Major and Trace Minerals

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Major and Trace Minerals by Mind Map: Major and Trace Minerals

1. Calcium

1.1. Main food sources include yogurt, cheese, milk, salmon, and leafy green vegetables.

1.2. Main functions in the body include being important for healthy bones and teeth, helping muscle function and nerve function, blood clotting, blood pressure regulation, and immune system health.

1.3. Recommended daily intake: 1000 mg

1.4. Toxicity outcomes include: doses larger than 1500 mg may cause stomach problems for sensitive individuals

1.5. Deficiency outcomes include: not very obvious symptoms but if left untreated, osteopenia can occur and can turn to osteoporosis. Symptoms can also be cramping of the muscles, numbness, tingling, fatigue, poor appetite and irregular heart rhythms.

2. Phosphorous

2.1. Main functions in the body are the importance for healthy bones and teeth and part of the system that maintains acid-base balance.

2.2. Main food sources are meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk and processed foods including soda.

2.3. Recommended daily intake: 1000 mg

2.4. Toxicity outcomes include: doses larger than 250 mg may cause stomach problems for sensitive individuals.

2.5. Deficiency outcomes include: loss of appetite, anemia, muscle weakness, bone pain, rickets, osteomalacia, infection, numbest, tingling of extremities, difficulty walking and respiratory failure.

3. Magnesium

3.1. Main food sources include spinach, broccoli, legumes. seeds, and whole wheat bread.

3.2. Main functions include being found in bones, needed for making protein, muscle contraction, nerve transmission and immune system health.

3.3. Recommended daily intake: 350 mg

3.4. Toxicity outcomes include: doses larger than 400 may cause stomach problems and diarrhea.

3.5. Deficiency outcomes include: fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting. can become more serious and lead to seizures and abnormal rhythms of the heart.

4. Sulfur

4.1. Main functions include being found in protein molecules.

4.2. Main food sources are foods with protein -- such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, legumes, nuts.

4.3. Recommended daily intake: 13 mg/kg body weight

4.4. Toxicity outcomes include: burning sensation or diarrhea or brain damage.

4.5. Deficiency outcomes include: slow growth and reduced protein synthesis.

5. Iron

5.1. Main food sources include red meat, poultry, eggs, fruits, green vegetables and fortified bread.

5.2. Main functions include being part of a molecule found in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the body. also needed for energy metabolism.

5.3. Recommended daily intake: 15 mg

5.4. Toxicity outcomes include: doses larger than 20 mg may cause stomach upset, constipation and blackened stools.

5.5. Deficiency outcomes include: anemia, weakness, tired, slow social and cognitive development.

6. Zinc

6.1. Main food sources include meat, shellfish, legumes, and whole grains.

6.2. Main functions include being part of many enzymes and being needed for the making of protein and genetic material. has a function in taste perception, wound healing, normal fetal development and production of sperm, normal growth and sexual maturation and immune system health.

6.3. Recommended daily intake: 15 mg

6.4. Toxicity outcomes include: doses larger than 25 mg may cause anemia and copper deficiency

6.5. Deficiency symptoms include: loss of appetite, taste, smell and decreased function of immune system and slowed growth. can eventually lead to diarrhea, loss of hair, and impotence.

7. Copper

7.1. Main food sources include shellfish, nuts, seeds, beans, prunes and whole grain products.

7.2. Main functions include being part of many enzymes and needed for iron metabolism.

7.3. Recommended daily intake: 2 mg

7.4. Toxicity outcomes include: as little as 10 mg of copper can have a toxic effect.

7.5. Deficiency outcomes include: fatigue, weakness, sickness, weak bones, difficulty with memory, cold sensitivity, pale skin, gray hair and vision loss.

8. Manganese

8.1. Main food sources include nuts, legumes, whole grains, and tea.

8.2. Main functions include being part of many enzymes.

8.3. Recommended daily intake: 5 mg

8.4. Toxicity outcomes include: excess manganese may hinder iron adsorption.

8.5. Deficiency symptoms include: impaired growth and reproductive function, skeletal abnormalities, impaired glucose tolerance, and altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism,

9. Selenium

9.1. Main food sources include organ meat, seafood, and walnuts.

9.2. Main function is serving as an antioxidant.

9.3. Recommended daily intake: 35 µg

9.4. Toxicity outcomes include: doses larger than 200 are toxic.

9.5. Deficiency outcomes include: hypothyroidism, extreme fatigue, mental slowing, goiter, cretinism, recurrent miscarriage.

10. Iodine

10.1. Main food sources include iodized salt and seafood.

10.2. Main functions include being found in thyroid hormone, which regulates growth, development and metabolism.

10.3. Recommended daily intake: 150 µg

10.4. Toxicity outcomes include burning of the mouth. throat, stomach. can also lead to fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, a weak pulse, cyanosis, and a coma.

10.5. Deficiency symptoms include goiter, cretinism, neonatal hypothyroidism, growth retardation, increased risk of pregnancy loss and infant mortality.

11. Chromium

11.1. Main food sources include meat, poultry, fish, nuts, seeds.

11.2. Main functions include working closely with insulin to regulate blood sugar/glucose levels.

11.3. Recommended daily intake: 120 µg

11.4. Toxicity outcomes include: doses larger than 200 are toxic and may cause concentration problems and fainting.

11.5. Deficiency outcomes include: impaired glucose tolerance, weight loss, peripheral neuropathy and confusion.

12. Fluoride

12.1. Main food sources include fish and teas.

12.2. Main functions include being involving in formation of bones and teeth and helps prevent tooth decay.

12.3. Recommended daily intake: 3.5 mg

12.4. Toxicity outcomes include: dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. some reports claim that it can weaken bones and raise the risk of fractures and that it will increase the risk of osteosarcoma.

12.5. Deficiency symptoms include osteoporosis or tooth decay.

13. Molybdenum

13.1. Main functions include being part of some enzymes.

13.2. Main food sources are legumes, bread and grains, leafy greens, green vegetables, milk, liver.

13.3. Recommended daily intake: 75 µg

13.4. Toxicity outcomes include: doses larger than 200 may cause kidney problems and copper deficiencies.

13.5. Deficiency symptoms include low levels of sulfates and alcohol intolerance. it also can lead to an increased risk of esophageal cancer. ALS has been linked as a possible symptom/result of deficiency.