Ecology of Parenting

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Ecology of Parenting by Mind Map: Ecology of Parenting

1. Macro Influences on Parenting

1.1. Political Ideology

1.1.1. Autocracy: one person has unlimited power over others

1.1.2. Democracy: those ruled have equal power with those who rule

1.1.2.1. based off consensus and compromise

1.1.3. Religious influence.

1.1.4. National influence.

1.1.5. Ethnic influence.

1.1.6. Progressive influence. Low context macrocultures/societies. United States.

1.2. Socioeconomic Status

1.2.1. Parents of low

1.2.1.1. emphasize more obedience, respect, neatness, cleanliness, staying out of trouble

1.2.1.2. likely to be more controlling, authoritarian, physcial punishment, short directives

1.2.2. Parents of high

1.2.2.1. emphasize more happiness, creativity, ambition, independance, curiosity, self control.

1.2.2.2. democratic, using reason, being receptive to children's opinions. complex language.

1.3. Exosystem influence: Parental Occupation

1.3.1. parents occupation can often line up with parenting style. ex: army father = authoritarian

1.4. Culture, Ethnicity, and Religion

1.4.1. Universal Parenting Goals

1.4.1.1. Ensure physically health and survival. Develop behavioral capacities for economic self-maintenance. Instill behavioral capacities for maximizing cultural values, such as morality, prestige, and achievement.

1.4.2. Diversity in parenting across the spectrum

1.4.2.1. collectivist context communities: amused by people, being held, teased, or shown how to do something. Those from individualistic context communities are amused by things, being given space, toys, or told how to do something.

1.4.2.2. Collective

1.4.2.2.1. Authority role: roles based off hierarchy, patriarchal, principles of order, Particularism is valued (rank, gender, situation)

1.4.2.2.2. Relationships: Harmony, place needs of family above self, obedience and loyalty to parents.

1.4.2.2.3. Communication: indirect, nonverbal, using body language, gestures, touch...

1.4.2.2.4. Displays of Emotion: inward emotions rarely shown in public, can show through distance, shunning. outward emotions expressed through facial expressions, sound, body language...

1.4.2.2.5. Discipline/Guidance: age = knowledge, children obey and imitate, learn by doing. Sense of obligation to parents. Use of shame and guilt. "save face"

1.4.2.2.6. Skills Emphasis: learn to get along in a group, and to contribute. Sharing, spirituality, and personal integrity. Modesty and moderation are stressed. Children expected to do waht they are capable of for age, not to be perfect. Improve on past.

1.4.2.3. Individualistic

1.4.2.3.1. Authority: occurs through hard work, acheivement is respected. Universalism is valued (rules the same for all)

1.4.2.3.2. Relationships: compartmentalized, golden rule, norm is informality, decisions made democratically, equal rights and majority rule.

1.4.2.3.3. Communication: direct and independent of context (memorandum), or indirect and dependent on context (face to face)

1.4.2.3.4. Displays of Emotion: individualistic and collectivistic. open and closed display of emotions..likely depending on upbringing.

1.4.2.3.5. Discipline/Guidance: rational order in a world where they are agents of action ("take the bull by the horns"). Assumed that problems and solutions are the nature of reality. Children socialized to solve problems they encounter. Discipline/guidances aims to be preventive.

1.4.2.3.6. Skills Emphasis: encouraged to make own decisions. 'Self' is located solely within the individual and the individual is definitely separate from others. Emphasis is placed on individual acheivement, self-expression, personal choice. Personal responsibitily for success/failure

2. Chrono Influences

2.1. Parents lack support systems these days and spend less time with their children. "busy"

2.2. Throughout History

2.2.1. 18th century

2.2.1.1. children are blank slate (tabula rasa)

2.2.1.2. humanism

2.2.1.3. father is authoritarian. children did chores, seen not heard, and immediate obedience. Discipline was strict. Traditional and religion influenced parenting.

2.2.2. 19th century

2.2.2.1. children are innately good. contemporary parenting.

2.2.2.2. literature on parenting emerged

2.2.3. 20th century

2.2.3.1. behaviorism

2.2.3.2. Freud: personality development. Children express ratherthan repress emotions. Fixations.

2.2.4. Middle 20th

2.2.4.1. self-regulation rather than strict scheduling. Spock advocated for parents to be more understanding and flexible. Learn by doing.

