Physical Patterns

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Physical Patterns by Mind Map: Physical Patterns

1. agriculture

1.1. Subsistence agriculture

1.1.1. subsist means to survive.they wprk full time to feed them and their families. often practised where it has great population density. or land not fitted for commercial agriculture.

1.1.2. there are three types of subsistence farmers

1.1.2.1. nomadic herders

1.1.2.1.1. goats,camels and cattles are prized possessions to nomadic herders. located in africa central asia and middle east. are in desert and semi desert regions. the livestock supply them with many needs like milk, meat and clothing. herders survive by finding water and grass for the animals

1.1.2.2. shifting cultivators

1.1.2.2.1. located in regions of south america, africa and south asia.they use fire and sharp machetes to clear out small patches of forests to grow crops like sweet potatoes, starchy root, corn and other grains. they move after the soil is poor

1.1.2.3. small land holders

1.1.2.3.1. many people in mexico, south america, Africa, and south asia have small and permanet farms . they grow corn, rise, vegatables and other grains and livestock.the whole family helps out in this farming.weather can affect if the family lives or die.

1.2. specialized farming

1.2.1. is like commercial farming focused only on one product. producxe tobacco, cotton, and flower farms.

1.2.2. orange groves: climate and market

1.2.2.1. they grow oranges in flordia. oranges are easily damaged by weather so they moved more south.

1.2.3. nurseries: location and raw materials

1.2.3.1. nurseries supply trees flowers and other plants. most are near urban areas. must have lightly textured, well-drained soils for the plants. they also use greenhouses .

1.2.4. coffee: location and labour

1.2.4.1. is produced in tropical climates if central and south america, africa and south asia. they need well drained soil and hot weather.takes alot of labour because of picking and drying the prodeuct.

1.3. commercial farming

1.3.1. in developed farming most farming are commercial farming. their goal is to produce large amounts of one or few types of crops, livestocks, and other farm products.they use really little of their own food, they mostly buy it from markets.most commercial farming specialize in organic food.

1.3.2. five importants factors that affect the fortunes of commercial farming

1.3.2.1. location and climate

1.3.2.1.1. condtions at a commercial farm are most important. the best place to grow live stocks and crops are where local temperature and moisture patterns are suited for it.

1.3.2.1.2. commercial crops like tender fruits cannot survive in harsh weather(peaches,plums,pears,cherries and grapes).they are only found in places protected by cold wins and freezing temperatures.you also need fertile soil.

1.3.2.2. raw materials

1.3.2.2.1. commercial agriculture needs a good supply of raw materials called farm inputs. instead of rasing poultry from eggs they buy it from special brreeders when they are chicks.they keep them under a warm light and feed them grains. others buy calves and fatten them then sell their meat.animal feed and bedding are other raw materials. they use pecticides to control weed and bugs.

1.3.2.3. labour and machinery

1.3.2.3.1. intensive farming uses alot of labour to produce prducts. extensive argiculture uses large machinery to do the work.

1.3.2.3.2. in north amercia vegetable farms need more labour then the farmer. some seeds are planted by machines but others use greenhouses. during the seasons where they grow machines and farmers need to get the weeds out.so much picking are need that they use migrant workers. which are people who move for work.

1.3.2.4. transportation

1.3.2.4.1. wheat and crop are major food crops outside of south asia.canadians wheat farm are large and family owned. most use tractors,plows,combine-havesters and othe machines to do the work. the wheat are trucked to railroad points.without network of roads,railroads and ships to move to canada and foreign countries

1.3.2.5. market forces

1.3.2.5.1. the costumers decide if the commercial farmer's susses or failure. what costumers buy depend on what they like. prices are determined by forces of supply and demand.producer marketing sponsers advertisements fro products.

2. landforms

2.1. fold mountains

2.1.1. two plates rub against each other which pushes layers of sedimentary rock up

2.1.1.1. when the rock snaps it causes earthquakes

2.1.1.2. takes millions of years

2.1.2. built from layers of sedimentary rocks deposited in ocean basins

2.1.2.1. made of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks

2.1.3. these mountains give homes to animals and plants

2.2. plains and low lands

2.2.1. rivers and glaciers carried sediments into ancient seas

2.2.1.1. it accumulated into thick beds that slowly solidified into sedimentary rock

2.2.1.1.1. new land emerged

2.2.2. lowlands and plains are located along coastlines

2.3. shield regions

2.3.1. pangaea was built around a old shield region

2.3.1.1. these regions were made of alot of volcanic activity

2.3.1.1.1. they were mostly igneous rocks but after time they changed into metamorphic rock

