Ground Improvement

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Ground Improvement by Mind Map: Ground Improvement

1. Hd = 10-12 m

2. With admixture or inclusion

3. Problematic geomaterials and conditions

3.1. Geometerials

3.1.1. Natural

3.1.2. Processed or Manufactured

3.1.3. Improved

3.2. Conditions

3.2.1. Natural

3.2.2. Human activities

4. Purposes

4.1. Soil chemical properties

4.1.1. Soil physical structure

4.2. GW flow

5. Ground Improvement

5.1. Processes

5.1.1. Modification

5.1.1.1. Mechanical

5.1.1.2. Hydraulic

5.1.1.3. Physical and chemical

5.1.1.4. Modification by inclusion & Confinement

5.2. Soil type and inclusion

5.2.1. Without admixture

5.2.1.1. Non cohesive soils

5.2.1.2. Cohesive soils

5.2.2. With grouting type admixture

5.2.3. Earthwork construction

5.2.4. Earth reinforcement

5.3. Soft ground drainage and consolidation

5.4. Application

5.4.1. Densification of cohesion less soils

5.4.2. Emblankments over soft soils

5.4.3. Cutoff walls

5.4.4. Increased pavement performant

5.4.5. Sustanability

5.4.6. Construction of vertical support elements

5.4.7. Lateral earth support

5.4.8. Liquefaction mitigation

5.4.9. Void filling

5.5. Function

5.5.1. Densification

5.5.2. Replacement

5.5.3. Drainage and consolidation

5.5.4. Chemical stabilisation

5.5.5. Reinforcement

5.5.6. Thermal and biological treatment

5.6. Selection

5.6.1. Steps

5.6.1.1. 2. Conditions for selecting

5.6.1.1.1. 1. Necessity of Ground Improvement

5.6.1.2. 3. Select method

5.6.2. Option

5.6.2.1. foundations

5.6.2.2. Earth retaining structures

5.7. Conditions

5.7.1. Structural

5.7.2. Geotechnical

5.7.3. Environmental constrains

5.7.4. Construction

5.7.5. Reliability and durability

5.7.6. Cost benefit

6. Method

6.1. Compaction

6.1.1. จุดประสงค์

6.1.1.1. เพิ่มความหนาแน่น

6.1.1.2. ลดช่องว่างระหว่างมวลดิน

6.1.1.3. ลดการซึมผ่าน

6.1.1.4. เพิ่มกำลังรับแรงเฉือนและกำลังรับน้ำหนัก

6.1.1.5. ควบคุมคุณภาพของการบดอัด

6.1.2. Test

6.1.2.1. Principle

6.1.2.2. Laboratory compaction tests

6.1.2.2.1. Standard Proctor test (3 Layers)

6.1.2.2.2. Modified Proctor test (5 Layers)

6.1.2.3. In situ test

6.1.2.3.1. Sand cone test

6.1.3. Factors affecting

6.1.3.1. Compaction effort

6.1.3.2. Soil type

6.1.3.3. Soil plasticity

6.1.3.4. Water content

6.1.4. Compaction control

6.1.4.1. ชนิด ประเภท และคุณสมบัติของดิน

6.1.4.1.1. Soil groups

6.1.4.1.2. Soil classification

6.1.4.2. พลังงานการบดอัด

6.1.4.2.1. Static force (แรงสถิตย์)

6.1.4.2.2. Dynamic force (แรงพลศาสตร์)

6.1.4.3. การเลือกใช้เครื่องมือที่เหมาะสม

6.1.4.3.1. Rammers

6.1.4.3.2. Vibratory Plates

6.1.4.3.3. Smooth Roller

6.1.4.3.4. Rubber Tire

6.1.4.3.5. Sheep Foot Roller

6.1.4.3.6. Dynamic compaction

6.1.4.4. การควบคุมคุณภาพระหว่างการบดอัด

6.1.5. Types

6.1.5.1. Shallow compaction

6.1.5.1.1. Equipment

6.1.5.1.2. Recommended Type of equipment

6.1.5.1.3. Application

6.1.5.2. Deep compaction

6.1.5.2.1. Influence Factors

6.1.5.2.2. Soil types

6.1.5.2.3. Approach

6.2. Replacement

6.2.1. Shallow replacement

6.2.1.1. จุดประสงค์

6.2.1.1.1. Remove bad & Replace good

6.2.1.1.2. Limited area & depth (max 3 m or above GW)

6.2.1.1.3. Increase strength and stiffness

6.2.1.1.4. Reduce deformation, Liquefaction, Collapsible and ground heave

6.2.2. Deep replacement

6.2.2.1. จุดประสงค์

6.2.2.1.1. Depth 5-15 m

6.2.2.1.2. Improve foundation

6.2.2.1.3. Increase bearing capacity and stability

6.2.2.1.4. Reduce settlement and Liquefaction

6.2.2.1.5. Accelerate consolidation

6.2.2.2. Types

6.2.2.2.1. Remove & Replace

6.2.2.2.2. Densified fill or concrete in column

6.2.2.3. Dry process (Bottom up)

6.2.2.4. Possible failure modes

6.2.2.4.1. Crushing

6.2.2.4.2. Shear

6.2.2.4.3. Punching

6.2.2.4.4. Bulking

6.3. Chemical Stabilization

7. Geological practice

7.1. Geotechical problem

7.1.1. Failure

7.1.2. Settlement

7.1.3. Ground heave

7.1.4. Instability

7.1.5. Liquefaction

7.1.6. Erosion

7.2. Water seepage

7.3. Problem adjustment

7.3.1. Avoid the site

7.3.2. Designing superstructures

7.3.3. Removing and replacing problematic geomaterials with better

7.3.4. Improving geomaterial properties