Acid rain is caused when fossil fuels release sulfuric oxide gases into the air. These chemicals mix with water in the atmosphere to form mild acids, which fall back to the earth as precipitation., Pollution like this causes acid rain, Air pollution in China, Not only air, but ground pollution as well, Most air pollution occurs in Canada and America
Acid Rain can do serious damage., These are trees affected by acid rain, Think of acid rain as liquid fire. Whatever it touches, it burns. If I pour acid on a desk, it would sizzle through the desk and leave a whole behind. If I threw a bucket full of acid onto my printer, it would melt the printer and leave deformed melted plastic behind., This statue was once an upright, smiling person with angel wings, but was affected by acid rain, Some people protect their things during the season where precipitation occurs the most, due to the fact that if the soon to be rain/snow in the atmosphere mixes with the pollution in the air, it could cause acid rain, Harvard protects an ancient statue on its grounds during the winter, in case acid rain occurs, In areas where acid rain is common, people sell waterproof car covers
Earthquakes are caused by moving tectonic plates. When plates rub against each other, are ripped apart, hauled together or dragged alongside one another, the rock above it bends a bit. It keeps on bending until it snaps, releasing a huge amount of energy., This is a diagram of how tectonic plates move. When they move, It sends energy surging upwards, resulting in an earthquake.
Earthquakes are measured on the Richter Scale. The Richter scale is a ten point scale used to measure the strength of an earthquake. Only earthquakes that achieve a 5 or higher on the Richter Scale are reported for the entire world. Anything under a 3 is nearly undetectable, and anything over a 7 can cause serious damage., The Richter Scale, This is probably the most damage an earthquake that achieves under a 3 on the Richter Scale can do, This is a picture from the 2011 Japan Earthquake. It achieved a 9.0 on the Richter Scale., This is a picture from the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake. It received a 9.2 on the Richter Scale.
There is a variety or myths to how earthquakes are caused, In Greek mythology, when Poseidon gets angry, he strikes the ground with his trident, causing earthquakes., In Japanese mythology, there is a giant catfish named Namazu. He is guarded by a god named Kashima, who restrains him with a stone. When Kashima lets his guard down, Namazu thrashes, causing violent earthquakes.
There are ways to tell if an earthquake is coming, but they usually appear without warning. It is understood, however, that we will have developed a method to warn everyone that an earthquake is coming in the next few decades., This is an Earthquake Sensor. It receives the shake waves from the earthquake and quickly sends it to people who try to inform everyone about an earthquake that will occur within the next few minutes.
Earthquakes are just the spark to a chain of events. Because of the amount of energy released, earthquakes can cause avalanches, landslides, fires, tsunami's and so much more
Also known as tropical cyclones, Hurricane Isabel
A type of storm that produces strong winds and heavy rain., The faster the wind, the worse the damage the hurricane does. All hurricanes begin as tropical disturbances, which is the lowest level on the scale used to measure hurricanes. A tropical disturbance is a weather phenomenon originating from warm ocean waters as cool air blows into the base of swirling mounds of warm, moist air heated by the sun
When you look at a hurricane from space, it looks like this, The winds swirl around, clockwise in the southern hemisphere and counter clockwise in the northern hemisphere, The thing that the wind is swirling around is called the eye, which is something hurricanes are most known for. Mature hurricanes' eyes are usually coldest and are free of all clouds. In newer, weaker hurricanes the eye is covered and under it is where the greatest wind speeds are found and precipitation is the heaviest.
Hurricanes develop over water that is at least 27 degrees, Atlantic hurricanes start off as thunder storms that occur on the coast of Africa. The storm then begins to move over the ocean. The power of it's wind increase as warm, moist air from the ocean rises into the atmosphere, creating condensation.
Hurricanes can do a lot of damage. In fact, the amount of heat and energy they use is around 70 times the world energy consumption, or if you exploded a 10-megaton nuclear bomb every 20 minutes, Damage from Hurricane Andrew, Damage from Hurricane Katrina., Damage from Hurricane Isabel
Fujiwhara effect, The Fujiwhara effect is when two hurricanes meet. They start to come Fujiwara effect closer and the space between them is considered as the eye. The two then merge, and create one bigger hurricane. If one hurricane is a lot bigger than the other, the bigger one will dominate and the smaller will orbit around it, Before the two merge, The hurricane on the left was slightly smaller, so it started to orbit around the second hurricane
Landslides are when loads and the land under it come tumbling down due to barely stable slopes.
