.1. Verbal

12.3. Standard Model of Consolidation pg. 194 book

12.3.1. First we need Hippocampus for retrieving our memories, but once consolidated, we no longer need him for recall

12.3.2. Connection between cortical areas and hippocampus but then weaken as connection between cortical areas alone get strong

12.3.2.1. Incoming information during experience activates different areas in cortex

12.3.2.1.1. Communicate with hippocampus to form an event

12.3.2.1.2. Reactivation of memory

12.3.3. When Amnesics (had no hippocampus) where compared with healthy ppl and needed to tell about autobiographical memory -> almost no difference

12.3.3.1. Hippocampus initially important for forming memory but then possible without

12.4. Multiple Trace Hypothesis

12.4.1. Gilboa

12.4.1.1. Showed pictures from age 5 till present

12.4.1.1.1. Hippocampus activated for both remote and recent memories

12.4.1.1.2. We can remember good without it, but not story like

12.5. Reconsolidation

12.5.1. EXP: Nader - Fear conditioning - Anisomycin

12.5.1.1. When reactivating memory

12.5.1.1.1. Reconsolidation

12.6. EXP: Hupbach - List of words Interference in Reactivation

12.6.1. Both groups learned 1. List.

12.6.1.1. No reminder group: 2nd day: 2nd list

12.6.1.2. Reminder group: 2nd day: list one and list two

12.6.1.3. When asked to recall the reminder group did much worse, because they reactivated their memory from the first day and mixed it with the 2nd list

12.7. EXP: PTSD - Probanolol

12.7.1. One group listened to their traumatic experience, and given propranolol, other group placebo

12.7.2. A week later, both listened to the clips again

12.7.2.1. Propranolol group had less skin conductance and BP

12.7.2.1.1. Given the medicine when memory was reactivated , blocked stress response - reduces emotional reaction when remembering the trauma

