Topic 3 :Computer Programs and Programming Language

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Topic 3 :Computer Programs and Programming Language by Mind Map: Topic 3 :Computer Programs and Programming Language

1. Overview of computer program and programming language

1.1. Computer Program

1.2. A computer program is a set of instructions that the computer needs to follow to process the data into information.

1.3. They tell the computer:

1.3.1. What actions you want the computer to perform

1.3.2. The order those actions should happen in

2. Programming Language

2.1. A programming language is a system of signs used to communicate a task/algorithm to a computer, causing the task to be performed.

2.2. The task to be performed is call computation, which follows absolutely precise and unambiguous rules.

2.3. Computation

2.3.1. Computation is any process that can be carried out by a computer.

2.4. Machine Readability

2.4.1. For a language to be machine-readable, it must have a simple enough structure to allow for efficient translation.

2.5. Human Readability

2.5.1. It requires that a programming language provide abstractions of the actions of computers that are easy to understand, even by persons not completely familiar with the underlying details of the machine.

2.6. 3 levels of Programming Languages:

2.6.1. Machine Language

2.6.1.1. The representation of a computer program which is actually read and understood by the computer.

2.6.2. Low Level Language (Assembly Language )

2.6.3. High level Language

2.6.3.1. A programming language which use statements consisting of English-like keywords such as "FOR", "PRINT" or “IF“, ... etc.

3. Assembly Language

3.1. A symbolic representation of the machine language of a specific processor.

3.2. Is converted to machine code by an assembler.

4. Programming Language Paradigms

4.1. A model for a class of programming language that share a common characteristics and its differences

5. Common Programming Paradigms

5.1. Imperative paradigm

5.2. Object-oriented paradigm

5.3. The functional paradigm

5.4. The logic paradigm

6. Imperative Paradigm

6.1. Describe how the computer should achieve solution

6.2. Example of languages : C, Pascal, FORTRAN, ALGO 60 & COBOL

6.3. Object Oriented Paradigm

7. Object Oriented Paradigm

7.1. Based on imperative / procedural style with added data & code abstraction & encapsulation

7.2. A revolutionary concept that changed the rules in computer program development OOP is organized

8. Logic Paradigm

8.1. A declarative and relational style of programming

9. Functional Paradigm

9.1. Based on the concept of functions in mathematics

9.2. Based on Lambda calculus

10. Programming Application Domains

11. Scientific Application

11.1. John Backus’s team at IBM developed FORTRAN (for FORmula TRANslator) in 1955-1957.

12. Business Application

12.1. Commercial data processing was one of the earliest commercial applications of computers.

13. Artificial Intelligence

13.1. Artificial Intelligence deals with emulating human-style reasoning on a computer.

14. Artificial Intelligence Languages

14.1. The first AI language was IPL (International Processing Language, developed by the Rand Corporation. Its low-level design led to its limited use.

15. Systems Programming

15.1. Assembly languages were used for a very long time operating systems programming because of its power and efficiency.

16. Web Software

16.1. Eclectic collection of languages:

16.1.1. General-purpose (e.g., Java) – can be used for a wide range of programming jobs.