There are many different causes for landslides. The two types are natural landslides and landslides caused by human activites., Some ways a landslide can be caused naturally are by earthquakes, which add loads to a barely stable slope, weakening of a slope by snowmelt, glaciers melting, or heavy rains and volcanic eruptions, which shakes off everything from the force of the eruption, Some ways a landslide can be caused by human activities are deforestation, construction, vibrations from traffic and machinery and anything that alters the shape of or adds new load to an already existing slope
A landslide occurs when something damages the stability of a slope and gravity starts to pull things on the slope down.For example, If weather started to damage a slope heading down from my backyard and everything on my backyard started to fall downwards, it would only be a matter of time before it started to affect the part of the slope that lays under my house, and the back of my house will start to fall as well., The period of a landslide such as the one in the picture would take about 8 days, Day 1, Day 2, Day 3, Day 4, Day 5, Day 6, Day 7, Day 8
A mudslide is basically the same thing as a landslide, but in different conditions. If the amount of water infiltrating the soil on and under the slope is great, something that woudl normally cause a landslide would cause a mudslide instead, Oaxaca, Mexico, The largest recorded mudslide was in 1980, when Mt. St. Helen's erupted, The force of the volcano caused a mudslide to take place. Right in front what would cause it to be the end of the mudslide was spirit lake, and because of it drastic changes had been made to it. The bottom of Spirit Lake is now 100 feet above the original surface, and has 2.5 more surface area than it did before, Mt.St Helen's eruption in 1980, Mudslide damage
Landslide are similar to earthquakes, in a way. They both cause tsunami's!, in 1958, an earthquake triggered a humongous landslide. 30,000 cubic meters of ice and rock into the inlet of Lituya Bay, Alaska. This caused a huge mega tsunami, which is a tsunami that is hundreds of meters high., The landslide occurred at the top right, and the mega tsunami started to head over the top, in the upper middle
Tornadoes usually occur during a thunderstorm. The warm, humid air form the ground rises into the atmosphere, and the cold air from the atmosphere lowers. The warm air starts to circle around the cold air, creating a funnel like shape. It starts moving and it then heads into whatever is in its way, ripping it out of it's path. Remember that the actual winds of the tornado aren't part of the funnel, but circling around it at a diameter 5 to 6 times the funnels size, Anadarko, Oklahoma
Tornadoes have been observed on every continent except Antarctica, since warm air there is hardly ever likely to come it's way, The strongest most violent tornadoes last around 20-25 minutes. Nobody can really tell because it all depends on how fast it is going and how long it stays on the ground for, A tornado starting to dissapear
Tornadoes occur all the time, but the ones that do are usually not that strong. We can't tell because they are usually covered up by heavy rainfall and large storm clouds, With slightly heavier rainfall, that tornado would be barely visible
The Pulse-Doppler Radar, This is a Doppler Radar. These are located in tornado prone areas so people near them are informed of upcoming tornadoes
Are Tornadoes linked to global warming?, Yes. Global warming is actually what's causing more and more tornadoes each and every year., Global Warming causes the earth to become like this (not literally), Global warming creates more warm air. With more warm air, more tornadoes arise. What I mean to say is, warm and cold air meeting is what causes global warming, and with more warm air, it rises towards the cold air and causes more tornadoes faster then before
A series of huge waves in large body of water, Waves are somewhat natural in a large body of water, but the waves of Tsunami's are huge, nearly hundreds of meters high. They usually flood land and cause more deaths then any other disaster
A Tsunami can be caused by earthquakes, underwater explosions, volcanic eruptions, landslides, meteorite explosions and so much more, The most well known and the most common cause of Tsunami's are earthquakes. When earthquakes occur underwater, they send a a huge amount of energy up towards the surface of the water. It then creates a small wave that increases in size as it gets closer to the shore. By the time it's at the shore, the wave is so high it usually over takes nearly all structures residing there., New node
2011 Japan Tsunami in progress, The surface energy of the earthquake in Japan would be able to power the city of L.A for an entire year., They confirmed 15,845 deaths, 5,893 people injured, and 3,380 people missing, The cost of the earthquake alone was 14.5 to $34.6 billion.
Damage from one of the worst Tsunami's in history; the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake, The countries the earthquake and tsunami hit : Indonesia (mainly in Aceh) Sri Lanka India (mostly in Tamil Nadu) Thailand Maldives Eastern coast of Africa (mostly by tsunami, especially Somalia), Killed about 230,210 - 310,000 people, United Nations estimated that this disaster would be the costliest in human history.
