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Toxicological Tests by Mind Map: Toxicological Tests

1. Skin

1.1. Draize Test

1.1.1. OECD 404

1.1.2. Administering of the test chemical onto shaved skin or onto gauze patches that cover the shaved area

1.1.2.1. Organism: Albino rabbit

1.1.2.2. Time: 4 hours

1.1.2.3. Conditions: Semioccluded

1.1.2.4. in vivo

1.2. TER

1.2.1. Transcutaneous Electrical Resistance Test

1.2.2. Identify corrosive material by ability to produce loss of normal stratum corneum integrity and barrier function

1.2.2.1. Organism: Epidermal surface of excised rat

1.2.2.2. Time: 2 - 24 hours

1.2.2.3. in vitro

1.2.3. OECD 430

1.3. Human Skin Model Test

1.3.1. in vitro reconstructed human epidermis model with functional stratum corneum, where test chemical is topically applied

1.3.1.1. Organism: Human

1.3.1.2. in vitro

1.3.1.3. Endpoint: Cell viability

1.3.2. OECD 431

1.4. Corrositex Test

1.4.1. Time taken for test material to pass a special bio membrane into chemical detection system, which changes color

1.4.1.1. in vitro

1.4.1.2. Limited to specific chemical categories

2. Eye

2.1. Acute eye irritation/corrosion studies

2.1.1. If in vivo tests must procede

2.1.1.1. Organism: Rabbit

2.1.1.2. Time: up to 72 hours

2.1.1.3. Originally 1 animal. If negative, 2 animals

2.1.2. OECD 405

2.1.3. Labelling corrosive/irritating

2.1.3.1. pH < 2 or pH > 11.5

2.1.3.2. chemicals already shown corrosive in dermal tests

2.1.3.3. in vivo must not be done if already proven corrosive in vitro

3. Respiratory System

3.1. OECD 436

3.1.1. Acute Inhalation Toxicology

3.1.1.1. Animals exposed to a determined concentration of a compound

3.1.1.2. Observe conditions of the respiratory system

3.1.1.3. most common

3.1.1.4. Organism: Rat

4. Allergies

4.1. Skin contact

4.1.1. OECD 406

4.1.1.1. Adjuvant/non adjuvant (substance to modify the immune response nonspecific)

4.1.1.2. Organism: Guinea pig

4.1.1.3. Time: 7 days

4.1.1.4. Sensitisation rate (%), the higher the more harmful it is

4.2. Inhalation

4.2.1. No widely accepted tests

5. Genetic Toxicity

5.1. Bacterial mutation assays

5.1.1. Determine if a mutation can occur as a result of chemical contact with gene that controls an aminoacid synthesis

5.2. Mammalian cell mutation assays

5.2.1. OECD 476

5.2.1.1. Detect different gene mutations and evaluate results of mammalian cells

5.3. Chromosomal mutation tests

5.3.1. Visualize in case of chromosomal abnormalities for congenital malformations

5.4. Rodent chromosomal assay

5.4.1. OECD 475

5.4.1.1. Detect clastogens and allow ihnerent factors

5.5. Micronucleus test

5.5.1. OECD 474

5.5.1.1. Very common. Detection of micronuclei for indication of chromosomal breakage

5.6. DNA damage

5.6.1. in vivo

5.6.2. Examine the formation of DNA adducts and DNA breakage

6. Chemical Carcinogenicity

6.1. Short-term tests

6.1.1. detect chemicals that produce mutations in somatic cells by a genotoxic mechanism

6.2. Long-term tests

6.2.1. Determines any carcinogenic potential undetectable by the short term tests

6.2.2. 3 dose levels, 50 rodents per sex per dose group, 24 months (rat) or 18 months (mice)

7. Neurotoxicity

7.1. OECD 418

7.1.1. Measures neuropathy target esterase inhibition (NTE)

7.1.2. single dose of the test compound administered orally

7.1.3. Organism: domestic hens

8. Reproductive

8.1. Reproductive toxicology

8.1.1. Investigate potential of chemicals causing reproductive disturbances over one and two generations

8.2. Developmental toxicity

8.2.1. Test chemical is administered and prior to birth, the rat/rabbit foetuses are examined for abnormalities

9. Alternative methods

9.1. Replacement of animals, refinement of test methods and reduction in number of animals