Physical Patterns

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Physical Patterns by Mind Map: Physical Patterns

1. Natural disasters are very powerful and cause a lot of destruction. They are caused by things such as wind, movement of earth, temperature, or weather

1.1. Volcanoes can actually change the earth. When the molten lava from the earth's crust comes out of the volcano harden's, it creates new layers and rocks. Volcano's can create new mountains or destroy old ones.

1.1.1. Volcano's are created when pressure builds beneath the earth crust. When there is a lot of pressure that has been build, then the magma will burst through the crust. Over time as more and more harden lava layer's, it creates a cone shape.

1.2. Earth's crust is broken into plates, and these plates are always moving and hitting into each other. when these plates move, they cause earthquakes. An earthquake happens every 3 minutes. Most are not very strong.

1.2.1. Earthquake's usually occur near the edge of the oceanic and continental plates. Earthquakes are measured on there magnitude and are measured by the Richter scale.

1.3. Tsunami: A tsunami is pretty much a wave. It is not a storm surge or tidal wave. Tsunami's a very powerful and can cause lots of destruction to places. Tsunamis usually happen near island and on the border of Asia.

1.3.1. Tsunami's are created when an earthquake is happening to the ocean floor. This creates huge waves that go out in a circle and floods on the borders of land. This is sort of like dropping a stone into a puddle. Circular waves will race outwards were the stone was dropped and the waves flood on the sides.

1.4. Tornadoes are caused when warm air and cool air get close to each other. when they meet, the war air raises in a column. The cool air then rushes down while rotating around the column of warm air. This creates a funnel of spinning air that is called a vortex. This is a tornado.

1.4.1. Tornado's are measured by the Enhanced Fujita Scale. They are measured by there speed and type of damage it created. Tornado's are usually found in the United States.

2. Physical Pattern are things like mountains, valleys, and rivers. They are constantly changing and morphing as the earth's plates move.

2.1. Shield regions were created by volcanoes billions of years ago. They are mostly made up of igneous rock, with is solid lava. Then, heat and pressure turned the rock in metamorphic rock. Pangaea broke apart and all the rock was separated into different parts of the world.

2.2. Plains and low lands are made of layers of sedimentary rock. Plains are land level while lowlands are at sea level.

2.3. Volcanoes can change the land form of earth it's self ether by adding more layers of molten rock or blasting away land with it's powerful lava and heat.

2.3.1. Volcanoes can create a lot. An example would be the Island of Tonga. This Island was created by an underwater volcano that had erupted at the coast of Tonga.

2.4. Folded mountains are mountains with folds at there sides. An example of a folded mountain change would be the Himalayas in Asia.

2.4.1. Folded Mountains are created when two plates move int one another. These two plates will continue to move into each other. with nowhere to go, on of the plates move downwards and the other keeps pushing forward. This will cause rocks and land that were between the plates to bend upwards while crinkling After millions of years, this will create a mountain with folds from the bending.

3. Climate

3.1. Polar Climate contains of cold, dry winters and not much heat in the summer. There are barley anything living in these climates. Since these climate grounds have a layer of permafrost, only low plants can grow in these areas.

3.2. Tropical Climate are warm and sunny. These climates are great for crowing food and plants. Tropical climate grounds are mostly located in the Southern hemisphere.

3.3. Desert Climate are dry and humid. There are mostly located in the southern part of Asia. They don't receive much rain and most are in drought. Desert climates aren't very good for plant life and only few adapted plants survive there.

3.3.1. Warm air is light and raise while cool air is heavy and sinks. On the earth, the warm, humid air will raise and find it's way to the desserts. This is how deserts are created.

4. Agriculture

4.1. Physical Conditions For Agriculture

4.1.1. Soil: To grow crops, Farmers will need good soil to grow crops on. Most soil usually have different layers. The first layer is the "decomposing organic matter" which is made of plants and matter that has been decomposing for a past period of time. The second layer of soil is called the "humus". This layer is dark and is made up of organic material that has decomposed from past leaves and plants. It is usually full of nutrition. The next few layers are the horizons. Different kinds of soil in different places would have a different number of horizons. Layers of horizons that are on the lower grounds usually have less organic material and nutrients. The last layer is called the "parent material". This layer is like the base for the soil. It is hard and is usually made up of broken down rocks.

4.1.2. Climate: The climate can hugely affect farming in a good way or a negative way. The crops and animals need certain climates to survive and grow. Soil: Water, wind, and ice can all affect the soil. These three are what make the material and sediments that of which soil is made of. Tropical Climate: This kind of climate is best for growing tropical fruits. This climate is sunny and provides a lot of energy for the plants. Polar Climate: Climates like these are usually very cold. There is not much rain or heat and the plants and animals would die from the cold. Warm Humid Climate: Climates like these are wet all year round and have dry summers/winters.

4.1.3. Natural Vegetation: Natural vegetation means plants, trees, crops,etc. Natural vegetation also affects agriculture and is a need for agriculture to go smoothly. Soil: Natural vegetation helps fertilize soil. Leaves and dead plants decompose and form into nutrients that goes into the soil. his make the soil better for farming. Natural vegetation is has been cleared away to create roads and farmland. It has also been used to create buildings such as houses.

4.2. Subsistence Farmers: Subsistence farmers work long hours in order to survive and be able to feed themselves and their families. They usually grow crops and breed animals.

4.2.1. Nomadic Herders are located in Africa, center Asia, and the middle east. They usually live in desserts and humid places. They make money from the meat and milk of the herds they take care of. Nomadic herders survive by being able to find patches of grass and water for there herds in the dessert.

4.2.2. Shifting Cultivators use matches and machetes to cut away small areas in the jungle. Then they would use that area to farm for a few years. This is called "slash and burn" method.

4.2.3. Small Landholders are people who own their own small piece of land in which they use for growing crops and raising animals. The entire family in a family of landholders work. Climate and weather conditions can decide whether the family survives or not. Most of these families are close to poverty.