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Hepatitis B by Mind Map: Hepatitis B

1. Cause

1.1. It’s commonly caused by a viral infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis. These include autoimmune hepatitis (a disease that occurs when your body makes antibodies against your liver tissue) and hepatitis that occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol. (7)

1.2. Hepatitis B is caused by the infection of the body from the hepatitis virus (6)

1.3. DEFINITION- An agent that brings something about

2. Transmission

2.1. Hepatitis B is transmitted through contact with infectious body fluids, such as blood, vaginal secretions, or semen, containing the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Injection drug use, having sex with an infected partner, or sharing razors with an infected person increase your risk of getting hepatitis B. (7)

2.2. It does not spread by coughing or sneezing (5)

2.3. Infection can happen: -as an infected mother gives birth -during sexual activity -through sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment -through unsafe tattoo techniques by sharing personal hygiene items such as razors or toothbrushes (6)

2.4. DEFINITION- the act, process or instance of transmitting-sending or conveying from one person or place to another

3. Major symptoms

3.1. HBV can cause infection and inflammation of the liver. (2)

3.2. Some individuals may have no symptoms (2)

3.3. Yellow skin or eyes (jaundice) (4)

3.4. Nausea and vomiting (4)

3.5. Dark coloured urine and pale faces (4)

3.6. abdominal pain (4)

3.7. Loss of appetite (4)

3.8. Can result in Liver cancer and liver failure (4)

3.9. DEFINITION- Subjective evidence of disease

4. Treatment

4.1. If you know you've been exposed to the hepatitis B virus and aren't sure if you've been vaccinated, call your doctor immediately. The doctor may give you an injection of immunoglobulin and may help protect you from getting sick with Hepatitis B (1)

4.2. If your doctor determines that your Hepatitis B infection is short lived and can go away on its own. Your doctor might recommend rest, proper nutrition and plenty of fluids while your body fights the infection. In severe cases, antiviral drugs or a hospital stay is needed to prevent complications. (1)

4.3. Treatment for chronic hepatitis B infection

4.3.1. Majority of people diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B infection need treatment for their rest of their lives. (1)

4.3.2. Treatment may include: antiviral medication, interferon injections and liver transplant (1)

4.4. Routine monitoring:even when there are no symptoms, can prevent severe liver disease including liver cancer.

4.5. DEFINITION - medical care given to patient for an illness or injury

5. Prevention

5.1. -Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after any potential exposure to blood -Use condoms with sexual partners Avoid direct contact with blood and bodily fluids -Clean up blood spills with a fresh diluted bleach solution (mix 1 part bleach with 9 parts water) -Cover all cuts carefully -Avoid sharing sharp items such as razors, nail clippers, toothbrushes, and earrings or body rings -Discard sanitary napkins and tampons into plastic bags -Avoid illegal street drugs (5)

5.2. Get vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine that is considered to be a very safe and effective vaccine to protect infants, children and adults from hepatitis. The hepatitis vaccine given 3 or 4 injections over 6 months. (1)

5.3. DEFINITION- The action of stopping something from arising

6. Host response

6.1. The virus infects cells in the liver The immune system tries to destroy the virus Production of enzymes in the liver is increased and the liver gets inflamed (3)

6.2. DEFINITION- The reaction of a living system to the presence of a material

7. Control

7.1. If you have contracted the virus, you should avoid alcohol, high-salt processed foods such as meat, bacon and sausages, and other fatty foods and saturated fats. (8)

7.2. Avoid sharing needles

7.3. Doctor's can prescribe anti-viral medication. Although the medication won’t cure the virus, it can often change an aggressive infection into a mild one, and can prevent the liver from being damaged. (8)

7.4. DEFINITION- Ways to prevent the spread of disease

8. Footnote

8.1. (1) Diagnosis 2017, viewed 1 August 2019, <>.

8.2. (2) Hepatitis B 2017, viewed 1 August 2019, <>.

8.3. (3) Hepatitis B progression 2017, viewed 1 August 2019, <>.

8.4. (4) Hepatitis B - including symptoms, treatment and prevention n.d., viewed 1 August 2019, <>.

8.5. (5) Prevention Tips n.d., viewed 2 August 2019, <>.

8.6. (6) Davis, K 2018, Everything you need to know about hepatitis B, viewed 2 August 2019, <>.

8.7. (7) Kahn, A 2017, Hepatitis, viewed 2 August 2019, <>.

8.8. (8) HEPATITIS B n.d., viewed 3 August 2019, <>.