12.8. Liking Objects

12.8.1. Rate your liking of 200 objectsne

12.8.1.1. Next day: showed them the names of object as a reminder

12.8.1.1.1. Next day: same pic as in first day and then similar but different object (interference)

12.9. Making new Memories

12.9.1. DM (Difference Memory)

12.9.1.1. Activation of certain brain areas that predict later memory (encoding words)

12.9.2. SM - Subsequent Memory effects

12.9.2.1. Declarative Memory

12.9.2.2. Fusiform gyrus

12.9.2.2.1. RH visual

12.9.2.2.2. LH verbal

12.9.2.2.3. LIF Gyrus

12.9.2.2.4. Hippocampus

12.9.2.2.5. Parahippocampus

12.9.3. SF - Subsequent Forgetting effects

12.9.3.1. Temporo parietal junction

12.9.3.1.1. -> attentional distraction

12.9.3.2. Degree of activation determines later failure to remember

12.9.4. EEG

12.9.4.1. Not where but when and how much activity

12.9.5. Hippocampal indexing theory

12.9.5.1. Hippocampus connects different cortical areas into one unified episodic memory

12.9.5.2. Repeated activation of neuronal patterns -> LTP -> enhanced responding

12.9.6. Single Trial learning

12.9.6.1. Hippocampus can remember based on one single experience

12.9.6.1.1. Semantic - association

12.9.7. Neuromodulation of memory

12.9.7.1. Cholinergic Pathway

12.9.7.1.1. Fornix brings ACh from Basal Forebrain to Hippocampus

12.9.7.1.2. ACh - Novelity of stimulus

12.9.7.2. Dopaminergic Pathway

12.9.7.2.1. VTA -> Hippocampus

12.9.8. Emotional enhancement of Memory

12.9.8.1. The more emotional the information, the more attentive you are.

12.9.8.2. Emotions->stress->amygdala activation->better memory

12.9.9. Neural processes of memory formation - Vision

12.9.9.1. Ventral Visual Stream

12.9.9.1.1. Object recognition

12.9.10. Familiar face or object

12.9.10.1. Reactivation of the same neural network that were active when we first saw it

12.9.10.2. Hebbs law

12.9.10.2.1. What fires together wires together

12.9.10.2.2. Reactivated firing -> enhanced connection

12.9.10.3. Tetanus

12.9.10.3.1. Artificially electrical stimulating neuron in lab

12.9.11. Remembering

12.9.11.1. Recognition

12.9.11.1.1. Pattern of neural activity reactivated at retrieval

12.9.11.2. Recall

12.9.11.2.1. Cue

12.9.11.3. Episodic (and autobiographic memory)

12.9.11.3.1. MTL, Hippocampus, Perirhinal cortex

12.9.12. Plasticity

12.9.12.1. Neuron is plastic if we can change its strenght

12.9.12.1.1. This affects further firing on target neuron

12.9.12.2. More strenght through

12.9.12.2.1. More neurotransmitter

12.9.12.2.2. More receptors

12.9.12.2.3. Interneurons envolved

12.9.12.2.4. New Synapses

12.9.12.2.5. Synaptic rearrangement

12.9.13. Reward and Punishment on memories

12.9.13.1. Reward -> VTA-Hypoth.(Dopamine) -> relational memory (example with casino, amazing experience)

12.9.13.2. Punishment -> amygdala/cortical MTL -> remembering one thing (ex. Casino, losing money)

12.9.14. Ventral Visual stream (perirhinal cortex)

12.9.14.1. Primary visual cortex - perirhinal cortex -> hippocampus

12.9.14.2. Reactivation of same neural pattern -> feeling of familiarity

12.10. New Topic

13. Suppression & Repression of unwanted Memories

13.1. Through DL PFC -> reduces hippocampal activity

13.1.1. Similar responses in brains like when we inhibit motor responses

13.2. Emotional Memory

13.2.1. Avoiding to think about aversive scenes

13.2.1.1. Less amygdala and hippocampus activity

13.3. Priming

13.3.1. When primed with several words and asked to look at some and to ignore others

13.3.1.1. The no think group had similar response time to the showed and to be ignored words as it had to words they could not see

13.4. We can voluntarily suppress memories

13.4.1. Stop retrieval of memory

13.4.1.1. Impairs later memory

13.5. PPl having difficulty in memory suppression (loss of executive control)

13.5.1. Attention deficit

13.5.2. PFC damage

13.5.3. Old age

13.5.4. Infancy

13.5.5. Depression

13.6. Catharsis

13.6.1. Emotion expressed through action

13.7. Abreaction

13.7.1. Emotion expressed through verbal action

13.8. Sleep paralysis

13.8.1. Recovered memory

13.9. Retrieval Induced Forgetting

13.9.1. Rp+

13.9.2. Rp-

13.9.3. Nrp

13.9.4. Study list with word pairs (categories-example -> fruit-banana, metal-copper), several examples for each category

13.9.4.1. Cued test

13.9.4.1.1. Fruit - or.... / Metal - co.....

13.9.4.1.2. -> when tested after 5 min again for all the words -> best for Rp+, then Nrp, then Rp-

13.9.4.1.3. -> diminished accessibility to Rp- items relative to Nrp items -> retrieval induced forgetting

13.9.4.1.4. Practicing retrieval of words from categories strengthen memory -> weakens memory for untouched words of same categories

13.10. Andersons No think Paradigm

13.10.1. Word pairs ordeal-roach - memorize!

13.10.1.1. Then he showed them first word and one group needed to think about the second, the other to avoid thinking about it

13.10.1.1.1. Recall phase

13.11. Go/No go

13.11.1. Press button expect when you see X

13.11.1.1. Executive function, retrieval

13.12. Childhood Amnesia

13.12.1. Few memories before 3-4 yrs

13.12.2. Till 7 yrs less then expected due to normal forgetting

13.12.2.1. Why?

13.12.2.1.1. Lack of cog abilities? (Reasoning, language)

13.12.2.1.2. When young children are interviewed in the time after the event -> detailed memory

13.12.2.1.3. -> accelareted Neurogenesis

13.12.3. Gammon article - Neurogenesis

13.12.3.1. Kids interviewed at age 3,5,8

13.12.3.1.1. Significant event

14. Priming

14.1. Social psychology - Florida effect

14.1.1. Ex. Hearing the words, old, bones, slow, heart disease

14.1.2. Ppl go down a hallway slower

14.2. Repetition priming

14.2.1. Chair - chair

14.3. Conceptual/Semantic priming

14.3.1. Furniture - chair

14.3.2. Ex. Free associate to dream

14.3.3. Countries -self generated

14.4. Perceptual Priming

14.4.1. Picture Fragment: Seeing the whole pic before improves your ability to identify the camel when you only see the fragment