Tsunami's are also known as tidal waves, but the term is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers due to the fact that tsunamis have nothing to do with tides
Severe Winters and Cool Summers, The temperature doesn't go over 10 degrees, Polar Climate covers over 20% of the earth, Places with Polar Climate include all of Antarctica, most of Greenland, the extreme northeastern coast of Scandinavia,Northern Siberia, Northern Canada and Northern Alaska
Moderate temperature conditions year round, Ranges between a latitude of 40 degrees and 60/70 degrees., There is usually a lot of architecture in places with Temperate Climate due to the fact that the structures are able to withstand cold and snow and well as summer heat.
Hot temperatures in every season and a lot of moisture, Year round, the temperature never goes over 12 degrees in tropical climate, There are three types of tropical climate: Tropical rainforest climate, Tropical monsoon climate, Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate., Places that have a tropical climate: Mumbai India, Jakarta Indonesia, Rio de Janeiro Brazil, Veracruz Mexico, Port-Au Prince Haiti, Dar es Salaam Tanzania, Lagos Nigeria, Darwin Australia, Naples United States, Honolulu United States
Tropical Climate, New node
Very dry weather conditions, Desert climate is also known as Arid Climate, There is usually less then 250 mm of precipitation per year, Areas with a hot desert climate : the Sahara, the Arabian, Syrian and Kalahari Deserts, large parts of Iran, southern and central Pakistan, northwest India, the southwestern United States, Northern Mexico, and much of Australia.
Arctic Desert Climate
Warm summer and cool winters, Places with a maritime climate have a narrow annual temperature, Maritime Climate affects Europe the most, seeing as it goes much more inland than other continents., Though most of the precipitation in places with Maritime climate is rain, majority of areas see snowfall annually.
Hot summers and Cold Winters, The average temperature in the day time in the summer for Continental Climate is 26 degrees. The average temperature in the night in the summer is 14 degrees. The average temperature in the day time in the winter is -3 degrees. The average temperature in the night time in the winter is -14 degrees., Continental Climate does not exist in the southern hemisphere because there is no large land masses at middle latitudes, where continental climate is located., The winds that have the power to lower the temp. int he summer or raise the temp, in the winter that appear in places with a Continental Climate tend to head offshore.
Cooler than places at a lower altitude;often heavy precipitation if located near coastlines, Also known as Alpine Climate, Places with an altitude above "tree line" are classified as Mountain Climate, The Cascade Mountains, the Rocky Mountains, the Alps, the Pyrenees and Sierra Nevada, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Tibetan Plateau, the Eastern Highlands of Africa, and the central parts of Borneo and New Guinea are examples of places with Mountain Climate
Located in the Pacific Ring of Fire and Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Pacific Ring of Fire, Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Composite Cone: A volcano made up of alternating layers of magma., Composite Cone/Volcano
Shield Cone : A volcano built entirely of magma, Shield Cone/Volcano
Krakatoa: A Volcano that erupted in 1883. The sound of the eruption was recorded as the loudest sound recorded, modern history. Killed approximately 40,00 people,65 villages and towns were destroyed and 132 seriously damaged, and many thousands were injured by the eruption, mostly from the tsunamis that followed the explosion., 1888 drawing of the Krakatoa erupting
Volcanoes occur where molten magma is able to break through the thin crust., The magma is breaking through the crust and flowing i nto the volcano
A Volcano is an opening/rupture in the earths crust,which allows hot magma and volcanic ash to escape., Cleveland Volcano
Fold Mountains are basically a chain of Mountains, such as the Zagros Mountains. The term "fold mountains" isn't used that often anymore though. Thrust belts and Mountain belts are more common, Map of the Zagros Mountains, Largest mountain range in Iran and Iraq, 1,500 kilometeres long, Formed by the Collision of the Eurasian and Arabian plates, Zagros Mountains
Fold Mountains are mostly located on the edge of continents. Examples of Fold Mountains are The Alps, The Himalayas, The Jura Mountains and Mt. Kosciusko., Map of the Alps, Stretches through 7 countries(Slovenia, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Austria and Liechtenstein ), 4,810.45 metres long, The Alps are so long that they are divided into 2 sections called the Eastern Alps and the Western Alps. Still to large , they are divided into 3 sections in the eastern alps and 11 sections in the western alps., Top of the Alps, Map of the Himalayas, The Himalayas also stretch through 7 countries(Afghanistan, Bhutan, Burma, People's Republic of China, India, Nepal, Pakistan), The Himalayas are home to the world's highest peaks ( Mt.Everest and K2), There are over 100 mountains in the Himalayas, Himalayas, Kulu Valley, Map of The Jura Mountains, Though it goes through 8 countries(France, Switzerland, Rhône-Alpes, Franche-Comté, Vaud, Canton of Neuchâtel, Canton of Jura, Basel-Landschaft) the Jura mountains are still considered as a very small mountain Range, Located at the north of the Alps. It's like a mountain range within a mountain range!, The Jura mountains are separated into 3 major sections. (the Malm, the Dogger, and the Lias). They have been around since the Jurassic period., Jura Mountains, Switzerland, Map of Mt. Kosciusko, Mount Kosciuszkowas named by the Polish explorer Count Paul Edmund Strzelecki in 1840., Like most mountains in Australia, Mount Kosciuszko is not hard to climb., Mt. Kosciusko is used for cross-country skiing, Mt. Kosciusko, Australia
Mountains are formed when two plates collide. If plates collide and continents move along with them, that is when fold mountains occur. If you were to take a table cloth and push it across a table, that is what fold mountains look like., What fold Mountains look like, When you push a table cloth, it begins to look like this. This is what fold mountains look like, except it is longer length wise and not AS folded,, Colliding plates, As you can see in the picture, two plates are colliding and forming a mountain. IF the picture were a video, you would see how one plates pushes against another and how it crumples up to form fold mountains
Ancient shields are mainly composed of igneous and metamorphic rock, Igneous rock, Metamorphic Rock, Shields were first igneous rock, but heat and pressure altered the rock and formed metamorphic rock, Ancient Shield were made by widespread volcanic activity. This explains why most of the ancient shields are made up of igneous rock.
