Physical Patterns

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Physical Patterns by Mind Map: Physical Patterns

1. Climate

1.1. Global Warming

1.1.1. What is Global Warming In the day the earth captures the suns energy, and at night the atmosphere keeps it from escaping now our earth has been getting more solar energy causing increase in heat Definition is : The gradual increase in the temperature of the earths surface

1.1.2. Greenhouse Gases What they are green house gases are partials that absorb the suns heat What they do causes temperatures to rise in the earths lower atmosphere makes sudden changes in natural patterns and wildlife

1.1.3. Temperature changes Natural Disasters Tornadoes/Hurricanes link more unpredictable weather is going to happen Ice Caps and the Artic the polar caps are melting ice caps are breaking apart sea levels are rising because of all the water released from the arctic

1.1.4. The future Ocean levels rising Predict that the sea level will rise 18-59cm Extinction more than a million species face extintion

1.2. What Determines Climate

1.2.1. Effect of mountains high altitudes are cooler and have less air mountain climate is cooler then low places and lots of rain if near a coastline changes altitude and sun exposure These mountains can create completely different regions

1.2.2. Effect of Water Bodies/Ocean currents Water Bodies cool by the offshore wind even if you don't get in the water make temperature comfortable area close to large bodies of water have maritime climate, warm summers and cool winters create different moisture conditions in areas that could be identical in latitude Ocean Currents Ocean currents circulate water currents can be used to speed ocean voyages affect coastal temperatures

1.2.3. Moving air Effects heat of sun creates this factor warm air rises and cool air drops this effect happens in area near the equator heat from the sun makes the air rise to places a distance away from the equator. Then the air cools as it is rising and forms clouds

1.2.4. Effect of Latitude the sun is a major factor in the climate sun reflects off the earth and is spread across the globe hottest places are near the equator and furthest away from the equator are the coldest

1.3. Different Types of Climates

1.3.1. Desert Climate When warm air rises to the rainy regions, it gets cool, then it returns to the equator in the form of surface winds the air is very dry so rain is rare at the equator extreme heat and dryness rain doesnt come often, if it does it dries quickly

1.3.2. Polar Climate severe winters and cool summers strong winds and snow flat lands light hits the poles at a sharp angle creates northern lights

1.3.3. Tropical Climate sun strikes directly over this area hot temperatures the whole year and lots of moisture in the air E.G Singapore has a hot and wet tropical climate rainforests

1.3.4. Temperate Climate mid latitude location in other words, in between the polar and tropics moderate temperature all year around hits surface at slight angle to make the suns rays less intense seasons on the southern hemisphere are opposite to the northern

1.3.5. Maritime Climate warm summers cool winters affected by water bodies temperature doesn't change much moist/wet

1.3.6. Continental Climate larger range of temperatures than maritime hot summers cold winters E.G Canada, Ontario drier than maritime in land

1.3.7. Mountain Climate cooler than low altitude places and lots of rain if near a coastline high you go the colder it is because there is less molecule to capture the suns heat

2. Landform Patterns

2.1. Sheilds

2.1.1. made by volcanoes has igneous and metamorphic rock metamorphic because of all the heat and pressure has a lot of volcanic activity

2.1.2. Pangaea was built around old shield regions Pangaea is the theory that all the Continents used to be one, then they drifted apart Alfred Wegener is the scientist that discovered this When Pangaea broke the shield regions were scattered around all the Continents

2.1.3. For example the heavily worn out Canadian shield

2.2. Plains and Lowlands

2.2.1. Made of sedimentary rocks

2.2.2. level land

2.2.3. They are found along the coastlines for example the great plains

2.3. Fold Mountains

2.3.1. Where it is found Along the west coast of North America all the way to Antarctica East to West along Europe and Asia

2.3.2. Has sedimentary and metamorphic rocks Has sedimentary at the top of the mountain because the mountains rose out of the bottom of the ocean, and the bottom of the ocean is filled with sediment

2.3.3. Helps form new regions such as creating new river flows, elevation and climate regions patterns for ecozones

2.3.4. Some times it snaps and causes earthquakes

2.4. Rivers and Valleys

2.4.1. Drainage patterns Polluting Drainage Patterns chemicals collect at the end of a river if you pour it in at any one of the connecting lakes or streams Types Dendritic Trellis

2.4.2. A river system us the network of streams and lakes that connect to make a river

2.4.3. Rivers have fertile soil E.G the amazone

2.4.4. Rivers erode the earth this makes valleys

2.4.5. Can be used for transport E.G The Famous Canadian fur trade that has being going on for years Hudson Bay company

2.4.6. Rivers start at high peaks (the source) and end at low places (the mouth) Source might be snow and rain on the mountains

