The Parameters Of Course Design in Esp.

parameters of ESP according to d a

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The Parameters Of Course Design in Esp. by Mind Map: The Parameters Of Course Design in Esp.

1. The second stage moved beyond the sentence level as ESP practitioners used discourse analysis to examine the textual patterns in the targeted discipline. They were interested

2. 1. intended to meet the learners' specific needs; 2. related in its themes and topics to particular disciplines; 3. centered on appropriate discourse analysis of the discourse; and 4. placed in contrast with „General English‟. The variable features are:

3. Dudley-Evans, 1998

4. Hutchinson & Waters, 1987

5. Strevens, 1988

6. authors

7. is an approach rather than a product

8. ESP, Then, is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as content, method, are based on the learner´s reason to learn.

9. the focus was register analysis with the aim to identify the grammatical and lexical features of the target discipline and then develop teaching materials around the linguistic features identified.

10. In the third stage, there was a shift toward identification of learners’ reasons for learning. This shift led to target situation analysis and needs (and wants) analysis to elucidate these purposes more clearly. By the 1980’s, the focus expanded to include not only the language that ESP learners needed for a particular target situation, but also the thinking processes that underlie language use.

11. the fourth stage emphasized skills and strategies and led to the development of materials that assisted learners to acquire strategic reading skills, such as guessing the meaning of unknown vocabulary from context or looking at how meaning is produced in spoken discourse.

12. fifth stage, a learning centered approach, moved beyond different conceptualizations of language use by offering a broader focus on understanding the processes of language learning.

13. ESP consists of English language teaching which is: • Designed to meet the specified needs of the learner;

14. • Related in content (i.e., in its themes and topics) to particular disciplines, occupations and activities (and contexts);

15. • Centered on the language (and behaviors) appropriate to those activities in syntax, lexis, discourse, semantics (etc) and analysis of this discourse;

16. • Restricted as to the language skills to be learned (e.g., reading only); • Not taught according to any pre-ordained methodology. (p. 2)

17. Four absolute

18. Two variables

19. . ESP may be limited as to the learning skills (e.g. writing) to be learned; 2. ESP may not be taught in terms to any predetermined methodology. It means that a specific teaching technique mainly focusing on, for example, communication skills is to be adopted in some teaching and learning contexts but not a general teaching approach