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Ethics by Mind Map: Ethics

1. Language & Concepts (Ashley)

1.1. Sense of Moral Justice

1.1.1. Importance of intuition? helps us make better judgement and decisions prevents negative consequences

1.1.2. Where does it come from? processed information from past experiences patterns from what happened before

1.1.3. What makes our behaviour humane? compassion empathy sympathy

1.2. Moral values vs beliefs

1.2.1. Moral values: principles and ideals that guide us how to live / make ethical decision

1.2.2. Beliefs: Doctrines (authority / evidence) Statements (authority / evidence) Experience (proof / evidence)

1.3. Concepts and theories in ethics

1.3.1. Consequentialist theories The utilitarian approach utility, pleasure, happiness, feeling, etc The egoistic approach self-interest, self-respect, respect, feeling The common good approach general will, respect, compassion, feeling

1.3.2. Non-consequentialist theories The duty based approach personal will, intention, obligation of ethical action, reason, categorical imperative ⇒ universal moral law? The rights approach right to dignity → action The justice/fairness approach free, rational, equal → fair action The divine command approach God’s will, omnipotence, free will, teleological suspension of the ethical

1.3.3. Agent-centered theories The virtue approach consistency, human virtues, role models The feminist approach principle of care

1.4. Judgment

1.4.1. obligatory action if you take the idea of right and wrong behavior seriously, you have a duty to oppose the wrong and further the right.

1.4.2. impermissible action The opposite of an obligatory action is an action; it is wrong to do it and right not to do it.

1.4.3. permissible action one which is justified by or consistent with a moral framework, but which does not imply an obligation to act.

1.4.4. supererogatory action an act that is good but not morally required to be done. e.g. actions done by saints and heroes

2. Methodology (Nairo)

2.1. Aim of this AOK

2.1.1. To understand, not to be right

2.1.2. Objective examination of morality

2.2. Theoretical (traditional) vs Experimental Moral Philosophy

2.2.1. Theoretical apporach methods logic based observations and reflections

2.2.2. Experimental approach methods extension of traditional ethics novel methodology

2.3. knowledge production

2.3.1. fact language becomes important normative statements accepted principles theoretical framework empirical facts

2.3.2. theories and predictions serve as options of what individuals can/may choose to do explain the principles and mechanisms of each ethical/unethical choice How do you choose between conflicting theories? Kant: "It depends on the nature of rationality" Nietzsche: "there are no rational grounds and equally consistent moral systems" Goodman and Rawls: "through the method of reflective equilibrium"

3. Historical Development(Laura)

3.1. Religious Teachings

3.1.1. Theistic foundation+Reach+Modification of ethical thinking+work of philosophers Aristotle and Virtue Ethics Flourishing How can we be happy? Buddhism's four noble truths

3.2. Ethical Dilemmas and Technology

3.2.1. The turing test

3.2.2. The ethical dilemmas through self-driving cars

3.3. Experimental Moral Philosophy

3.3.1. Beginning of 20th Century Birth of cultural anthropology The main leaders

3.3.2. Middle of the century Vague and imprecise theories were more engaged and the philosophers are being more cautious Richard Brandt (1954) John Ladd (1957)

3.4. Carol Gilligan on Genders

3.4.1. Gender difference leads to different ways of thinking Moral reasoning The perception of violence The resolution of sexual dilemmas Abortion decisions

4. Personal Knowledge (Mimzy)

4.1. What is the nature of the contribution of individuals you know personally to this area, in terms of your experience?

4.1.1. parents

4.1.2. teachers

4.1.3. peers

4.1.4. school

4.1.5. idols

4.1.6. fictional characters

4.2. What responsibilities rest upon YOU by virtue of YOUR knowledge in this area?

4.2.1. Academic Honesty

4.2.2. Wasting Opportunities Acknowledging our privileges

4.2.3. Immoral v Illegal Drinking underage Culturally acceptable to drink at 17 yet it is illegal so contrast in perspectives

4.2.4. Veggie Wednesdays As UWC students do we have a moral obligation to make a change to our lifestyles to stop Climate Change?

4.2.5. Tokenism protests

4.3. What are the implications of this area of knowledge in terms of YOUR individual perspective? - How is your ethics personal?

4.3.1. More liberal then our parents generation. More open-minded then their generations

4.4. What assumptions underlie YOUR own approach to this knowledge? what do you assume is right or wrong

4.4.1. Inaction can be unethical

4.4.2. free speech is a human right

4.5. Consider the WOKs in relation to your experiences, how have these affected what and how you know in this AOK?

4.5.1. Emotion

4.5.2. Language

4.5.3. Faith

4.5.4. Memory

5. Scope and Application (Rito)

5.1. Ethics

5.1.1. Meaning: the study of morality and morals Morals Morality Perspective Morality

5.1.2. More or less giving guidelines on how to act (moral framework)

5.1.3. The purpose of ethics To make our society work To avoid chaos

5.1.4. Disciplines Meta-Ethics What does it mean to say something is right or wrong? What is the nature of the good? What is the nature and justification of ethical claims? Descriptive Ethics Comparative ethics Based on empirical experiments Looking into people's beliefs and morality Normative Ethics Constructing framework for guidance as how to make the right decision Applied Ethics Business ethics Environmental ethics Medical ethics

5.2. Law

5.2.1. Bound to a certain set of rules (legal framework)

5.2.2. Prescribed by authority

5.2.3. Applied often to individual cases to make a judgement

5.3. Are there absolute values?

5.3.1. Realism vs Relativism is moral judgment only a matter of opinion Realism Relativism