2.4.7. Yangtze, the changing river FACTS worlds 3rd longest river begins in the Tanggula mountains of east China Rapid flowing river Very fertile region millions of people rely on it Moves goods on ships What is happening to it now China wants to make a dam on it because it will make it easier for ships to pass It will also be the worlds largest hydroelectric dam project this will be a very expensive project This will hurt habitats, farmers and fishers

3. Agriculture

3.1. Physical Conditions

3.1.1. Effect of Climate long term weather affects farming by affecting the soil, and for animals and plants Water, ice and wind make soil Heavy rain wears down and splits rocks A moving glacier is like sandpaper grinding the rocks beneath it Climate causes erosion that makes soil Determines what regions are suitable for farming

3.1.2. Effect of Soil a soil profile shows the earths upper layers in a cross-section diagram Usually the deeper you go the lighter the soil gets on the diagram

3.1.3. Effect of Natural Vegetation Natural Vegetation is often cleared away for things like roads, building, and farm Vegetation is determined by land forms, climate and soil aboriginals and pioneer used to use plants to determine suitability for crops effects soil fertility decomposing leaves, grasses and needles make the humus layer Different forests types affect soil conditions

3.2. Human Factors

3.2.1. Cultural Preferment For example South Asians prefer rice productions while North Americans prefer cattle and grain

3.2.2. Population Half of the worlds population is in South Asia

3.2.3. Types Intensive Takes a lot of labour and is used to get food from smalls areas Rice, vegetables and poultry are raised this way Extensive Little labour, (often large machinery is used) and is for big farms Mostly in North America Subsistance Nomadic Herders Shifting Cultivators Small Landholders Produce enough for one family Subsist means to survive

3.3. Commercial Agriculture

3.3.1. Location and Climate Location affects agriculture the most climate, soil fertility and natural vegetation are vary crops such as peaches, plums, grapes and cherries have to be in a certain climate

3.3.2. Raw Materials needs a reliable supply of materials for example a lot of poultry farms don't raise their chickens from eggs, instead they buy them every farmer has different needs

3.3.3. Labour and Machinery intensive agriculture needs a lot of hand labour for small to medium sized farms extensive farmers are the opposite, they rely on big machines

3.3.4. Transport Grains in Canada are grown in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba They use a lot of tractors, plows, and combine harvesters The grain is put in special railway train cars and are moved

3.3.5. Market Forces customer decides the success of the farmer Supply in demand determines price beef competes with pork, poultry, lamb, fish etc.

3.3.6. farming that makes large quantity of one or a few types of crops, livestock etc. and then sells it little or none is kept buy their own food

3.4. Specialized Agriculture

3.4.1. Orange Groves: Climate and Market Florida is only second to Brazil in growing oranges Oranges are very sensitive to temperature There are many different types of oranges with different growing speeds letting farming to sell all year around most the crops are squeezed into juice

3.4.2. Nurseries :Location and Raw Materials Nurseries give trees, flowers, and other plants mostly found around urban areas must be perfect conditions for all the plants Raw materials include seeds, fertilizer, peat moss, and mulch

3.4.3. Coffee: Location and Labour Made in tropical climates of Central and South America, Africa and South Asia trees need lots of sunlight and not a lot of heat need drained soil Trees only produce 0.7 kilos of coffee There is a lot of hand labour involved because it is sorted and roasted by machines

3.4.4. Fair Trade Products farmers are only paid a portion of the price of the food if the coffee costs 1$ the farmer only got 10 cents Fair trade gives farmers twice as much as they would have before The consumer will have to pay a little more for the product Definition a pricing system that gives food growers in developing countries a fairer price for the products

4. Natural Disasters

4.1. Torandoes

4.1.1. Tornado season is spring though summer More likely to happen 3pm to 9pm ( afternoon )

4.1.2. Develop over land

4.1.3. Drop down from the clouds

4.1.4. Spiral Tighter Faster than hurricanes

4.1.5. Happen world wide mostly U.S (1200) annualy Eastern part of the U.S and part of Canada Kansas and Oklahoma have a lot of tornadoes Annually 100 in Canada

4.1.6. Sometimes called twisters in the 1980's

4.1.7. fast Measured by Fujita Scale Includes Rating, wind speed, damage frequency, and percentage of all tornadoes

4.1.8. Causes Caused by warm and cool air meeting warm air from mexico goes north cool arctic air goes south meet at north america Sometimes warm air gets caught by cool air and they start spinning and create a vortex

4.1.9. May look invisible until dust and debris gets into it

4.1.10. Signs a tornado is coming dark greenish sky wall cloud large hail large roar similar to an freight train severe thunderstorms

4.2. Volcanoes

4.2.1. Where are they found Pacific ring of Fire a lot of volcanic activity shape of a horseshoe 40,000km long touches 4 Continents Mid-Atlantic Ridge boundary between the North American and Eurasian plates History At the edge of the Tectonic plates this is where magma can get though the crust easily