2.2.5. Late 20th

2.2.5.1. spanking starts to become discouraged. Don't push maturation. Love, hold, and enjoy them. Education becomes pushed more. Most move away from parent-centered to child-centered.

3. Family Dynamics and Changes over time

3.1. Childrens characteristics

3.1.1. age and cognitive development

3.1.2. temperament

3.1.2.1. easy.

3.1.2.1.1. positive mood, regularity, adaptable and approachable, moderate to low intense reactions adapt well to various styles of child rearing

3.1.2.2. difficult

3.1.2.2.1. slow to adapt, intense reactions, negative moods, withdraw from new situations Need consistent, patient, and objective parents.

3.1.2.3. slow-to-warm-up

3.1.2.3.1. initially withdrew but slowly adapted. low activity levels and tend to respons with low intensity do best with moderate amount of encouragement and patience. at their own pace.

3.1.3. Gender

3.1.4. Presence of disability

3.2. Family Characteristics

3.2.1. Size

3.2.1.1. Larger families: children there are, more interactions with the family, but less individual time with parent. Increased responsibility. Tends to be more Authoritarian and use physical punishment, and less likely to explain rules. Education of parents can mediate this, however.

3.2.2. Configuration

3.2.2.1. Multigenerational family household is coming back, with kids moving back home and immigration.

3.2.3. Parents Life stage

3.2.3.1. Six stages: Image Making, Nurturing, Authority, Interpretitive, Interdependent, Departure.

3.2.4. Marital Quality

3.2.4.1. United front. Children better off when father is involved.

3.2.5. Parental Ability to Cope with stress

4. Parenting Styles

4.1. Authoritarian

4.1.1. high demand/control, low acceptance/responsiveness

4.2. Authoratative

4.2.1. high demand/control, high acceptance/responsiveness

4.3. Permissive

4.3.1. low d/c, high a/r

4.4. Uninvolved

4.4.1. low d/c, low a/r

5. Micro Influences: Interactions between Parent and Child

5.1. Bidirectional

5.1.1. Pro-social behavior: benefits other people, such as altruism, sharing, and cooperation

5.1.2. Competence: pattern of effective adaptation to one's environment, socially responsible, independent, friendly...

5.1.3. Fourth parenting Style: Uninvolved A new parenting style: Helicopter/invasive/hovercraft/overinvolved

5.2. Attachment

5.2.1. Secure: infant actively explores in mothers presence, upset when she leaves, seeks contact when she returns.

5.2.2. Insecure

5.2.2.1. Resistant: infant stays close to mother, doesn't explore, upset when she leaves, wary of strangers, resists phyicaly contact when she returns

5.2.2.2. Avoidant: shows little distress when mother leaves, may ignore/avoid stranger and her when she returns

5.2.2.3. Disorganized/disoriented: very upset by strange situation and appears confused whether to approach or avoid stranger. When mother returns, they may seek contact and then withdraw.

5.2.3. Significance of quality of attachment is that it correlates with later intellectual and social development.

5.3. Self-Regulation and Prosocial Behavior

5.3.1. Strong relation between parenting practices and observed self-regulation and prosocial behavior of chidren.

5.3.1.1. Authoritative: Parents are controling/flexible, Demanding/Rational, Warm, Communicative. Child is self-reliant/controlled, exporative, content, and cooperative.

5.3.1.2. Authoritarian: Parents are strict, evaluate childs behavior and attitudes with absolute standard. values obedience, respect for authority. Child is discontent, withdrawn, fearful, distrustful.

5.3.1.3. Permissive: Parents are non controlling/demanding, accepting of childs impulses, Consults with child on policies. Child is poor in self-reliance, impulsive, aggressive, hardly explorative, and poor self-control.

5.3.1.4. Uninvolved: Parents are non control/demand, indifferent. Child has deficit in attachment, cognition, emotional and social skills, and behavior. poor self-control/esteem.

5.4. Socioemotional and Cognitive Competence

5.4.1. Competance: pattern of effective adaptation to one's enviornment. Behavior is socially responsible, independent, friendly... Positive outcomes for children who exhibit competence. Children who lack it are at risk of peer rejection, behavioral problems, low academic acheivement...