There were old shield regions built in the middle of Pangea. As Pangea broke apart to form the continents we have today, the shield regions went along with the broken pieces and formed the core of the continents., Pangea, The core of Pangaea was old shield regions. When Pangaea broke apart, the only continents that had the shield regions left over from Pangaea were north North America (Canada) and Africa.
The Canadian Shield., The Canadian Shield is the most well known Shield Region., It is located mostly located in the North-West Territories, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec,, Canadian Shield, Covers over half of Canada and a bit of the north of the U.S.A, The Canadian Shield is also known as the Laurentian Plateau, or theBouclier Canadien, Is mostly composed of igneous rock, The Canadian Shield is made up of it's own "shield provinces". Laurentian Upland, Kazan Region, Davis, Hudson, and James, The Canadian Shield holds the Earth's greatest area of exposed Archaean rock, Archean Rock, The Canadian Shield is one of the world's greatest mining ores. It is filled with substantial deposits of nickel, gold, silver, and copper., The North-West portion of the Canadian Shield has recently been the site of major diamond discoveries, North-West portion of the Canadian Shield
Plain: Usually a broad, treeless, level region., Sediment was carried by rivers and glaciers into the ancient seas. The seas filled in and formed new land. The sediment formed into sedimentary rock, and under laid the new land. This caused the land to be level/flat and created what is now called plains., Sediment and Sedimentary Rock, Plains
Lowland : A plain located along coatlines The land stretching from Oceanic depths to highlands, depressions in the interior of a mountainous region, or any region that is in contrast to a highland., Scotland is broken up into two parts. The upper half is called the Highlands, and the lower part is called the Lowlands., The Lowlands and the Highlands of Scotland, Scotland wasn't separated into the Lowlands and the Highlands due to the fact that the northern part of Scotland is at a higher altitude than the the Lowlands It was separated into those sections for cultural and religious reasons., Examples of Lowlands are the:, Silesian Lowlands, Located in Silesia, Poland and Czechia., Part of the North European Plain, The Silesian Lowlands are located within the blue and yellow lines, Caribbean Lowlands, The Caribbean Lowlands aren't just one specific area, but a term for a type of lowland. The Caribbean Lowlands are lowlands that border all areas of land in Central America, such as Cuba, Jamaica and The Bahamas., The red areas are the Caribbean lowlands, Eastern Ridges and Lowlands, Located in the eastern part of the U.S, Go through Wisonsin, Green Bay and Illinois, Majority of the Region is covered by farmland, Eastern Ridges and Lowlands, Arctic Lowlands and Hudson Bay Lowlands, Lie between the Canadian Shield and the Innuit region division., Series of Islands located in the north of Canada, Drastically being affected by global warming, The ground remains frozen most of the year, Rasmussen Lowlands, Located in Kitikmeot Region, Nunavut, Canada, Mostly made up of wetlands, Consists of numerous tundra ponds, The edges of the Kitikmeot region are the Rasmussen Lowlands, Meshchera Lowlands, Located in the middle of European Russia, It is named after the Finno-Ugric Meshchera tribe, which used to live there., Meshchera Lowlands, Saint Lawrence Lowlands, People also call the Saint Lawrence Lowlands the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Lowlands but that name is improper, because the name includes the Great Lakes Basin, which is part of the Canadian Shield, Was carved out by ice sheets 10,000 years ago, Even though the Saint Lawrence Lowlands is one of the smallest lowlands, it has the densest population, for it contains most of the population in Quebec., Map of the lowlands
Intensive Farming, Agriculture in which much labour is used to get food from small plots of land, Most agriculture is intensive farming. Rice, vegetables and poultry are raised this way, Intensive Farmers usually show animal abuse
Extensive Farming, Agriculture in which little labour is used (but often large machinery) is used to work big farms., Most of North America's agriculture is extensive farming. Wheat, corn and beef cattle are produced this way, Little labour is used, and what labour is used is usually machinery
