Learning design and technology

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Learning design and technology by Mind Map: Learning design and technology

1. Instructional design & Learning theories

1.1. Basics of Learning theories

1.1.1. Behaviorism

1.1.1.1. Definition

1.1.1.2. Weakness

1.1.1.3. Strengths

1.1.2. Cognitivism

1.1.2.1. Definition

1.1.2.1.1. Schema

1.1.2.1.2. Three-stage information processing model

1.1.2.1.3. Memory related points

1.1.2.1.4. Prior knowledge related points

1.1.2.2. Weakness

1.1.2.3. Strengths

1.1.3. Constructivism

1.1.3.1. Definition

1.1.3.1.1. Redefinition for knowledge

1.1.3.1.2. Redefinition for learning

1.1.3.1.3. Redefinition for conceptual growth

1.1.3.2. Weakness

1.1.3.3. Strenghths

1.2. Learning theories comparison

1.2.1. Cognitivism vs. Constructivism

1.2.1.1. Difference

1.2.1.1.1. whether learning should be controlled in instruction

1.2.1.1.2. Whether learning could be predicted

1.2.1.2. Similarity

1.2.1.2.1. How human mind process information

1.2.2. Behaviorism vs. Cognitivism

1.2.2.1. Similarities

1.2.2.1.1. Analyzing tasks and breaking it down to small chunks

1.2.2.1.2. Establishing learning objectives

1.2.2.1.3. Measuring learning performance based on objectives

1.2.2.2. Difference

1.2.2.2.1. Human mind's role in learning process

1.3. Instructional Design (ID) and learning theories

1.3.1. Different learning theories' guidance for ID

1.3.1.1. ID based on Behaviorism

1.3.1.1.1. Behavior objective

1.3.1.1.2. Taxonomic analysis

1.3.1.1.3. Mastery learning

1.3.1.1.4. Programmed instruction

1.3.1.1.5. Individualized instruction

1.3.1.1.6. Computer-assisted instruction

1.3.1.1.7. System approach

1.3.1.2. ID based on Cognitivism

1.3.1.2.1. Artificially intelligent learning program

1.3.1.3. ID based on Constructivism

1.3.1.3.1. Open-ended facilitating learning environment that representing the real world

1.3.2. Instructional design for different learning levels

1.3.2.1. Introductory learning

1.3.2.2. Advanced knowledge acquisition

1.3.2.3. Expertise level learning

2. Online learning

2.1. Advantages of tech-based education

2.1.1. Flexibility

2.1.2. Economy

2.1.3. Enhanced learning

2.2. Instructional forms of online learning materials

2.2.1. Information access

2.2.1.1. Definition

2.2.1.2. Examples

2.2.1.3. Advantages

2.2.1.3.1. Better information accessibility

2.2.1.3.2. Less printing

2.2.1.3.3. Faster information delivery

2.2.2. Interactive learning

2.2.2.1. Definition

2.2.2.2. Example

2.2.2.3. Advantages

2.2.2.3.1. Better capability of engaging learners

2.2.2.3.2. Encourage learners to make reflection or decisions

2.2.3. Networked learning

2.2.3.1. Definition

2.2.3.2. Examples

2.2.4. Materials development

2.2.4.1. Definition

2.2.4.2. Examples

2.3. Components of online learning settings

2.3.1. General

2.3.2. Lecture

2.3.3. Group discussion

2.3.4. Learning events

2.3.4.1. Computer-based activity

2.3.4.2. Hands-on acitivity

2.3.5. Communication

2.3.6. Self-study

2.3.7. Individual project

2.3.8. Group project

2.3.9. Testing

2.4. Learning outcomes

2.4.1. Initial knowledge

2.4.2. Advanced knowledge

2.4.3. Expertise

2.5. Understanding of lerning

2.5.1. Previous

2.5.1.1. Planned knowledge transmission

2.5.1.2. Sequenced instruction and learning

2.5.2. Current

2.5.2.1. Individually constructed knowledge

2.5.2.2. Ability of knowledge application and problem solving

2.5.2.3. Learning environment

2.5.2.3.1. Provide experience

2.5.2.3.2. Ownership of learning process

2.5.2.3.3. Exploration of errors

2.5.2.3.4. Holistic form of assessment

2.5.2.4. Electronic performance support system

2.5.2.4.1. Resources

2.5.2.4.2. Performance context

2.5.2.4.3. Tools

2.5.2.4.4. Scaffolding

2.6. Critical components of learning settings based on constructivism

2.6.1. Learning tasks

2.6.1.1. Active and engaging

2.6.1.2. cooperative and collaborative

2.6.2. Learning resources

2.6.2.1. Less strict or rigid

2.6.2.2. Diversified and authentic

2.6.3. Learning supports

2.6.3.1. With an active facilitator

2.6.3.2. Scaffolding

2.7. Instructional design approaches

2.7.1. Resource-based learning

2.7.2. Teacher-centered learning

2.7.3. Task-based learning

3. Reusable information object strategy

3.1. Definitions

3.1.1. Reusable Information Object (RIO)

3.1.2. Reusable Learning Object (RLO)

3.2. RLO-RIO structure