5.4.2. HOME scale

5.4.2.1. Emotional and verbal responsiveness

5.4.2.1.1. parent responded to childs vocalizations with verbal response

5.4.2.2. Avoidance of restriction and punishement

5.4.2.2.1. parent did not interfere with childs actions or prohibit them more than three times during observation

5.4.2.3. Organization of the physical and temporal environment

5.4.2.3.1. childs play enviornment was accessible and safe

5.4.2.4. Provision of appropriate play materials

5.4.2.4.1. child had toys that were safe and age-appropriate, and stimulated play

5.4.2.5. Parental interaction with child

5.4.2.5.1. parent kept child within visual range and looked at, touched, or talked to them frequently

5.4.2.6. Opportunities for variety in daily stimulation

5.4.2.6.1. parent read stories or played games with child

5.4.3. Mothers of Competent/Incompetent Children

5.4.3.1. Competent

5.4.3.1.1. design safe physical enviornment at home. provide interesting things to manipulate, spend no more than 10% of their time deliberately interacting with children, yet are always "on call" when needed. Answer questions, made available, help them here and there while also doing their work. Set limits and are firm. Discipline according to age.

5.4.3.2. Incompetent

5.4.3.2.1. spent little time with children, were overwhelmed by their daily struggles and their homes were disorganized. Or, some spend too much and are overprotective. Some provide materially, but restrict their childrens instincts by ruling certain things/places out of bounds. Most used gates and playpens extensively.

6. Meso Influences: Interactions between Parents and Others

6.1. Parents of adolescents who take time to talk to their children about school, homework, and activities, and who show support and confidence in their abilities, have kids who are acheivement-oriented.

6.2. Informal

6.2.1. relatives and friends

6.3. Formal

6.3.1. psychologists and employers

7. Appropriate/Inappropriate Parenting Practices

7.1. Appropriate

7.1.1. Consider childs age capacity

7.1.2. Maintain reasonable expectations for the child

7.1.3. Consider and work with childs strenghts/limitations/needs

7.1.4. Utilize a range of acceptable disciplinary approaches

7.1.5. Give basic care, nurturing, and support

7.1.6. Model self-control

7.1.7. Developmental appropriateness

7.1.7.1. use preventative socialization methods: instruction/setting standards. use corrective socialization methods: feedback/punishment collaborate with child: apprenticeship relationship let children figure out things on their own, learning by doing.

7.2. Inappropriate

7.2.1. Are oriented to their own needs

7.2.2. Demostrate expectations that are impossible

7.2.3. Ignore childs strenghts/limitations/needs and show an aversion to parenting

7.2.4. Employ harsh disciplinary approaches, including violence, threats, and verbal assaults

7.2.5. Generally do not provide basic care/support

7.2.6. Deliberately take frustrations out on child and are self-righteous

7.3. Child Maltreatement: abuse and neglect

7.3.1. any intentional harm, with homicide at one end and parental force for disciplinary purposes at the other.

7.3.2. abuse: maltreatment that includes physical, sexual, psycohlogical or emotional abuse.

7.3.3. neglect: maltreatment involving abandonment, lack of supervision, improper feeding, lack of adequate medical/dental care, inappropriate dress, uncleanliness, lack of safety.

7.3.4. children who are sexually abused often go through phases: 1. Secrecy 2. Helplessness 3. Entrapment and accomadation 4. Delayed, conflicted and unconvincing disclosure 5. Retraction.

7.4. Causes and Consequences

7.4.1. Family and Maltreatment

7.4.1.1. Family history of such

7.4.1.2. Life stresses, financial strain, emotional problems, lack of knowledge...

7.4.1.3. Parents may have psychological problems

7.4.2. Child and Maltreatment

7.4.2.1. certain physical and psychological characteristics associated: crying, hyperactivity, inability to give an acceptable response to the parent.

7.4.2.2. Intellectual and developmental disabilities also found to be associated with abuse.

7.4.2.3. Also, a childs appearance or behavior that reminds parents of their own parents or of negative characteristics of themselves. Such children become scapegoats.

7.4.3. Community and Maltreatment

7.4.3.1. neighborhood impoverishment, housing stress, unemployment, child-care burdens, and availability of alcohol. Isoloation from community/lack of support. No where to turn for guidance.

7.4.3.2. line between physical abuse and acceptable discipline sometimes depends on the interpreter.