2.3.1.2. pangea broke apart and the shield region was scattered all over

2.4. active volcanoes

2.4.1. two types of volcanoes

2.4.1.1. composite cone

2.4.1.1.1. volcanoes that are made of alternating layers of cinder and magma

2.4.1.2. shield cone

2.4.1.2.1. volcanoe that is built with magma

2.4.2. where are volcanoes found

2.4.2.1. found along the edges of the plates

2.4.3. pacific ring of fire

2.4.3.1. is on the edge of the pacific plate

2.5. rivers systems

2.5.1. Is a bunch of lakes and streams that link together to form a river

2.5.2. dendritic drainage

2.5.2.1. looks like a tree. created if rivers cross gradual slope ove one type of rock

2.5.3. trells drainage

2.5.3.1. rectangular drainage pattern created when rivers flow throught alternating bands of hard and soft rocks

3. New node

4. natural diasters

4.1. tornadoes

4.1.1. usaully happen in spring and summer when its hotter

4.1.1.1. form on wide open land

4.1.1.2. most likely to happen when war,humid air and cold air are close together

4.1.2. warm air rises the cold air rushes down to the ground then the warm air starts rotating around the cold air which causes a vortex

4.1.2.1. global warming is make tornadoes occur more often becuase there is more hot air.

4.2. hurricanes

4.2.1. they form on warm ocean waters

4.2.1.1. warm air rises from the ocean surface then the cool air blows into the base. Which causes a tropical disturbance.

4.2.1.1.1. the new air is heated and rises then it gets lareger and the winds grow faster and faster. Which turns into a hurracine.

4.2.2. measured with saffir-simpson scale

4.2.2.1. shows wind speed

4.2.2.2. shows storm surge

4.2.2.2.1. measures the sudden rise in the sea level casued but high winds

4.3. tsunami

4.3.1. caused when a earthquake shakes the ocean floor.

4.3.1.1. shock tremors race through the water in a circaliar pattern which form huge waves.

4.3.2. they can estimate when it will be coming by using shock tremors because it travels 10 times faster then the tsunami

4.4. earthquakes

4.4.1. earth's plates are always twitching and moving every 3 mins but it is to small to do any damage

4.4.1.1. but big ones can cause havok

4.4.2. earthquakes happen when 2 plates are ripped apart,hauled together or draged alongside.

4.4.2.1. rock under tension can bend and when it snaps and moves alot of energy is release at the break point(epicentre)

5. climate

5.1. types of climates

5.1.1. polar climate

5.1.1.1. mostly in sibera

5.1.1.2. the suns rays hits the land in bounces off making it cold

5.1.1.3. it usasully has serve winters and cool summers

5.1.2. tropicial climate

5.1.2.1. found around the equater

5.1.2.2. the suns rays and solar radation which makes it hot and wet

5.1.2.3. its hot all year long and there is alot of mostiure

5.1.3. Maritime climate

5.1.3.1. Near large bodies of water

5.1.3.2. plenty of precipitation when wind blows

5.1.3.3. cool winters and warm summers

5.1.4. continental climate

5.1.4.1. all around the world

5.1.4.2. it is away from huge bodies of water

5.1.4.3. hot summers and cold winters

5.1.5. mountain climate

5.1.5.1. where ever mountains are

5.1.5.2. alltidue

5.1.5.3. varys because of different alltudies

5.1.6. 1st node(where it is located) 2nd node(what infulences it) node 3 (characteristics)

5.1.7. temperate climate

5.1.7.1. between the equator and southpole

5.1.7.2. the suns hits the ground on a slight angle

5.1.7.3. the seasons reverse and the temptures are least intence

5.1.8. desert/arid climate

5.1.8.1. egypt/south amercia

5.1.8.2. air moves up and down: air cools and becomes surface wind. air is dry when desending

5.1.8.3. not alot of rain and clouds,dry , hot intence sunight

5.2. things that affect different types of climate

5.2.1. effect of latitude

5.2.1.1. different latidues get different temptures

5.2.1.1.1. because its on a angel so places like the north pole their rays that hit there bounce off or reflect which means least heat

5.2.1.1.2. places near the equator is hotter becuase the rays hit directly and doesn't reflect

5.2.2. effect of moving air

5.2.2.1. hot air rises and cold air sinks

5.2.2.1.1. hot air turns into clouds which rain cold water so places near the equater might rain more

5.2.3. effect of water bodies

5.2.3.1. places near large bodies of water get a moderate climate.

5.2.3.1.1. warm summers and cool winters

5.2.3.2. places far fomr large bodies of water have a continental climate

5.2.3.2.1. hot summers and cold winters

5.2.4. effect of mountains

5.2.4.1. mountain climate

5.2.4.1.1. cooler then lower altudities also has heavy precipation when near coastlines

5.2.4.2. the back of a mountains is cooler then the side because it is reciving solar radation

5.2.5. effect of ocean currents

5.2.5.1. warm water flow away from the equator while the cold water flow back towards the equator.

5.2.5.2. warm and cold currents affect costal tempatures