14.4.2. Word stem completion

14.4.3. Studying words and then being presented with cues

14.5. Mere exposure effect

14.5.1. Liking something just because you saw it before

14.6. Subliminal priming

14.6.1. Advertising

14.7. Identification

14.7.1. Easier to recognize a word if you saw the word before

14.8. Production

14.8.1. Free association priming

14.8.1.1. New Topic

14.9. Bias in interpretation of ambiguous stimuli

14.10. Tachistoscopic presentation

14.10.1. Fast seeing something after being primed

14.11. Priming Amnesics

14.11.1. Needed to remember word list

14.11.2. Very poor on recall and recognition

14.11.3. When cued with word stems (fill out the blank) -> equal performance like healthy individuals

14.11.4. Results

14.12. Free associate to the word dream

14.12.1. Primed with random words

14.12.2. Primed with night related words

14.12.2.1. More likely to come up with “night”

14.13. Conceptual Priming

14.13.1. Generate countries that come to your mind (Austria, Bulgaria,...)

14.13.2. Test: read presented words (includes: the countries you produced, other countries, unrelated words)

14.13.3. -> faster reading for the generated countries

14.14. Procedural learning

14.14.1. Weather Forecast task - Probabilistic Classification Learning

14.14.1.1. Dependent on Basal Ganglia

14.14.1.2. Task was to predict sunny or rainy weather according to card constellations with feedback

14.14.1.3. Amnesics improved on task, but did not remember

14.14.1.4. Parkinson and Huntington patients remembered but did not improve on task

14.14.2. Automatic execution of multi step process without conscious knowledge of how to do it

14.14.2.1. Ex. Tower of Hanoi puzzle

14.14.3. SRT Task - Typing

14.14.3.1. Healthy ppl get faster

14.14.3.2. Parkinson patients not

14.14.3.2.1. WHY?

14.14.4. Expertise

14.14.4.1. Intuitive knowledge

14.14.4.2. Fast

14.14.4.3. Through much experience

14.14.5. OCD

14.14.5.1. When procedural knowledge becomes compulsive

15. Working Memory

15.1. Change blindness

15.1.1. Switching from one pic to other

15.1.2. Not seeing the difference

15.2. Phonological Loop

15.2.1. Recalling last sentence

15.2.2. Without attention

15.3. Sensory Memory

15.3.1. Echoic

15.3.2. Iconic

15.3.2.1. Experiment

15.3.2.1.1. Letter Raster

15.3.2.1.2. Tone

15.3.2.1.3. 1. Condition

15.3.2.1.4. 2. Condition

15.3.2.1.5. 3. Condition delayed tone indicated

15.4. Short-term Memory

15.4.1. Ex. Serial Position Curve

15.4.1.1. Primacy and Recency effect

15.4.1.1.1. Primacy (LTM)

15.4.1.1.2. Recency (WM)

15.4.1.2. Task after last words

15.4.1.2.1. -> Recency effect fades

15.5. Working Memory Capacity

15.5.1. Till 3 items -> almost perfect

15.5.2. Colored squares

15.5.2.1. 2nd pic

15.5.2.1.1. Did any square change?

15.5.3. Another condition:

15.5.3.1. Digits 67

15.5.3.1.1. Same task but remember digit

15.5.3.1.2. -> same result

15.5.3.2. 100ms vs 500ms Time interval between pics

15.5.3.2.1. 4/8/12 items

15.5.3.2.2. -> no difference

15.5.3.3. Cued square

15.5.3.3.1. -> no difference in capacity

15.5.3.4. Orientation & color

15.5.3.4.1. -> same results

15.5.3.5. One detail vs. several details

15.5.3.5.1. -> same results

15.5.3.5.2. Whole object, not parts of it

15.5.3.5.3. -> chunking

15.5.3.5.4. -> chunking

15.5.4. Decay & Interference

15.5.4.1. -> Forgetting

15.5.4.2. Absence of rehearsal

15.6. Mental rotation

15.6.1. More rotations from original -> longer to identify the right one

15.6.2. Independency for Spatial and visual

15.6.2.1. Ex. One spatial and one visual task

15.6.2.2. More interference for from spatial for the spatial task

15.7. Model of WM

15.7.1. Central executive

15.7.1.1. Cog. Difficult tasks (rotation, letters backwords

15.7.1.2. Control, chooses where is the focus

15.7.2. Phonological

15.7.2.1. Keeping alive through rehearsal

15.7.3. Visual-spatial scratchpad

15.7.3.1. Visual store

15.7.4. Episodic buffer

15.7.4.1. -> LTM

15.7.5. Crystallized/Fluid systems

15.8. Evidence for WM

15.8.1. Figures

15.8.1.1. Same or different

15.8.1.2. Amnesic till 25 seconds same like healthy

15.8.1.2.1. WM works fine, but when LTM needed

15.8.1.2.2. MTL and Hippocampus for LTM

15.8.2. Face study

15.8.2.1. Same of diff

15.8.2.2. Till 14 seconds, amnesic and healthy were same

15.8.2.2.1. -> remembered because of WM

15.8.3. Hippocampus is not needed for STM (or WM)

15.8.4. Episodic buffer

15.8.4.1. Explains how Amnesics (without Hippocampus) can perform over WM time

15.8.4.2. Temporary buffer for episodic memories

15.9. Brain areas

15.9.1. Perceptual areas in Cortex

15.9.1.1. Parietal, occipital lobe,...

15.9.2. PFC and parietal cortex

15.10. Hippocampus and Association

15.10.1. Dragging pictures to right location

15.10.2. Amnesics with HC damage could identify the right object, but woulnd drag it to the right location -> association of object+location

15.10.3. HC not required for basic WM but for associations - binding

15.11. WM & Proactive interference

15.11.1. 3 Letters to remember

15.11.2. Counting backwords (20,19,18)

15.11.3. Recalling letters After 3 or 18 sec

15.11.3.1. Longer break -> less memory

15.11.3.1.1. -> decay?

