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Geography by Mind Map: Geography

1. Landform

1.1. Volcanoes

1.1.1. Location: Can be fround in the Pacific Ring of Fire and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

1.2. Plains & Lowlands

1.2.1. Horizontal layers of sedimentary rock.

1.3. Shield Regions

1.3.1. e.g; the Pangaea the Pangaea had lots of igneous rock . igneous rock: solidified magma.

1.4. Rivers & Valleys

1.4.1. the Amazon river second longest rover in the world next the the Nile. 4,080 miles long. it hold 1/5 of the earths fresh water.

1.4.2. the Nile river 4,184 miles long. it is the longest river in the world.

1.4.3. there are two types of river patterns. Trellis drainage the rectangular drainage pattern created if rivers flow through alternation bands of hard and soft rock. Dendritic drainage. the tree-like drainage pattern created if rivers cross a gradual slope over one basic type of rock.

2. Climate

2.1. Hot, dry.

2.1.1. deserts For example: -Saharan desert -Turkestan desert -Australian desert These are only some examples of deserts around the world. Lots of animals live in the desert: -Meerkat -Texas horned lizard -Black widow spider -Black scorpion -Roadrunner -Ostrich Animals that live in the desert are very well adapted to the harsh conditions of the desert. One example of an animal is the camel. Since water is very rare in the desert, the camel adapted to its surroundings by being able to go a long time without water.

2.2. Wet

2.2.1. rainforests There are a lot of rainforests around the world. Here are some examples: - the Amazon, the worlds largest rainforest. - the rainforest located in Australia. - the rainforest located in Central America. - the rainforest located in Southern Asia. Animals that live in rainforests are: -Macaw -Toucan -Spider monkey -Boa constrictor -Sloth -Morpho butterfly -Tree snail -Poison-arrow frog And much, much more. Spider Monkey Boa constrictor Macaw Rainforests only cover about 6% of the earths surface. Yet they are home to about half the species and plants and animals of the world.

2.3. Cold

2.3.1. the North & South pole. Animals that live in the North pole is: - the Arctic hare - Arctic wolf - Beluga whale - killer whale - Ermine - Lemming - Moose - Reindeer - Snowy Owl - Woodland Caribou Animals that live in the South pole is: - Penguins: Adelie, Emperor, Chinstrap, and Gentoo. - Leopard Seal -Squid - Ice fish - Polar Bears To survive in such freezing conditions, animals must adapt. For example, they must have thick fur to keep them warm. They would also have to have big paws to keep them up on the snow. If they don't have big paws, they would have to be lightweight, so they don't sink into the snow. Animals that are relatively large and round, the would have short arms and legs to prevent heat loss. Arctic hares have short ears and legs to prevent heat loss. They also have thick padded feet that act like snowshoes. Polar bears adapt by having another layer of black skin under their fur. This helps to absorb heat from the sun. They also have a thick layer of blubber, (like Whales) that keep them warm in the water. Seals and whales have a LOT of blubber. They also have two sets of blood vessels- one under the skin, and one under the blubber. When it gets cold, the can turn off the blood supply to the skin, so they don't get cold. If they get into warm water/swim fast, they can let more blood go to the skin so they can lose heat.

3. Agriculture

3.1. Livestock

3.1.1. Chickens

3.1.2. Cows

3.2. Soils

3.2.1. Woodland/Forest Soils Fertility varies.

3.2.2. Tundra Soils Permafrost. Permanently frozen ground; no fertility available.

3.2.3. Mountain Soils fertility varies

3.2.4. Desert Soils Shallow and stony, but it can be fertile with water.

3.2.5. Tropical/Subtropical soils low in nutrients

3.2.6. Grassland Soils can be rich in nutrients, but it may need irragation

4. Natural Disasters

4.1. Volcanoes

4.1.1. There are two types of cones: Composite cone a volcano made up of layers of cinder and magma. Shield cone a volcano made up entirely of magma.

4.1.2. Volcanoes are usually found in the Pacific ring of fire and the Mid- Atlantic ridge.

4.1.3. A volcano erupts when the pipe the connects the mantle to the surface is blocked with hardened material. The magma that is trying to get out finally breaks the hardened material. Thus, the volcano erupts.

4.2. Tsunamis

4.2.1. Tsunamis happen when the plates underneath are shifting. The force of those shifting plates cause a wave, and that wave is a tsunami.

4.2.2. Tsunamis usually happen right after an earthquake.

4.3. Earthquakes

4.3.1. Sumatra, Indonesia, Asia 230, 000 deaths magnitude, 9.2 December 26, 2004.

4.3.2. Pakistan, Asia 82, 000 deaths magnitude 7.6 October 8, 2005

4.3.3. India, Asia 20, 085 deaths magnitude 7.7 January 26, 2001

4.3.4. Turkey, Asia 12, 000 deaths magnitude 7.4 August, 17 1999

4.3.5. Java, Indonesia, Asia 6, 234 deaths magnitude 6.3 May 27, 2006

4.3.6. The earths skin the constantly shaking and trembling. An earthquake is actually shaking the planet every three minutes, but most of the time it is not strong enough to do any real damage. Sadly, the bigger ones DO do a lot of damage.

4.3.7. Earthquakes happen when the two plates are ripped apart, hauled together, and dragged alongside each other. The force of those two plates cause an earthquake.

4.4. Tornaoes

4.4.1. Tornadoes usually happen in wide, open spaces.

4.4.2. They happen when hot air rises, and it interacts with the cold air. Then the hot air swirls around the cold air. This forms a funnel of spiralling warm air called a vortex.

4.4.3. Tornadoes are measured with a Doppler radar.

4.4.4. Tornadoes are happening more often these days because global warming is causing it to be hotter. Hence, more tornadoes.