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1. May be due to

1.1. Take certain medicines like non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) or antibiotics

1.2. Have an infection such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, or malaria

1.3. Gender : men

1.4. Have a disease that affects the kidneys such as FSGS, lupus, or diabetes

2. Cause by

2.1. The damage to the kidneys’ filters is caused by diseases that damage the kidneys. The primary cause of nephrotic syndrome is a disease called focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), while the secondary cause of nephrotic syndrome is diabetes.

3. Presented with

3.1. Too much protein in the urine (proteinuria)

3.2. Low levels of protein in blood (hypoalbuminia)

3.3. High levels of fat and cholesterol in blood

3.4. Foamy or bubbly urine

3.5. Weight gain

3.6. Swelling in the legs, feet, ankles, or hands (edema)

3.7. Feeling very tired

3.8. Not feeling hungry

4. Treated by

4.1. Choosing fish or low-fat cuts of meat instead of higher fat options can help keep cholesterol level under control

4.2. Medicines to control blood pressure and cholesterol can help reduce chances of having heart disease

4.3. Limiting salt intake help to prevent swelling and help keep blood pressure at a healthy level

4.4. Medicine to help the body get rid of extra water can help control your blood pressure and can reduce swelling

4.5. Dialysis or a kidney transplant

4.6. Swelling in the legs, feet, ankles, and sometimes face and hands

5. Diagnosed by

5.1. Urine sample (Dipstick test)

5.2. Kidney biopsy

5.3. Blood test

6. May lead to

6.1. High blood pressure

6.2. Acute kidney injury

6.3. Fluid buildup

6.4. Heart disease

6.5. Anemia

6.6. Blood clot

6.7. Kidney failure/ESRD

7. What nurse should do

7.1. Monitor serum sodium level

7.2. Monitor fluid intake and output. Accurately monitor and document intake and output

7.3. Assess for venous stasis, ascites, and pulmonary edema

7.4. Weigh and measure Weigh the client and record the abdominal measurements to serve as a baseline

7.5. Observe for edema when performing physical examination of the patients with nephrotic Syndrome

7.6. Vital signs obtain vital signs such as BP, R.R., HR, and BT

7.7. Promoting energy conservation. Bed rest is common during the edema stage of the condition

7.8. Improving nutritional intake Offer a visually appealing and nutritious diet. Sodium is restricted when edema present. Avoid high protein intake because it affected to the kidneys. Water restriction maybe indicated if decreased salt intake cannot control edema

7.9. Preventing infection Protect the patients from anyone with an infection: staff, family, visitors, and other children; hand washing and strict medical asepsis are essential; and observe for any early signs of infection.

7.9.1. M