Learning design and technology

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Learning design and technology by Mind Map: Learning design and technology

1. Instructional design & Learning theories

1.1. Basics of Learning theories

1.1.1. Behaviorism Definition Weakness Strengths

1.1.2. Cognitivism Definition Schema Three-stage information processing model Memory related points Prior knowledge related points Weakness Strengths

1.1.3. Constructivism Definition Redefinition for knowledge Redefinition for learning Redefinition for conceptual growth Weakness Strenghths

1.2. Learning theories comparison

1.2.1. Cognitivism vs. Constructivism Difference whether learning should be controlled in instruction Whether learning could be predicted Similarity How human mind process information

1.2.2. Behaviorism vs. Cognitivism Similarities Analyzing tasks and breaking it down to small chunks Establishing learning objectives Measuring learning performance based on objectives Difference Human mind's role in learning process

1.3. Instructional Design (ID) and learning theories

1.3.1. Different learning theories' guidance for ID ID based on Behaviorism Behavior objective Taxonomic analysis Mastery learning Programmed instruction Individualized instruction Computer-assisted instruction System approach ID based on Cognitivism Artificially intelligent learning program ID based on Constructivism Open-ended facilitating learning environment that representing the real world

1.3.2. Instructional design for different learning levels Introductory learning Advanced knowledge acquisition Expertise level learning

2. Online learning

2.1. Advantages of tech-based education

2.1.1. Flexibility

2.1.2. Economy

2.1.3. Enhanced learning

2.2. Instructional forms of online learning materials

2.2.1. Information access Definition Examples Advantages Better information accessibility Less printing Faster information delivery

2.2.2. Interactive learning Definition Example Advantages Better capability of engaging learners Encourage learners to make reflection or decisions

2.2.3. Networked learning Definition Examples

2.2.4. Materials development Definition Examples

2.3. Components of online learning settings

2.3.1. General

2.3.2. Lecture

2.3.3. Group discussion

2.3.4. Learning events Computer-based activity Hands-on acitivity

2.3.5. Communication

2.3.6. Self-study

2.3.7. Individual project

2.3.8. Group project

2.3.9. Testing

2.4. Learning outcomes

2.4.1. Initial knowledge

2.4.2. Advanced knowledge

2.4.3. Expertise

2.5. Understanding of lerning

2.5.1. Previous Planned knowledge transmission Sequenced instruction and learning

2.5.2. Current Individually constructed knowledge Ability of knowledge application and problem solving Learning environment Provide experience Ownership of learning process Exploration of errors Holistic form of assessment Electronic performance support system Resources Performance context Tools Scaffolding

2.6. Critical components of learning settings based on constructivism

2.6.1. Learning tasks Active and engaging cooperative and collaborative

2.6.2. Learning resources Less strict or rigid Diversified and authentic

2.6.3. Learning supports With an active facilitator Scaffolding

2.7. Instructional design approaches

2.7.1. Resource-based learning

2.7.2. Teacher-centered learning

2.7.3. Task-based learning

3. Reusable information object strategy

3.1. Definitions

3.1.1. Reusable Information Object (RIO)

3.1.2. Reusable Learning Object (RLO)

3.2. RLO-RIO structure

3.2.1. Overview

3.2.2. RIOs (7+/-2) Content items Practice items Assessment items

3.2.3. Summary

3.2.4. Assessment

3.3. Guidance for building RLOs

3.3.1. Overview Introduction Importance Objectives Prerequisites Scenario Topology Outline

3.3.2. Summary Review Next Steps Additional resources

3.3.3. Assessment Pass or Fail Threshold Number of Re-Takes Weighted assessment items

3.4. Guidance for building RIOs

3.4.1. Practice items

3.4.2. Assessment items

3.4.3. Cognitive level

3.4.4. Concept

3.4.5. Facts

3.4.6. Procedure Content items 1. Introduction 2. Facts 3. Procedure Table 4. Decision table 5. Combined Table 6. Demonstration 7. Instructor Notes Practice items Use Remeber

