Proto-Indo-European

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Proto-Indo-European by Mind Map: Proto-Indo-European

1. Indic ("Indo-Aryan")

1.1. Sanskrit (Vedic, transmitted orally from ca. 1200-1000 BCE; oldest written Sanskrit texts from the 2nd century CE; oldest written Indic texts (Prakit) from the 3rd century BCE)

2. Iranian

2.1. Avestan (the language of Zarathustra's teachings, orally transmitted from ca. 100 BCE; oldest written texts from the early centuries CE)

2.2. Old Persian (inscriptions of the great Persian kings, 6th-4th century BCE)

2.3. Middle Iranian: Middle Persian (Pahlavi), Sogdian, Khotanese Saka etc.

2.4. Modern Iranian: Persian, Kurdish, Pashto, Essetic, etc.

3. Anatolian

3.1. Hittite (17th-13th century BCE)

3.2. Palaic

3.3. Luwian (14th-13th century BCE)

3.4. Hieroglyphic Luwian (from 15th century BCE)

3.5. Lycian (5th-4th century BCE)

3.6. Lydian (7th-4th century BCE)

4. Tocharian (in China)

4.1. Tocharian A (8th-9th century CE)

4.2. Tocharian B (6th-9th century CE)

5. Armenian (attested from the 5th century CE)

6. Greek

6.1. Mycenaen in the 14th century BCE, inscriptions and literature from the 8th century BCE (Homer)

7. Albanian (attested from the 15th century CE)

8. Italic

8.1. Latin (from 7th century BCE)

8.2. Faliscan (3rd-2nd century BCE)

8.3. Oscan (from 6th century BCE)

8.4. Umbrian (from 7th century BCE)

8.5. Venetic (6th-1st century BCE)

9. Celtic

9.1. Continental Celtic

9.1.1. Gaulish (inscriptions from ca. 200 BCE to 200 CE)

9.1.2. Lepontic (North Italy; inscriptions from the 5th-1st century BCE)

9.1.3. Celtiberian (Spain; inscriptions from 2nd-1st century BCE)

9.2. Insular Celtic

9.2.1. Irish: Old Irish inscriptions from ca. 400, literature from the 7th century CE

9.2.2. Brittonic: Welsh (from 8th century), Breton (from 8th century), Cornish (9th-18th century)

9.2.2.1. Welsh (from 8th century)

9.2.2.2. Breton (from 8th century)

9.2.2.3. Cornish (9th-18th century)

10. Germanic (runic inscriptions from ca. 150 CE)

10.1. East Germanic

10.1.1. Gothic (Bible translation of Wulfila, 4th century CE)

10.2. North Germanic

10.2.1. Old Norse

10.2.2. Old Icelandic (runic inscriptions, literature from 13th century CE)

10.3. West Germanic

10.3.1. Old English (after ca. 700 CE)

10.3.2. Old High German (from 8th century CE)

10.3.3. Old Saxon (from 9th century CE)

11. Baltic

11.1. Old Prussian (14th-17th century CE)

11.2. Lithuanian

11.3. Latvian (from 16th century CE)

12. Slavic (Old Church Slavonic from 10th century CE)

12.1. East Slavic

12.1.1. Russian

12.1.2. Ukranian

12.1.3. Belarusian

12.2. West Slavic

12.2.1. Czech

12.2.2. Slovak

12.2.3. Polish

12.2.4. Upper Sorbian

12.2.5. Lower Sorbian

12.3. South Slavic

12.3.1. Serbian/Croatian/Bosnian/Montenegrin

12.3.2. Slovenian

12.3.3. Macedonian

12.3.4. Bulgarian

13. Other languages

13.1. Phrygian

13.1.1. Old Phrygian: inscriptions from the 8th-4th century BCE

13.1.2. New Phrygian, inscriptions from the 2nd-3rd century BE

13.2. Messapian (in Apulia, in southeastern Italy: ca. 300 inscriptions from the 5th century BCE)

13.3. Illyrian, Thracian, Ancient Macedonian (not the same as South Slavic Macedonian), Lusitanian