Physical Patterns

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Physical Patterns by Mind Map: Physical Patterns

1. Natural Diasters

1.1. Tsunamis

1.1.1. A tsunamis is a special type of wave. A tsunamis is caused by an underwater earthquake. When an underwater earthquake happens shock tremors more throgh the water outward. Since shock tremors travel about ten times faster than the tsunamis, scientists can estimate when the tsunami is going to reach any part of the ocean by measuring the speed of the tremors.

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1.2. Hurricanes

1.2.1. Hurricanes starts of a the coast of South America. They effect the the Caribbean and eastern North America. Hurricanes are formed when a mound of warm air rises form the ocean surface, then cooler air blows into the base of the mass of warm air. That made a tropical disturbance. As more air rises the tropical disturbance grows larger and spins faster. Then a hurricane is formed.

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1.3. Tornados

1.3.1. Tornadoes are mosty in the tornado alley which is in the centre of USA. Tornadoes are made when hot humid air rises and hits the cold air, then winds begin circling around and the cold air descend. This then create a vortex / tornado. A tornado is different form a tropical strom because they are much faster spinning, they happens in spring to summer not summer to fall, also tornados develop over land not over sea.

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1.4. Typhoons

1.4.1. Typhoons starts in the Pacific Ocean. They effect east Asia. Typhoons are formed when a mound of warm air rises form the ocean surface, then cooler air blows into the base of the mass of warm air. That made a tropical disturbance. As more air rises the tropical disturbance grows larger and spins faster. Then a typhoon is formed

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1.5. Cyclons

1.5.1. Cyclons start in the India Ocean. They effect south Asia, east Africa and north Australia. Cyclons are formed when a mound of warm air rises form the ocean surface, then cooler air blows into the base of the mass of warm air. That made a tropical disturbance. As more air rises the tropical disturbance grows larger and spins faster. Then a cyclon is formed.

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2. Climate

2.1. The effect of latitude

2.1.1. The sun is the most important thing that is affecting the world's climates. The coldest places on earth are in Antarctica and the Arctic Ocean. Some of the hottest places on Earth are all close to the equator. This is because the sun's rays are stronger near the equator and weaker near the south pole and north pole.

2.2. The effect of water bodies

2.2.1. Bodies of water will make the temperatures cooler. Places near bodies of water have a maritime climate. Maritime climate have warm summers and cool winters. They also have much precipitation when the winds blow on to the shore. Places that are located far away from bodies of water have a continental climate. Continental climate have hot summers and cold winters. They are drier then a maritime climate.

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2.3. The effect of mountains

2.3.1. There is less oxygen to breathe and fewer motecules in the air to not let the heat get away. So places at hight altitude are cooler than places at low altitude near by. This is a mountain climate. The back of a mountain is much colder then the side that is facing the sun. Mountain climate get heavy precipitation when they are near bodies of water.

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2.4. The effect of ocean currents

2.4.1. The water in the oceans are circulated by the surface winds of the Earth. Wam currents of water more away from the equator while the cold currents of water more back towards the equator from the north and south poles. The cold and warm currents affect the temperatures of places that are near the coast.

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2.5. The effect of moving air

2.5.1. The heat of the sun is also a important factor in climate. The warm / heated air will rise. When the heated air rises it cools down, then it rains down. So some places near the equator have heavy precipitation.

3. Landforms

3.1. Ancient Shield Region

3.1.1. Ancient Shield Regions are made by volcanic activity billions of years in the past. Shield Regions are mosty made up of igneous rock, when time goes by the heat that is under the shield regions altered some parts and formed metamorphic rock.

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3.2. Active Volcano

3.2.1. Volcanoes most of the time are found on the edge of plates. They are formed when two plates collide. Volcanoes happens when magma breaks through the thin crust. Most volcanoes are in the pacific ring of fire and the mid-atlantic ridge.

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3.3. Plains and lowlands

3.3.1. The shield Region's erosion created the rest of the continent. Rivers took the eroded material (sediment) into seas. Then in the sea the sediment solidified into sedimentary rock. After, new land appear. The plains and lowlands have layers of sedimentary rock under the ground. Plains and lowlands are located along coastlines.

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3.4. Fold Mountains

3.4.1. Fold mountains are formed when plates hit each other. Fold mountains are made by layers of sedimentary rock on the ocean floor. Since rock can't bend, the fold breaks frequently, this cause earthquakes and crack on the ocean floor called faults.