15.11.4. If only one trail, did not matter if 3 or 18 sec

15.11.4.1. -> proactive interference

15.11.5. Counting backwords (20,19,18)

15.12. WM transfers Information into and from LTM

15.13. Difference STM & WM

15.13.1. STM

15.13.1.1. Storing information short time

15.13.2. WM

15.13.2.1. Manipulating information

15.13.3. BOTH share the phonological loop

16. Consolidation & Interference

16.1. Consolidation

16.1.1. Rats

16.1.1.1. Neural replay:

16.1.1.1.1. Dialogue between Hippocampus and Neocortex

16.1.2. Learning routes: activated Hippocampus and parahippocampal Gyrus

16.1.2.1. The more reactivation in the night -> better memory performance

16.1.3. Learning card pairs and rose smell

16.1.3.1. When reexposed to smell during slow wave sleep -> increased hippocampus activity -> better memory

16.1.4. Sleep

16.1.4.1. Sleep within 3 hours

16.1.4.2. Sleep within 10 hours

16.1.4.2.1. -> better memory in first group

16.1.4.2.2. -> more hypocampus activation

16.1.5. Sleep and rose smell

16.1.5.1. Memory task and exposed to rose smell

16.1.5.1.1. Went to sleep and were reexposed to the smell during slow wave sleep

16.2. Forgetting due to

16.2.1. Interference

16.2.2. Decay

16.3. Natural time dependent decay

16.3.1. Sleep and control group both have forgetting, sleep -> stagnation, control -> keeps declining in memory

16.3.1.1. Why?

16.3.1.1.1. Decay in both groups, but interference only in awake group!

16.4. Interference

16.4.1. Proactive

16.4.1.1. Previous impairs recent

16.4.2. Retroactive

16.4.2.1. Recent impairs Previous

16.4.3. EXP: Cue overload

16.4.3.1. Both conditions learn AB list, and then exp. group learns AC list, control CD

16.4.3.1.1. When testing ppl on AB list

16.4.3.1.2. Test AC

16.4.4. EXP2: Cue overload & Interference

16.4.4.1. 3 groups learned the AB list on day 1

16.4.4.1.1. 1 group learned AC right after wards on 1st day

16.4.4.1.2. 2. Group learned AC right before retrieval of AB on 3.day

16.4.4.1.3. 3. Group learned AC on 2. Day

16.5. Temporal Gradient of retrograde Interference

16.5.1. EXP: immediate, delayed list

16.5.2. No syllabus list, one group gets immediately a second List, the other one 6 minutes later

16.5.3. -> 6 minutes later -> better memory, less interference in memory consolidation

16.6. Post concussion retrograde amnesia

16.6.1. Loss of memory for after the hit and some time before

16.6.2. Trauma prevented consolidation

16.6.3. -> brain did not consolidate the memory. Actions for consolidation were stopped because of concussion

16.7. Alcohol and Benzodiazapines

16.7.1. After learning -> facilitation

16.7.1.1. Prevents competition of memory

16.7.2. Before learning -> impairment

16.7.2.1. Impairs attention and making new memories

16.8. Rat test with Anisomycin

16.8.1. Blocks protein synthesis

16.8.2. Blocks consolidation

16.9. Rat test - Anisomycin and insular

16.9.1. Drinking sweet water, followed by feeling sick, Anisomycin right after prevents rat from making this memory -> will drink water again

16.10. Massed vs spaced training

16.10.1. Spacing effect

16.10.1.1. Less material vs. massed

16.10.2. Lag effect

16.10.2.1. More time interval between repetitions

16.11. Improving Consolidation?

16.11.1. -> Neurofeedback

16.11.1.1. EEG

16.11.1.1.1. Visual feedback

16.11.1.1.2. Theta activity

17. Episodic & Semantic Memory

17.1. Episodic can get lost -> leaving only semantic

17.1.1. Birthday party

17.1.1.1. Only knowing the facts, not the story

17.2. Semantic can be enhanced with episodic

17.3. Semantic can influence our experience by influencing attention

17.3.1. Ex. Football game. Knowing the rules -> better memory of the whole story