Subsistence Agriculture, Farms that produce only enough for the farm family., The word subsistence comes from the word subsist, which means to survive. Subsistence farmers work full time to feed themselves and their family, using mainly animal power and their own labour., Subsistence farmers are usually found in places with a large population, or on lands not suitable for commercial agriculture., There are 3 types of subsistence farmers:, Nomadic Herders, Nomadic herders usually reside in desert or semi-desert regions., A nomadic herder in the desert, The livestock supply the needs of nomadic herders, The livestock of a Mongolian nomadic herder, For example, the wool of sheep can provide nomadic herders with clothing. Another example would be a nomadic herder using a little bit of all the livestock it carries to build shelter, like in the picture shown, A nomadic herder uses a little bit of every animal it's own to make a movable, stable shelter, Nomadic herders survive on their ability to find patches of grass and small watering holes to support their animals, They pride themselves on being able to find small patches of grass like these to help support their animals, Shifting Cultivators, Shifting cultivators reside in tropical rain forests in the regions of South America, Africa and South Asia, Shifting cultivators clearing jungle land for farming, They use a method called slash-and-burn. They use machetes and matches to create a small clearing in a jungle. They farm their for a few years, but after that the soil fertility drops, so they move on somewhere else and create another clearing, A few years after they leave, the forest usually reclaims the land, A group of farmers clearing land, Root crops, corn and grain are usually what's raised in a shifting cultivators farm., Small Landholders, Many people in Mexico, South America, Africa and South Asia have small, permanent farms. They are small landholders, They make corn, rice, vegetables, other grains, and some livestock, A woman harvests corn, Everyone in a family of small landholders participate and work hard., Family of farmers, If there is any extra crops made in the farm, it is sold or traded in the market., Small landholders/single family landholders usually live on the edge of poverty,, Shifting Cultivators live on the near edge of poverty
Commercial Agriculture, Farming that produces a large surplus of one or a few types of crop, livestock or other farm product and sells it for profit., Locations and Climate, The location and climate are probably the most important influences affecting commercial agriculture, Commercial farmers only produce a variety of produce. The best opportunities for successful commercial farming are found where local temperatures and moisture patterns are suited to the certain produce that you are growing., Raw Materials, Commercial agriculture requires a supply of raw materials called farm inputs., Most farmers do not grow their own poultry. they buy baby chicks instead of hatching them, and buy already fattened calves for meat, Some crop farmers don't only but poultry, they grow produce as well. They buy special seeds that grow faster and fertilizers to help protect their plants., Labour and Machinery, The type of labour depends on the farm. Commercial farmers that grow specialize in produce use mostly hand labour, while farmers that grow anything else have a mix of both hand labour and machinery, Though machines are used to help plant the actual food, we need people to move the food from place to place. So many people are needed, actually, that migrant workers are brought in from Mexico and the Carribean, Some commercial farmers specialize in organic foods., Organic food is food produced without chemical fertilizers, pesticides, additives, preservatives, growth hormones or genetic alterations, Sucessful commercial farmers know to produce organic food because consumers are always willing to pay more for organic food
Specialized Agriculture, Commercial farming focused on one type of product, Examples of specialized agriculture:, Orange Groves, Florida is the home to Orange Groves, a specialized farm that grows oranges. They are the second leading orange grower, next to Brazil. They are high in demand due to the fact that they have been advertising for nearly over half a century., Orange Groves, Nurseries, Nurseries are companies that supply people with trees flowers and other plants that are used to beautify their properties. Though most are located in areas near their customers, they also are near areas with a variety of soil. Nurseries need different types of soil to suit all of their different plants, and being near only one type of soil wouldn't exactly help them., Flower nursery, Coffee, Coffee is produced in Central and South America, Africa and South Asia. The trees need a lot of sunlight, but can't be in an area with too much heat. A lot of hand labour is used to pick the coffee before it is put into machines to sort roast and ship overseas., Coffee bean tree, These farmers don't only focus on food. They produce millions of things that people use in their every day lives, like flowers, tobacco(unfortunately) and cotton.