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4. Agniculture

4.1. Subsistence Agriculture

4.1.1. Subsistence farmers work to feed them self. They use animals and their own labour. Subsistence agriculture is most of the time used where there is great population and where it is not suited for commercial agriculture. For example: mountain, rainforest and desert regions. There are three types of subsistence agriculture.

4.1.1.1. The first type is called nomadic herders. They use herds of goats, camels or cattle. They tavel across desert or semi- desert regions, for example, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The animals provide the farmers with milk, meat, hides, and hair for tents and cloths. Nomadic herders survive by finding food and water for the animals.

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4.1.1.2. The next type is called shifting cultivators. Shifting cultivators are small groups in the rainforests of South America, Africa and South Asia. They clear small areas of the forest for farming sweet potatoes, corn and other grains. After a few years, the fertility drops and the farmers move to another place.

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4.1.1.3. The last type is called small landholders. In Mexico, South Asia and Africa many people have small farms. They grow corn, rice, vegetables and other grains. They also have some livestock. The whole family helps on the farm. The weather conditions can make the difference of if the family survives or not.

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4.2. Commercial Agriculture

4.2.1. Most farming in some developed country is commercial agriculture. Commercial agriculture produces a large supply of few types of crop lifestock or other farm product. They then sell the products for a profit. There are five important factors.

4.2.1.1. The first factor is location and climate. The location is important because the conditions at the location is the most important factor that influences commercial agriculture. Climate, soil fertility, and natural vegetation are all different from place to place.

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4.2.1.2. The second factor is raw materials. Commerical agriculture requires a supply of raw materials. Most poultry farms do not grow the birds from eggs. They buy large groups of very young chickens, then they keep the chickens under warm lights and feed them to grow. Another example is some farms buy calves and make them fat, so they can sell it for meet.

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4.2.1.3. The third factor is labour an machinery. The use of labour and machinery varies. Intensive farming uses a lot of hand labour. Extensive agriculture, the opposite of intensive farming uses large machinery to do the work. Vegetable farms uses a differents mix of labour and machinery than a wheat farm.

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4.2.1.4. The fourth factor is transportation.Wheat farms uses tractors, pilows, combine-harvesters and other machines. The wheat produced is than trucked to the railroad. Then the trains of special-self dumping grain cars take the grains to port terminals.

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4.2.1.5. The last factor is market forces. The costomer can decide whatever the commercial farmer succeeds or not. In the market, beef have to compete with other protein sources like, pork. The prices are set by the force of supply and demand. For example: when there are little beef the price will go up, if there are too much beef, the price will go down.

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4.3. Specialized Agriculture

4.3.1. Specialized agriculture is commercial farming on one product. They are places where a farm made by a combination of physical and human factors.

4.3.1.1. The first example is climate and market: orange groves. Orange trees can be easily damaged by the cold weather. So Florida's orange groves move south wards so there are less risk. Then 80% of the oranges are squeezed into juice.

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4.3.1.2. The second example is location and raw materials: nurseries. Nurseries sell trees flowers and other plants. They are close to urban areas. The location must have soil that suite many types of plants. Nurserie's raw materials are very young trees, fertilizers, peatmoss, and mulch.

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4.3.1.3. The third example is location and labour: coffee. Coffee is made in central and South America, Africa and South Asia. The trees that make the coffee beans need a lot of sun light without too much heat. They grow on hills 1000-2500 meters high. Hand labour is used to pick and dry the coffee beans.

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4.4. Physical conditions for agriculture

4.4.1. The effect of climate

4.4.1.1. Weather conditions are related to farming in two ways. Climate is important when the soil is created. A great climate is necessary for plants and animals to grow. Water, ice, and wind create the broken sediments that makes soil. Heavy rainfall and rivers wear down rocks overtime. Some rocks like limestone, are broken down by the water. Wind is also important, they blast rocks with sand and grit. Then soil is created.

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4.4.2. The effect of soil.

4.4.2.1. Most soil have different layers from top to bottom. A soil profile is marked by layers of colour, the colour becomes a light brown when it gets deep. The darker and thicker the top soil layer is, the greater soil fertility it has. In the tundra there is a frozen layer of ground, called permafrost. The permafrost stops the plant's roots from growing deeper. Therefore in the tundra it is almost all low shrubs and summer flowers.

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4.4.3. The effect of natural vegetation

4.4.3.1. Natural vegetation are the trees, grasses, and other plants that grow in an area from the beginning. Most of the time they are clear away for roads, buildings, and farms. The type of natural vegetation found in an area concludes from interaction of land forms, climate, and soil. Aboriginal peoples and pioneer farmers used the natural vegetation to guess the appropriateness of an area for crops.

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