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Philosophy by Mind Map: Philosophy

1. Poincare also brought the idea of 'convention' to the history of the philosophy of science

2. He believed that like matter exists in tiny packets called atoms, energy exists in tiny packets, which he called quanta.

3. Copernicus placed the sun at the center and assumed that the planets (including the earth) traveled around the sun.

4. LouisPasteur French chemists-scientist, one of the founder of microbiology and immunology . He developed a process called pasteurization

5. Alchemy who still experimented and made observations Alchemists mostly wanted to find a means by which lead (or some other inexpensive substances) could be transformed into gold (or some other precious substances).

6. Emergence of Science (600 B.C. to 500 A.D)

6.1. Anaximander explained that all life began in the sea

6.2. Anaximenes believed that air was the most basic substance in nature.

6.3. Leucippus believed that all matter is composed of little units called “atoms.”

6.4. Plato believed that humanity was born with an innate knowledge of everything

6.5. Aristotle believed that knowledge could only be gained by comparing it with what was already known and perceived.

6.6. Archimedes is best known for his work with liquids

6.7. Ptolemy studied the heavens and thought that the earth was at the center of the universe

7. Industrial Revolution (1735 A.D. to 1820 A.D.)

7.1. Laurent Lavoisier was busy studying chemical reactions

7.1.1. The Remaining Part of 19th Century (1820 A.D. to 1900 A.D.)

7.1.1.1. Charles R. Darwin The theory of evolution by natural selection

7.1.1.2. Gregor Mendel also during this period devoted much of his life to the study of reproduction

7.1.1.3. Christian Orsted showed that electricity and magnetism were related

7.1.1.4. Michael Faraday believed that electricity and magnetism were actually the result of a single process

7.1.1.5. Maxwell showed that electricity and magnetism are both different aspects of the same phenomenon, now called electromagnetism.

7.1.1.6. James Joule First Law of Thermodynamics, and it is the guiding principle in the study of energy

7.1.1.7. Lord Kelvin developed the absolute scale of temperature and discovered the Joule-Thomson effect

7.2. John Dalton proposed a detailed theory about atoms

8. Middle ages or Dark Ages (500 A.D. to 1000 A.D.)

9. Beginning of Modern Science (1000 A.D. to 1500 A.D.)

9.1. Roger Bacon showed that goat’s blood had no effect whatsoever on diamonds.

9.2. Grosseteste explained that a scientist should make observations

9.3. Thomas Bradwardine examined many of Aristotle’s ideas critically and found most of them lacking.

9.4. Nicholas of Cusa that the earth spins while it travels around the sun

10. The Era of Newton (1660 A.D. to 1735 A. D.)

10.1. Descartes explain everything by means of mechanical models of natural processes

10.2. Isaac Newton show that the reason an object falls when dropped was due to gravity.

10.3. Robert Boyle did many experiments with gases, formulating laws that are still used today in chemistry

10.4. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, also during this period, built the first microscope

11. Modern Science (1900 A.D. to the Present)

11.1. Albert Einstein used Planck’s idea of energy quanta to explain “photoelectric effect”.

11.2. Bohr developed a picture of the atom

11.3. Hempel (1905 - 1997) was known especially for his criticism of the inductive method, known as the Raven Paradox

11.4. Thomas Kuhn scientific paradigm.

11.5. K.Popper (1902-1994) is considered one of the founders of post-non-classical evolutional epistemology

11.6. Lakatos(1922-1974) is Popper student, attempted to resurrect the idea by stratifying the idea.

11.7. Michael Polany(1891-1976) created a concept of latent personal knowledge

12. The Renaissance: The “Golden Age” of Science (1500 A.D. to 1660 A.D.)

12.1. Andreas Vesalius was a medical doctor and tried to show all the details of the human body.

12.2. Johannes Kepler made detailed observations of the planets

12.3. Galileo Galilei provided another set of evidence that supported heliocentric system