4.2.2. How they are made Often made when magma finds its way to cracks in the earths crust Able to crack though the earths crust Movement of the Tectonic plates of the earth plates are always in motion sometimes pull away from each other giving an opening sometimes one rises above another giving an opening Scientists think that the movement of the magma underneath the crust moves the plates

4.2.3. Types composite cone Alternating layers of magma and cinders grow higher with more activity shield cone low sloping sides grow higher with more activity is built out of only magma active volcano a currently erupting or likely to erupt in the future volcano dormant volcano a volcano that hasn't erupted in a while but still has the potential too extinct volcano a volcano that cannot erupt anymore

4.2.4. spray ash and gas into the air

4.2.5. Changing the Earth Building new mountains Blowing Mountains away

4.2.6. There are about 1500 active volcanoes on earth We know about 80 under the ocean

4.2.7. Layers of the Earth Core Inner core is the hottest part of the earth and is solid The outer core is the second layer of the earth. Mantle Earths tectonic plates float on the mantle Everything comes from the mantle Eg. magma or known as lava when it reaches the outside Closest to the crust (surface) Crust like the skin of a apple Oceanic Continental light and brittle

4.3. Tsunami

4.3.1. Causes Caused by an earthquake shaking the ocean floor this causes shock tremors to come out in a circular pattern also caused by underwater landslides and volcano eruptions long time ago meteors crashing in the ocean could be a cause

4.3.2. mistaken as tidal waves and storm surges tidal wave is the bulge in the ocean caused by the moons gravity storm surge is the sudden rise in sea level caused by high winds

4.3.3. can reach over 100 feet or 30.5m

4.3.4. 80% happen in the Pacific ring of fire where earthquakes are common

4.3.5. slow down near shore line and gain height and energy fast as a jet plane (800km per hour)

4.3.6. Japanese word meaning harbor wave

4.3.7. effects destruction and damage death injury millions in financial loss physiological problems Put on the media for a while, but effects are there for years to come lingering danger of more tsunamis emotional problems

4.4. Earthquakes

4.4.1. Causes there are earthquake about every 3 minutes, meaning there are 180 000 earthquakes per year most aren't strong enough for damage but big ones are destructive occur when the plates are moved apart, pushed together or dragged beside each other. under tension they bend a bit and then it snaps, making the plates move centimeters at once, this is call the epicenter minor earthquakes can be caused by humans

4.4.2. Richter scale measures the strength of a earthquake 10 points scale Intensity and magnitude are different intensity is the effects of the earthquake magnitude is the strength and energy of the earthquake

4.4.3. Affects Can break structures with the shaking If very strong shocks can be felt days after earthquake is over average 10.000 people die annually from earthquakes

4.4.4. Myth NO the earth will not open up and eat you like Hollywood likes to show You cannot predict when it is going to happen

4.5. Hurricanes

4.5.1. Is a type of tropical storm It is the same thing as cyclones and typhoons, they just occur in different places. And people at different places call them different things.

4.5.2. Origin / Affects Made in the coast of Africa Affects the Caribbean and East North America

4.5.3. Develops over water Swirling ocean air rises cooling air gets caught in the base more air added makes it a hurricane

4.5.4. moves away from warm regions

4.5.5. measured by Saffir Simpson Scale shows wind speed, category, severity, and height of storm surge storm surge caused by storms wind

4.6. Cyclones

4.6.1. Is a type of tropical storm It is the same thing as a hurricane and typhoon they just occur in different places, and people at different places call them different things.

4.6.2. Origin / Affects Affects South Asia and Australia Made in Indian Ocean

4.6.3. Develops over water Swirling ocean air rises cooling air gets caught in the base

4.6.4. moves away from warm regions

4.6.5. measured by Saffir Simpson Scale shows wind speed, category, severity, and height of storm surge storm surge caused by storms wind

4.7. Typhoons

4.7.1. Is a type of tropical storm It is the same thing as a hurricane and cyclone they just occur in different places, and people at different places call them different things

4.7.2. Origin / Affects Made in the Pacific Ocean Affect West Asia

4.7.3. Develops over water Swirling ocean air rises cooling air gets caught in the base

4.7.4. moves away from warm regions

4.7.5. measured by Saffir Simpson Scale shows wind speed, category, severity, and height of storm surge storm surge caused by storms wind

4.8. Tropical Storms

4.8.1. Storm season is summer to autumn

4.8.2. Develop over water

4.8.3. Create dangerous storm surges Storm surges are a rise in sea level that is caused by high winds pushing towards the coast line. Like a small constant tsunami

4.8.4. Caused by swirling air Air swirls because the earth is spinning, and its surface has unevenly disputed heat levels.

4.8.5. Types Hurricanes Cyclones Typhoons

4.8.6. Tropical Disturbance How its made Warm moist air created by the sun rises up while cooler air comes down.

4.8.7. So powerful that they could power all of North America for half a year. (per one season)