Streptococcal Pharyngitis For complete references see Adaptive Response assignment

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Streptococcal Pharyngitis For complete references see Adaptive Response assignment by Mind Map: Streptococcal Pharyngitis    For complete references see Adaptive Response assignment

1. Risk Factors (Shulman et al.,2012)

1.1. Young age

1.2. Frequent exposure to germs

1.3. School age children

1.4. Other people at home sick

2. Pathophysiology

2.1. Streptococci are gram positive catalase, negative cocci in pairs (Kalra,,Higgins & Perez,2016).

2.2. GAS is the most common bacterial cause of acute pharyngitis, responsible for 5%–15% of sore throat visits in adults and 20%–30% in children (Stanford et al, 2012).

3. Epidemiology (Gerber MA et al., 2009).

3.1. Winter and Spring time

3.2. Affects male and female

3.3. Throat infection caused by gram-positive cocci that grow in chains

4. Clinical Manifestation (Shaikh, Swaminathan, & Hooper, 2012)

4.1. Fever

4.2. Sore throat

4.3. Painful swallowing

4.4. Swollen, tender lymph nodes in your neck

4.5. Tonsillar exudates

5. Treatment

5.1. Rest

5.2. Hydration

5.3. Antibiotics

5.3.1. A single injection of benzathine penicillin G 600,000 units IM for small children (< 27 kg) or 1.2 million units IM for children weighing ≥ 27 kg, adolescents, and adults usually suffices (Standford et al.,2012).

5.3.2. Penicillin V 500 mg (250 mg for children < 27 kg) orally every 12 hours (Standford et al.,2012).

5.3.3. Amoxicillin 50 mg/kg (maximum 1 g) once a day for 10 days (which is an effective substitute for penicillin V (Standford et al. 2012).

5.3.4. When penicillin and a beta-lactam are contraindicated, choices include; clindamycin ,erythromycin clarithromycin and azithromycin ( Standford,et al. 2012).

5.4. Steroids

6. Complications (Shulman et al., 2012)

6.1. Rheumatic fever

6.2. Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

6.3. Peritonsillar abscess

7. Diagnosis of the disorder (Hammer & McPhee, 2019)

7.1. Rapid antigen detection test (RADT)

7.2. throat culture

8. Adaptive response to alterations

8.1. Once the bacteria enters the body through the nose or mouth, our body signals an immune response. The bacterium creates an inflammatory response that causes the major systems (Huether & McCance, 2017).

8.2. When the body has adaptive immunity from previous exposure to the bacteria, it can respond by destroying infectious pathogens that are resistant to inflammation (Huether & McCance, 2017).