Physical Patterns

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Physical Patterns by Mind Map: Physical Patterns

1. Agriculture

1.1. Farming

1.1.1. Nomadic Herders Often appear in Africa, Central Asia, and the Middle East Often possess goats, camels, or cattle Provides supply for their own needs Goats provide wool, meat, milk, etc. Camels supply them with meat and hides

1.1.2. Shifting Cultivators Often appear in tropical rainforest regions Uses fire and weapons to cut down jungle and work them for a short while After the soil fertility lowers, they move on to another patch of the forest Root crops like yams and cassava are often raised

1.1.3. Small Landholders Usually occurs in Mexico, South America, Africa, and South Asia Often cultivate corn, rice, vegetables, and other grains, sometimes even livestock Sometimes trades extra resources at the local markets if available

1.1.4. Specialized Agriculture Focused on one type of product Does not have to produce food Can produce flowers, oranges, coffee beans, etc. Can occur on almost all continents of the world

1.1.5. Soil and Climate Soil Different kinds of soil varies in fertility Some plants need to have 1 particular soil for it to grow Different kinds of soil are spread around the world Different kinds of soil are spread across the world Climate Some plants only grows in certain areas of the world because of its climate system Climates varies because of the sun It is hard to grow crops in the polar areas Certain animals exist in only some of the areas Climate is the main factor that creates the soil Different climate zones are spread around the world The weather is usually warmer in the central of the planet and it is usually colder in the southern and the northern part of the planet

2. Natural Disasters

2.1. Tsunami

2.1.1. A tsunami is a type of wave that is caused when an earthquake shakes the ocean floor itself The water goes outward in a circular pattern Tsunamis are not tidal waves, or storm surges Tidal waves are caused by the pull of the moon's gravity on the earth's oceans Storm surges are a sudden rise in sea level caused by high winds taht whip up the water

2.1.2. A Tsunami crashes against the shore with a great force

2.1.3. Ocean surges can occur when a massive landslide or an ice block breaking away from Greenland or Antarctica displaces the water The effect is similar to dropping a rock into a pond

2.2. Earthquakes

2.2.1. Earthquakes are a main factor that causes Tsunamis

2.2.2. Earthquakes varies in magnitude Small earthquakes may not do any damage, but big ones can be very destructive A lot of people lose their lives because of an earthquake smashing down a building Earthquakes release huge amount of energy

2.2.3. Earthquakes occur when plates collide Plates collide because the crust moves the plates around Huge energy is released at the break point of the collision The center of the collision is called the epicentre The fault line is the line of the breaking point

2.2.4. An earthquake's magnitude is measured in the 10 point Richter Scale

2.3. Tropical Storms

2.3.1. Originates from warm ocean water Contains warm moist air heated by the sun The warm air rises from the ocean surface, and the cold air blows into its base, creating a tropical disturbance

2.3.2. Forms hurricanes after it gets large When the ocean disturbance gets large, it spins faster and becomes a hurricane with the help of the sun A hurrican has a very large power

2.3.3. Move outward from warm ocean regions

2.3.4. Tropical Storms have different kinds of it across the world Hurricanes Affects the Carribean and eastern North America Cyclones Starts in the Indian Ocean Typhoon Starts in the pacific ocean

2.3.5. Measured with the Saffir-Simpson scale

2.4. Tornadoes

2.4.1. Caused by rising warm air developed over land Most likely to occur when warm, humid air and cold air are close together Humid air rises, and cold air takes its place

2.4.2. Tornadoes usually occur in spring and summer Tornadoes often occur in the US and Canada Mostly affects central US

2.4.3. Measured with the EF-Scale The E stands for enhanced Was measured with the F-Scale

3. Landforms

3.1. Active Volcanoes

3.1.1. Are commonly found in the pacific ring of fire and the mid-atlantic ridge The pacific ring of fire is a ring of volcanoes surrounding the pacific ocean Island nations around the pacific like Japan, Indonesia and the Phillipines are basically based on volcanoes The mid-atlantic ridge are where the major plates are moving apart The Atlantic Ocean floor spreads, allowing magma to move through the break, allowing volcanoes to form It slices through Iceland allowing new volcanic islands to form in recent years A similar mid-ocean ridge also slices across the Indian Ocean

3.1.2. Mostly placed along edges off the earth's plates Because plates collide and form vocanoes

3.1.3. Consists of magma and a pipe leading to the surface The magma cools down after it gets out of the volcano and become rocks Volcanoes can be a composite cone, cinder cone, or a shield cone The magma is called lava once it reaches the surface

3.1.4. Can build up new mountain peaks or blasting them away

3.1.5. Volcanoes occur by plates getting dragged towards another, pulling the smaller plate under, then the smaller plate's materials goes back on surface Mantle is the force dragging the plates together

3.2. Plains and Lowlands

3.2.1. Are made of sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock are made of sediments in ancient sea, accumulated and hardened into sedimentary rock Sediments are eroded materials carried by rivers and glaciers

3.2.2. Plains located along coastlines are called lowlands

3.2.3. Often has a flat surface

3.3. Shield Regions

3.3.1. Pangaea, the theoretic ancient continent, was built around old shield regions

3.3.2. Consists of igneous rock and metamorphic rock Igneous rocks are made of solidified magma Metamorphic rocks are basically changed rocks

3.3.3. Today, they are mostly worn out and carved by erosions from the sea Most shield regions have large areas of bare rock Shield regions are eroded by the forces of water, ice, and wind

3.4. Fold Mountains

3.4.1. Are huge crumpled edges where plates meet

3.4.2. Are built from thick layers of sedimentary rock in ocean basins Currents drag the plate together and make them arch up in parallel ridges Sometimes causes earthquakes because of the plates snapping

3.4.3. Provides conditions for some animals/plants

3.4.4. Fold mountain patterns form ecozones