3.4.7. Process

3.4.8. Principle

4. Complex learning

4.1. Complex learning

4.1.1. Mastering task-specific constituent skills

4.1.2. Integrate and coordinate among different separate skills

4.2. A proposed learning model (4C/ID)

4.2.1. Component 1: Learning tasks Task classes Learning support Product-oriented support Process-oriented support

4.2.2. Component 2: Supportive information Mental modes Cognitive stratagies Cognitive feedback

4.2.3. Component 3: Just-in-time information Information displays Demonstrations and instances Corrective feedback

4.2.4. Component 4: Part-task practice Practice items Just-in-time information for part-task practice Overtraining

5. Web 2.0's Educational application

5.1. Read-Write Web

5.1.1. Definition

5.1.2. Examples

5.2. Subscribing to information

5.2.1. Definition

5.2.2. Example

5.2.3. Future Opportunity

5.3. Social spaces

5.3.1. Definition

5.3.2. Examples

5.3.3. Future Opportunity

5.4. The Internet as a platform

5.4.1. Definition

5.4.2. Examples

5.5. Open source

5.5.1. Definition

5.5.2. Examples

5.5.3. Future Opportunity 1

5.5.4. Future Opportunity 2

6. Instructional design based on Behaviorism & Cognitivism

6.1. Components of instruction planning

6.1.1. Determining learning outcomes

6.1.2. Defining performance objectives

6.1.3. Deciding sequence of topics & lessons

6.2. Nature of instruction——Communication

6.2.1. Form Verbal Gesture Picture

6.2.2. Aim Not merely informing learners Facilitating learning process

6.3. Structure of cognitive learning theory

6.3.1. Receptors

6.3.2. Sensory registers

6.3.3. Short-term memory

6.3.4. Long-term memory

6.3.5. Working memory

6.4. Learning process based on cognitive learning theory

6.4.1. 1. Attention

6.4.2. 2. Selective perception

6.4.3. 3. Rehearsal

6.4.4. 4. Semantic encoding

6.4.5. 5. Retrieval

6.4.6. 6. Response organization

6.4.7. 7. Feedback

6.5. Instruction events based on learning process

6.5.1. 1. Getting attention

6.5.2. 2. Informing learners of objective

6.5.3. 3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning

6.5.4. 4. Presenting the stimulus material

6.5.5. 5. Providing learning guidance

6.5.6. 6. Eliciting the performance

6.5.7. 7. Providing feedback about performance correctness

6.5.8. 8. Assessing the performance

6.5.9. 9. Enhancing retention and transfer

7. Multimedia learning

7.1. Learning style comparasion

7.1.1. Information delivery style Learning is just adding new info to memory

7.1.2. Deep learning Making sense of (understanding) the learning material Learning that leads to problem-solving transfer

7.2. Multimedia instructional message

7.2.1. Words + Pictures

7.2.2. Aiming at fostering deep learning

7.3. Multimedia learning principles

7.3.1. Multimedia effect

7.3.2. Coherence effect

7.3.3. Spatial Contiguity effect

7.3.4. Personalization effect

8. History of Instructional Media and Design

8.1. History of Instructional Media

8.1.1. Media Tools School Museum Visual Instruction Movement Slide Projectors Stereopticons Motion Picture Projectors Audiovisual Instruction Movement Sound Motion Pictures Radio Training Films Instructional Television Computer Personal Computer and Internet

8.1.2. Media Research Researches on features of audiovisual instruction Researches of learning principles Efficiency comparison of learning via different media Researches of communication theories Terminology shifts Current and future research scopes Attributes of media How media influence learning Instructional methods

8.2. History of Instructional Design

8.2.1. 1940s The origin of instructional design Training material development Trainees assessment and selection

8.2.2. 1950s The programmed instruction movement Learning content analysis Learning steps devising Learning result evaluation

