THE MIDDLE ENGLISH (1066 - 1485)

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THE MIDDLE ENGLISH (1066 - 1485) by Mind Map: THE MIDDLE ENGLISH  (1066 - 1485)

1. HISTORY

1.1. The Battle of Hastings (1066)

1.1.1. The battle, which took place on 14th October 1066, inclined on the Norman side thanks to William’s strategic skills.

1.2. King John and The Magna Carta (1215).

1.2.1. King John (whose byname was John Lackland), has become infamous for having lost Normandy and most of the French possessions annexed to England in the wars against the French king Philip II.

1.3. The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)

1.3.1. The main cause of these wars between England and France was the question of the legitimate succession to the French crown.

1.4. The Wars of the Roses (1455-1485).

1.4.1. This series of dynastic civil wars had as main contenders the noble Houses of Lancaster (whose badge was a red rose) and York (whose badge was the white rose). Each family claimed the rights to the throne of England through descent from the sons of Edward III.

2. LANGUAGE

2.1. It was influenced by

2.1.1. Norman French

2.1.1.1. William brought his own aristocrats and clerics to England, and that meant the replacement of English as official language of the court with Norman French.

2.1.2. Latin

2.1.2.1. Latin was the language of learning, and latinitas (i.e. Latin written culture) created a bridge between the Anglo-Saxon past and the Norman present.

2.1.3. English

2.1.3.1. It was originally the language of the middle and lower classes. An important event that determined the restoration of English as the official language of the island is the loss of the French possessions in 1204 by King John.

3. LITERATURE

3.1. It underwent four main periods

3.1.1. 1066-1250

3.1.1.1. This is mainly the time of a flourishing Anglo-Latin and Anglo-Norman literature.

3.1.1.1.1. For example

3.1.2. 1250-1350

3.1.2.1. To this period belong the early romances written in the English language.

3.1.2.1.1. For example

3.1.3. 1350-1400.

3.1.3.1. This is a period of splendour of English as a literary language. The first great names of Middle English Literature wrote at this time

3.1.3.1.1. Such as

3.1.4. 15th century.

3.1.4.1. Many historians consider it a period of transition. It involves, among other things, the rise of English drama.