Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry.

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Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry. by Mind Map: Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry.

1. Narrative Research

1.1. Narrative research has many forms, uses a variety of analytic practices, and is rooted in different social and humanities disciplines. It can be both a method and the phenomenon of study. It has its roots in literature, history, anthropology, sociology, sociolinguistics and education.

1.1.1. Types of Narrative Studies The first approach is to differentiate the types of narrative research. "Analysis of narratives" which consists on using paradigm thinking to create descriptions of themes that hold across stories or taxonomies of types of stories. "Narrative analysis" in which researches collect descriptions of events or happenings and then configure them into a story using a plot line. The second approach is to emphasize the variety of forms found in narrative research practices. "A biographical study" is a form of narrative study in which the researcher writes and records the experiences of another person's life. "Autobiography" is written and recorded by the individuals who are the subject of the study. "A life history" portrays an individual's entire life, while a personal experience story is a narrative study of an individual's personal experience found in single or multiple episodes. "An oral history" consists of gathering personal reflections of events and their causes and effects from one individual or several individuals.

2. Phenomenological Research

2.1. A phenomenological study describes the meaning for several individuals of their lived experiences of a concept or a phenomenon. Phenomenologists focus on describing what all participants have in common as they experience a phenomenon. Phenomenology's approach is to suspend all judgements about what is real "the natural attitude" until they are founded on a more certain basis which is called "epoche".

2.1.1. Types of Phenomenology Hermeneutical phenomenology in which researchers first turn to a phenomenon, an "abiding concern" which seriously interests them such as reading or running. In the process, they reflect on essential themes, what constitutes the nature of this lived experience. Procedures for conducting Phenomenological Research Transcendental or psychological phenomenology is focused less on the interpretations of the researcher and more on a description of the experiences of participants.

3. Grounded Theory Research

3.1. Grounded theory is a qualitative research design in which the inquirer generates a general explanation (a theory) of a process, action or interaction shaped by the views of a large number of participants. A key idea is that this theory-development does not come "off the shelf", but rather is generated or "grounded" in data from participants who have experienced the process.

3.1.1. Types of Grounded Theory Studies The systematic procedures of Strauss and Corbin in which the investigator seeks to systematically develop a theory that explains process, action, or interaction on a topic. Moreover, the researcher typically conducts 20 to 30 interviews based on several visits "to the field" to collect interview data to saturate the categories (or find information that continues to add to them until no more can be found.) A category represents a unit of information composed of events, happenings and instances. Procedures for conducting Grounded Theory Research A second variant of grounded theory is found in the constructivist writing of Charmaz. Charmaz advocates for a social constructivist perspective that includes emphasizing diverse local worlds, multiple realities, and the complexities of particular worlds, views, and actions. Charmaz places more emphasis on the views, values, beliefs, feelings and assumptions, ideologies of individuals than on the methods of research.

4. Ethnographic Research

4.1. Ethnography is a qualitative design in which the researcher describes and interprets the shared and learned patterns of values, behaviours, beliefs, and language of a culture-sharing group. Ethnography had its beginning in the comparative cultural anthropology conducted by early 20th century anthropologists such as Boas and Malinowski. Recently, scientific approaches to ethnography have expanded to include "schools" or subtypes of ethnography with different theoretical orientations and aims, such as structural functionalism, symbolic interactionism, cultural and cognitive anthropology as well as feminism.

4.1.1. Types of Ethnographies The realist ethnography which is a traditional approach used by cultural anthropologists. Realist ethnography is an objective account of the situation, typically written in the third person point of view and reporting objectively on the information learned from participants at a site. Procedures for conducting an Ethnography The critical ethnography is a type of ethnographic research in which the authors advocate for the emancipation of groups marginalized in society. Critical researchers typically are politically minded individuals who seek, through their research, to speak out against inequality and domination.

5. Case Study Research

5.1. Case study research is a qualitative approach in which the investigator explores a bounded system (a case) or multiple bounded systems (cases) over time through detailed, in-depth data collection involving multiple sources of information (observations, interviews, audiovisual material, documents and reports) and reports a case description and case-based themes.

5.1.1. Types of Case Studies Single instrumental case study in which the researcher focuses on an issue or concern, and then selects one bounded case to illustrate this issue. Collective case study (or multiple case study) in which the one issue or concern is again selected, but the inquirer selects multiple case studies to illustrate the issue. Procedures for conducting a Case Study Intrinsic case study in which the focus is on the case itself (evaluating a program, or studying a student having difficulty because the case prevents an unusual or unique situation.