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Physical Patterns by Mind Map: Physical Patterns
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Physical Patterns

Physical patterns are all around the Earth. They can affect many things such as people around the world. Physical patterns are changing the world every second.

Agriculture

Agriculture is about growing crops and raising animals. Climate, soil, and natural vegetation all affect the agriculture. There are three different types of farming that different cultures have discovered and they are subsistence, commercial, and specialized farming.

The effect of Climate

 Climate is the main thing that creates soil. If the climate is moderate, the animals and crops can thrive. For example, the plants and animals would be different in the polar climate as in the tropical climates. In the picture it shows how the different climates make the surroundings look different.

The effect of Soil

 It depends what type soil to grow a specific types of plants. Many of the soil have layers all the way. This is called a soil profile. The deeper it is, the lighter the soils are. If the top parts have darker soil, it means that it is more fertile. In the cold regions, the soil is frozen ground. It is called permafrost. They cannot grow anything other than shrubs and bushes. This is because the roots can't move deeper into the ground.

Soil profile, Types of soils

The effect of natural vegetation

 Natural vegetation helps with the soil fertility because of the dead decomposing leaves.

Types of farming, Extensive Farming, Subsistence agriculture, Nomadic herders, Shifting Cultivators, Small landholders

Specialized Agriculture

Commercial Agriculture

Landforms

 A landform is a natural feature on Earth's surface. It is naturally made of dirt and rock. It can be big or small. Every landform is different so how it changes is called landform processes. It is the changes that occur in a landform.

Plains and Lowlands

Plains and Lowlands are another landform pattern. What created the other continents was an erosion from the ancient shield regions. Rivers and glaciers brought the material into wider spaces like seas. It became thick beds when it slowly became sedimentary rock. The plains and lowlands filled by horizontal layers of sedimentary rock. Plains are land that is level. For example the plains in central North America are the Great Plains. Lowlands are plains that are near coastlines like the St. Lawrence Lowlands by the Great Lakes.

Plains, Lowlands

Landform Patterns

There are 4 types of landform patterns and they are active volcanoe, ancient shield regions, fold mountains and plains and lowlands. All the landforms are made of any of the three types of rock. They are: sedimentary, igneous or metamorpic rocks.

Ancient Shield Region, Pangaea

Fold Mountain Regions

Fold Mountain regions is another landform pattern. Our landform pattern in our world contains fold mountains. Crossing the continents, are bands of mountain chains runs all through our continents. These are fold mountains because they have ridges and bumps where the plates collide each other.

How fold mountain forms, That is how fold mountains form

Active Volcanoes

How volcanoes form, Where can volcanoes be found, Pacific Ring of Fire, Krakatoa

Climate

 The cause of different climates is the five main factors. They are the effect of latitude, the effect of moving air, the effect of water bodies, the effect of mountain, and the effect of ocean currents.

The effect of latitude

The effect of latitude is how it effects the climates. The sun affects the climates the most. Different places have different temperatures because of how the sun is hitting the earth. The Arctic Ocean and the Antarctica are the most coldest places because the sun is hitting that place at an angle. Most of the sunlight is not reflecting onto it. The reason why the places near the equator have the most intense heat is because the sun is hitting directly onto the middle part.

Climates the form by the effect of latitude, Polar climate, Tropical Climate, Temperate Climate

The effect of moving air

 The climates above and below the equator repeats because of wind and pressure.The heat is intense at the equator. Heat rises and cold air sinks. When it rises, it cools and forms droplets causing clouds. That is why there is so much rain in those places such as Cameroon. That place recieves more than four metres of rain every year.

Desert Climates

The effect of Water Bodies

Water makes the temperature more comfortable. Places near bodies of water have a martime climate. It is a place with warm summers and cool winters. They have a lot of precipitation if the winds blow onshore. The places that are inland are not moderate by water. They have a continential climate. This type of climate has hot summers and cold winters. This climate is more dry than the maritime climate.

Maritime Climates, Continential Climates

The effect of Mountains

 Mountain climates change in altitude and the sun. For example, the back would be cooler than the front because the back doesn't get the sunlight. The bottom of the mountain would be more warmer than the top because the higher it is, the colder it gets. This is because there is less oxygen and not enough molecules to help hold the heat. Mountain climates get lots of rain if they are near the coastlines.  

Place in mountain climate, New node

The effect of Ocean Currents

 There are warm currents and cold ones. These affect the temperatures of the ocean. (coastal temperatures) The warm currents come from the equator while the cold ones flow back to the equator form the polar regions. That is why there are different ocean temperatures.

Natural Disasters

 There are many different types of storms that happen all around our world. Sometimes they are caused by air. When the earth spins, the air is uneven at different places there would be different air temperatures.

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 Powerful storms like hurricanes and tornadoes all destroy things and they are named natural disasters. Tropical strorms begin in the oceans at the edge of the equator. They start from there and they move in as far as they can go. They start at warm ocean waters. They are like warm moist airrising from the ocean surface. Cooler air blows into the bottom of the air. When that new air is heated,and starts to rise, it starts to get bigger and faster. Hurricanes that affect the Carribean and eastern North America come form Africa. Cyclones form inthe Indian Ocean and typoons, start in the Pacific Ocean. All these storms are measured by the Saffir- Simpson scale. It tells the wind speed and the storm surge. A storm surge is sea level rising that get pushed by high winds toward coastlines. It is not as high as a tsunami though.

Hurricanes, Cyclone's Damage, Typhoon, Saffir- Simpson scale

Tornado

The similarities between a tropical storm and a tornado is that they are both spirals and both form by wind spinning together. The differences is that tornadoes happen in summer and spring and hurricanes happen in summer and autumn. They both use scales to measure how strong the wind is and how fast the winds are going.

Tornado Alley, What causes a Tornado?, Enhanced Fujita Scale (EF) scale

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Drainage Patterns