8.2.3. 1960s Behavior objective movement Desired learning behavior description Learning condition specification Judgment standards establishment Criteria-referenced testing movement Purpose I: To assess student entry-level behavior Purpose II: To determine students' performance after learning Learning domains classification verbal info intellectual skill psychomotor skill attitude cognitive strategy Instructional events Hierarchical analysis Evaluation methods for educational material Summative evaluation Formative evaluation

8.2.4. 1970s Increasing enthusiasm in systems approach

8.2.5. 1980s Growth and redirection Similar strong enthusiasm in systems approach Researches on application of cognitive psychology

8.2.6. 1990s Changing views and practice Performance technology movement Growing interests in Constructivism Growth in the employment and development of e-performance support system Widely usage of Rapid prototyping Usage of Internet in distance learning Knowledge management

9. Concept learning

9.1. Traditional perspective

9.1.1. Classification of the views Classical view of concepts Definition Limitations Prototype & probabilistic view of concepts Definition Limitations Exemplar view of concepts Definition Limitations

9.1.2. Common Problems of the views Limit people's knowledge about concepts unable to account for concept in use lack coherence unable to account for varying functions of concepts

9.2. Revolutionary perspective

9.2.1. New view of concepts Definition When changes happen What features changes have Implication for concept learning & assessment design Implication for instruction Implication for assignment Implication for assessment

10. Handheld devices' educational application

10.1. A proposed classification of educational applications on handheld devices by functionality

10.1.1. Administration Function Examples Little pedagogy

10.1.2. Referential Function Examples Instructional pedagogy

10.1.3. Interactive Function Examples Instructional and Behaviorist pedagogy

10.1.4. Microwold Function Examples Constructionist pedagogy

10.1.5. Collaborative Function Examples Contextual, Constructionist, and Constructivist pedagogy

10.1.6. Location aware Function Examples Constructivist and Contextual pedagogy

10.1.7. Data collection Function Examples Little pedagogy

11. Collaborative learning supported by technology

11.1. Educational trend

11.1.1. Traditional instructional model

11.1.2. New instructional models

11.2. Collaborative learning supported by technology

11.2.1. Learner-centered view's guidance Cognitive and Metacognitive factors Motivational and Affective factors Developmental and Social factors Online dabate Freedom to comment Online query In-time feedback and encouragement Individual Difference

11.2.2. Constructivist view's guidance Cognitive Constructivism Social Constructivism

11.2.3. Socialcultural view's guidance Mediation Zone of proximal development Internalization Cognitive apprenticeship Modeling Coaching Scaffolding and fading Articulation Reflection Exploration Assisted learning Modeling Feedback Contingency management Instructing Cognitive structuring Questioning Teleapprenticeship Scaffold learning Intersubjectivity Activity setting as unit of analysis Distributed intelligence in a learning community

12. Instructional design based on Constructivism

12.1. Constructivism

12.1.1. Understanding

12.1.2. Stimulus

12.1.3. Knowledge

12.2. Instructional principles derived from Constructivism

12.2.1. Specify learning goals

12.2.2. Align learning goals with learners' incentives

12.2.3. Design an authentic learning environment

12.2.4. Require students to develop learning processes

12.2.5. Provide support and scaffolding

12.2.6. Encourage idea testing

12.2.7. Include reflection in the learning process

13. Problem based learning

13.1. Learning process of a proposed model

13.1.1. 1. Starting a new class 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Climate setting

13.1.2. 2. Starting a new problem 2.1 Set the problem 2.2 Bring the problem home 2.3 Describe the product/performance required 2.4 Assign tasks 2.5 Reasoning through the problem 2.6 Commitment as to outcome 2.7 Learning issue shaing 2.8 Resource identification 2.9 Schedule follow-up

13.1.3. 3. Problem follow-up 3.1 Resources used and their critique 3.2 Reassess the problem

13.1.4. 4. Performance presentation

13.1.5. 5. After Conclusion of problem 5.1 Knowledge abstraction and summary 5.2 Self-evaluation

13.2. Critical features

13.2.1. Learning goals

13.2.2. Problem generation

13.2.3. Problem presentation

13.2.4. Facilitator role