Hypertension

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Hypertension by Mind Map: Hypertension

1. Risk Factors

1.1. Age

1.2. Smoking

1.3. Obesity

1.4. High Sodium Intake

1.5. African American descent

1.6. Male Gender

2. Pathophysiology

2.1. Cardiac Output x Total Peripheral Vascular resistance = BP

2.2. Primary HTN has no known cause

2.3. Secondary HTN caused by aldosteronism, sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease

2.4. TPR and fluid accumulation common cause of HTN

2.5. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System common cause of HTN

2.6. Sympathetic Nervous System stimulation and high heart rate predictive of HTN

3. Diagnosis and Treatment

3.1. Diagnosis via repeat BP measurements and physical exam

3.2. Treatment starts with Lifestyle changes, dietary changes and weight loss

3.3. Pharmacologic treatment begins with loop diuretics and can include beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers

4. Alterations to Body Systems

4.1. Renal Failure

4.1.1. HTN damages renal vessels and tubules

4.2. Erectile Dysfunction

4.3. Myocardial Infarction

4.4. Stroke

4.5. Cardiovascular Disease

4.6. Arteriosclerosis

4.6.1. HTN leads to arterial narrowing and damage, and plaque accumulation which can restrict blood flow