PART II: 3 REGIONAL INTEGRATION THEORIES

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PART II: 3 REGIONAL INTEGRATION THEORIES by Mind Map: PART II: 3 REGIONAL INTEGRATION THEORIES

1. 1) FEDERALIST THEORIES(FADDIST THEORIES); CARL J.FRIEDERICH

1.1. argues that the federalist system will come into existence when there is high political will among the political intelligentsia sharing similar goals and purpose while agreeing on converging their national interest.

1.2. Higher the level of the political exist, Higher the probability of the federal system to exist

1.3. 5 characteristics

1.3.1. 1. Ultimate objective/final mission of integration= establishment of huge Federal Government

1.3.2. 2. establishment of Central Political Institution =carries basic functions of common Federal State

1.3.3. 3. makes members surrender its sovereignty and decision making power to a Central Political Institution by voluntary means.

1.3.4. 4. every single policy formulated by the integration automatically binds all the member countries without exception

1.3.5. 5.can be created by an act of political will by political actors or ruling elites who share common regional purposes and needs.

1.4. e.g. European Parliament and European Commission acts as "federal government" making decisions and policies for EU member states.

1.5. closely related to "Intergovernmentalism" in which states cooperate in specific fields while retaining their sovereignty while making decisions unanimously.

1.6. common purpose-desirable-political will-surrendering of parts of decisional authority-central political institutions-binding policy- federal government.

2. NON-FUNCTIONAL THEORY; ERNST B. HAAS, PHILIPPE C. SCHMITTER AND LEON L. LINBERG

2.1. argues that integration to take 2 preconditions must exist; (a) value change among political elites and (b) more positives spillover effects are seen and felt.

2.2. MORE frequent these two are present, the MORE LIKELY a full regional integration can take place.

2.3. 4 characteristic

2.3.1. process over the course of time necessarily an ultimate condition

2.3.2. process where there is a change taking place among the political elites a.k.a 'incrementalism'.

2.3.3. spillover concept

2.3.4. linear concept of integration

2.4. regarded as an inevitable process, rather than a desirable state of affairs that could be introduced by the political or technocratic elites of the involved states' societies.

2.5. regional integration is only feasible as an incremental process , its conception of integration as a linear process made the explanation of setbacks impossible.

2.6. functional spill-over occurs from the cooperation and social-integration of technocrats into increasingly densely connected webs of political realms

2.7. it is often contrasted with inter-governmentalism

2.8. assumes a decline in importance of nationalism and the nation-state; it sees the executive power and interest groups within states to be pursuing a welfarist objective.

2.9. 3 key forces to the process of integration

2.9.1. positive spillover;ECSC-EEC-EC-EU2

2.9.2. Transfer of domestic allegiances

2.9.3. Technocratic automaticity

2.10. positive spillover;integration between states in one eco sector will quickly create strong=to fully capture the benefits of integration in the original sector.

2.11. technocratic automaticity; autonomous& more powerful supranational institution overseeing integration process

2.12. non-normative theory

2.13. e.g. United Nation; organizations of nations without a central/federal authority

2.14. process over time- inevitable not desirable-incrementalism-decline of nationalism-pursuit of welfarist objectives-spillover concept; full cooperation and integration preceded by partial cooperation.

3. TRANSACTIONALIST/COMMUNICATIONS THEORY; KARL W. DEUTSH

3.1. doesn't call for the establishment of a supranational/federal political entity as espoused by Faddist supporters. more concerned with encouragement of regional sense of community or esprit de corp.

3.2. HIGHER the level of communication transactions, the HIGHER the level of probability of integration taking place

3.3. 3 characteristic

3.3.1. integration does not place importance on political institutionalization

3.3.2. integration will take place solely based on increase rate of transaction that later will promote a sense of community among member's countries

3.3.3. trust and responsiveness concept

3.3.4. integration does not place importance on political institutionalization