Topic 2 :Data and Data Representation

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Topic 2 :Data and Data Representation by Mind Map: Topic 2 :Data and Data Representation

1. Data, Information and Processing

1.1. Data Formats

1.1.1. Computers

1.1.1.1. Process and store all forms of data in binary format

1.1.2. Human communication

1.1.2.1. Includes language, images and sounds

1.1.3. Data formats

1.1.3.1. Specifications for converting data into computer-usable form

1.1.3.2. Define the different ways human data may be represented, stored and processed by a computer

1.2. Information processing cycle

1.2.1. is the series of input, process, output, and storage activities

1.2.2. Collects data (input)>Processing>Produces information (output)

1.3. Data, Information, Knowledge

1.3.1. Data>Information>Knowledge

1.3.2. Data

1.3.2.1. unprocessed facts and figures

1.3.2.2. is a collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video.

1.3.3. Information

1.3.3.1. data that has been interpreted

1.3.3.2. conveys meaning and is useful to people.

1.3.4. Knowledge

1.3.4.1. information, experience and insight

1.4. Processing – Data Coding

1.4.1. Data is encoded by assigning a bit pattern to each character, digit, or multimedia object.

1.4.2. Many standards exist for encoding

1.4.2.1. Character encoding like ASCII

1.4.2.2. Image encodings like JPEG

1.4.2.3. Video encodings like MPEG-4

1.4.3. Examples of Standards

1.4.3.1. Alphanumeric

1.4.3.1.1. ASCII, EBCDIC, Unicode

1.4.3.2. Image

1.4.3.2.1. JPEG, GIF, PCX, TIFF

1.4.3.3. Motion picture

1.4.3.3.1. MPEG-2, Quick Time

1.4.3.4. Sound

1.4.3.4.1. Sound Blaster, WAV, AU

1.4.3.5. Outline graphics/fonts

1.4.3.5.1. PostScript, TrueType, PDF

1.4.4. Processing - Data Storage and Compression

1.4.4.1. Reduce the size of data to save space or transmission time

1.4.4.2. Categories of data compression:

1.4.4.2.1. Lossless

1.4.4.2.2. Lossy

1.5. Processing – Data Integrity

1.5.1. Security or protection of data

1.5.2. Involves access to files Access Control Lists (ACLs)

1.5.3. Protect files from being read, written to, or executed

1.5.3.1. Password protection

1.5.3.2. Keyboard locking

1.5.4. Data Integrity = Quality of Data

1.5.4.1. Correctness

1.5.4.2. Completeness

1.5.4.3. Validity

1.5.4.4. Compliance

1.5.4.5. Consistency

2. Bits, Bytes, and Words

2.1. Bits

2.1.1. The basic unit of information in computing and telecommunication

2.1.2. These two values are often interpreted as binary digits and are usually denoted by 0 and 1

2.2. Bytes

2.2.1. a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications

2.2.2. number of bits used to encode a single character of text in a computer

2.3. Words

2.3.1. a term for the natural unit of data used by a particular computer design

2.3.2. fixed sized group of bits that are handled together by the system

2.3.3. an important characteristic of computer architecture.

2.4. When referring to binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal, a single lowercase letter appended to the end of each number to identify its type.

2.5. Numbering System

2.5.1. Radix

2.5.1.1. Example

2.5.1.1.1. hexadecimal 45 will be written as 45h

2.5.1.1.2. octal 76 will be written as 76o or 76q

2.5.1.1.3. binary 11010011 will be written as 11010011b

2.5.2. Base

2.5.2.1. The number of different symbols required to represent any given number

2.5.2.2. The larger the base, the more numerals are required

2.5.2.2.1. Base 2 (Binary)

2.5.2.2.2. Base 8 (Octal)

2.5.2.2.3. Base 10 (Decimal)

2.5.2.2.4. Base 16 (Hexadecimal)

2.5.2.3. For a given number, the larger the base the more symbols required but the fewer digits needed

2.6. Binary System

2.6.1. Early computer design was decimal

2.6.2. Mark I and ENIAC

2.6.3. John von Neumann proposed binary data processing (1945)

2.6.4. Used for both instructions and data

2.6.5. Natural relationship between on/off switches and calculation using Boolean logic

2.6.5.1. Binary is a base 2 numbering system

2.6.5.2. each digit is either a 0 (off) or a 1 (on)

2.7. Octal System

2.7.1. As known as base 8 numbering system

2.7.2. There are only eight different digits available (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)

2.8. Decimal System

2.8.1. Decimal is a base 10 numbering system

2.8.2. Each digit in the number is multiplied by 10 raised to a power corresponding to that digit position.

2.9. Hexadecimal System

2.9.1. Hexadecimal is a base 16 numbering system

2.9.2. Used not only to represent integers

2.9.3. Also used to represent sequence of binary digits

3. ASCII Codes, Unicode

3.1. The Alphanumeric Representation

3.1.1. The data entered as characters, number digits, and punctuation are known as alphanumeric data

3.1.2. 3 alphanumeric codes are in common use

3.1.2.1. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

3.1.2.2. Unicode

3.1.2.3. EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code).

3.2. ASCII

3.2.1. to provide a standard to code various symbols ( visible and invisible symbols)

3.2.2. each binary value between 0 and 127 represents a specific character.

3.2.3. Most computers extend the ASCII character set to use the full range of 256 characters available in a byte

3.2.4. The upper 128 characters handle special things like accented characters from common foreign languages.

3.2.5. ASCII works by assigning standard numeric values to letters, numbers, punctuation marks and other characters such as control codes.

3.2.6. Keyboard Input

3.2.6.1. Key (“scan”) codes are converted to ASCII

3.2.6.2. ASCII code sent to host computer

3.2.6.3. Received by the host as a “stream” of data

3.2.6.4. Stored in buffer and being processed

3.3. Unicode

3.3.1. A worldwide character-encoding standard

3.3.2. ts main objective is to enable a single, unique character set that is capable of supporting all characters from all scripts

3.3.3. 16-bit standard

3.3.4. It is a superset of ASCII

3.3.5. Usage of Unicode

3.3.5.1. Encode text for creation of passwords

3.3.5.2. Encodes characters to display in all webpages

3.3.5.3. Encode characters used in email settings

3.3.5.4. Modify characters used in documents

3.4. ASCII vs Unicode

3.4.1. ASCII

3.4.1.1. Has 128 code points, 0 through 127

3.4.1.2. Can only encode characters in 7 bits

3.4.1.3. Can only encode characters from the English language

3.4.2. Unicode

3.4.2.1. Has about 1,114,112 code positions

3.4.2.2. Can encode characters in 16-bits and more

3.4.2.3. Can encode characters from virtually all kinds of languages