Gunpowder Empires of 1450-1750 CE

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Gunpowder Empires of 1450-1750 CE by Mind Map: Gunpowder Empires of 1450-1750 CE

1. Ottoman Empire

1.1. Political structure: The devshirme or ‘blood tax’ was the removal of Christian boys at age 8 from the Christian nobles and elites to put them in military service.

1.2. Religion: Enforced Sunni Islam and fought the Shi’a Islam Persian Safavid Empire on and off for 200 years

1.3. Art and Architecture: The sultans funded mini paintings of themselves and distributed them among the people to show their power.

1.4. Revenue Gathering: The OE focused on heavy taxation from its conquered areas and agriculture.

1.5. Military Techniques: Used massive cannons to batter down the walls of Constantinople in 1453. In the places they conquered, they incorporated many languages and peoples.

2. Safavid Empire

2.1. PS: Forced Shi’a Islam as state religion, and the Shah claimed Divine, political and spiritual power

2.2. R: Official religion was Shi’a Islam and had largest Shi’a state in history and fought Sunni Ottoman Empire on and off for 200 years

2.3. A+A: Building projects- mosques, universities, gardens, bath houses. Arts: miniatures, mosaics and carpets. Example: The Shah Mosque

2.4. RG: Overtaxed conquered lands and main exports were Iranian carpets, silk and textiles, horses and pearls.

2.5. MT: Were responsible for spreading and enforcing Shi’a Islam and after Abbas the Great reformed the army, the Safavids had an artillery corps of 500 cannons as well as 12,000 musketeers.

3. Mughal Empire

3.1. PS: Zamindars were governors of a region and they were responsible for collecting taxes for the central government and being in the military.

3.2. R: Officially Sunni Muslim. Difference between the Mughal rulers and the Delhi predecessors was their tolerance for the local diversity of India. Mughals were more successful than the Delhi Sultanate.

3.3. A+A: Built elaborate temples and other monuments, example is Taj Mahal

3.4. RG: #1 producer of manufactured goods (cotton textiles) at its time

3.5. MT: Had rapid expansion and conquest by the use of gunpowder weapons such as muskets, hand-cannons and hand guns. Also, were used to diversity and syncretization.

4. Manchu (Qing) Dynasty

4.1. PS: Imposed cultural aspect on the Han to demonstrate dominance over them and somewhat to their culture

4.2. R: Adopted from the Han Chinese the Confucian Examination system based on Chinese history and Confucianism.

4.3. A+A: Commissioned life portrait paintings of emperors to demonstrate power.

4.4. RG: The Emperor Kangxi reduced taxes and during his reign, there was a boom in exports for cotton, silk, tea and ceramics.

4.5. MT: Emperor Kangxi took territories from weakening khanates and areas of Southeast Asia to make the largest Chinese empire and they used gunpowder to expand into Central Asia.

5. Songhai Empire

5.1. PS: Did not force Islam on lower classes but was not as tolerant on the upper class

5.2. R: Askia the Great was a devout Muslim and he opened up Islamic schools and constructed mosques. Used Islam to educate the elites on how to obey the king.

5.3. A+A: Constructed large clay mosques with wooden spikes decorating the exterior.

5.4. RG: Taxes on personal income was the most important source of money for the most empire. Second most important was taxes on the import and export of goods.

5.5. MT: Used gunpowder to take over Malian cities and formed largest sub-Saharan state.