3.2.1. Overview

3.2.2. RIOs (7+/-2)

3.2.2.1. Content items

3.2.2.2. Practice items

3.2.2.3. Assessment items

3.2.3. Summary

3.2.4. Assessment

3.3. Guidance for building RLOs

3.3.1. Overview

3.3.1.1. Introduction

3.3.1.2. Importance

3.3.1.3. Objectives

3.3.1.4. Prerequisites

3.3.1.5. Scenario

3.3.1.6. Topology

3.3.1.7. Outline

3.3.2. Summary

3.3.2.1. Review

3.3.2.2. Next Steps

3.3.2.3. Additional resources

3.3.3. Assessment

3.3.3.1. Pass or Fail Threshold

3.3.3.2. Number of Re-Takes

3.3.3.3. Weighted assessment items

3.4. Guidance for building RIOs

3.4.1. Practice items

3.4.2. Assessment items

3.4.3. Cognitive level

3.4.4. Concept

3.4.5. Facts

3.4.6. Procedure

3.4.6.1. Content items

3.4.6.1.1. 1. Introduction

3.4.6.1.2. 2. Facts

3.4.6.1.3. 3. Procedure Table

3.4.6.1.4. 4. Decision table

3.4.6.1.5. 5. Combined Table

3.4.6.1.6. 6. Demonstration

3.4.6.1.7. 7. Instructor Notes

3.4.6.2. Practice items

3.4.6.2.1. Use

3.4.6.2.2. Remeber

3.4.7. Process

3.4.8. Principle

4. Complex learning

4.1. Complex learning

4.1.1. Mastering task-specific constituent skills

4.1.2. Integrate and coordinate among different separate skills

4.2. A proposed learning model (4C/ID)

4.2.1. Component 1: Learning tasks

4.2.1.1. Task classes

4.2.1.2. Learning support

4.2.1.2.1. Product-oriented support

4.2.1.2.2. Process-oriented support

4.2.2. Component 2: Supportive information

4.2.2.1. Mental modes

4.2.2.2. Cognitive stratagies

4.2.2.3. Cognitive feedback

4.2.3. Component 3: Just-in-time information

4.2.3.1. Information displays

4.2.3.2. Demonstrations and instances

4.2.3.3. Corrective feedback

4.2.4. Component 4: Part-task practice

4.2.4.1. Practice items

4.2.4.2. Just-in-time information for part-task practice

4.2.4.3. Overtraining

5. Web 2.0's Educational application

5.1. Read-Write Web

5.1.1. Definition

5.1.2. Examples

5.2. Subscribing to information

5.2.1. Definition

5.2.2. Example

5.2.3. Future Opportunity

5.3. Social spaces

5.3.1. Definition

5.3.2. Examples

5.3.3. Future Opportunity

5.4. The Internet as a platform

5.4.1. Definition

5.4.2. Examples

5.5. Open source

5.5.1. Definition

5.5.2. Examples

5.5.3. Future Opportunity 1

5.5.4. Future Opportunity 2

6. Instructional design based on Behaviorism & Cognitivism

6.1. Components of instruction planning

6.1.1. Determining learning outcomes

6.1.2. Defining performance objectives

6.1.3. Deciding sequence of topics & lessons

6.2. Nature of instruction——Communication

6.2.1. Form

6.2.1.1. Verbal

6.2.1.2. Gesture

6.2.1.3. Picture

6.2.2. Aim

6.2.2.1. Not merely informing learners

6.2.2.2. Facilitating learning process

6.3. Structure of cognitive learning theory

6.3.1. Receptors

6.3.2. Sensory registers

6.3.3. Short-term memory

6.3.4. Long-term memory

6.3.5. Working memory

6.4. Learning process based on cognitive learning theory

6.4.1. 1. Attention

6.4.2. 2. Selective perception

6.4.3. 3. Rehearsal

6.4.4. 4. Semantic encoding

6.4.5. 5. Retrieval

6.4.6. 6. Response organization

6.4.7. 7. Feedback

6.5. Instruction events based on learning process

6.5.1. 1. Getting attention

6.5.2. 2. Informing learners of objective

6.5.3. 3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning

6.5.4. 4. Presenting the stimulus material

6.5.5. 5. Providing learning guidance

6.5.6. 6. Eliciting the performance

6.5.7. 7. Providing feedback about performance correctness

6.5.8. 8. Assessing the performance

6.5.9. 9. Enhancing retention and transfer

7. Multimedia learning

7.1. Learning style comparasion

7.1.1. Information delivery style

7.1.1.1. Learning is just adding new info to memory

7.1.2. Deep learning

7.1.2.1. Making sense of (understanding) the learning material

7.1.2.2. Learning that leads to problem-solving transfer

7.2. Multimedia instructional message

7.2.1. Words + Pictures

7.2.2. Aiming at fostering deep learning

7.3. Multimedia learning principles

7.3.1. Multimedia effect

7.3.2. Coherence effect

7.3.3. Spatial Contiguity effect

7.3.4. Personalization effect

8. History of Instructional Media and Design

8.1. History of Instructional Media

8.1.1. Media Tools

8.1.1.1. School Museum

8.1.1.2. Visual Instruction Movement

8.1.1.2.1. Slide Projectors

8.1.1.2.2. Stereopticons

8.1.1.2.3. Motion Picture Projectors

8.1.1.3. Audiovisual Instruction Movement

8.1.1.3.1. Sound Motion Pictures

8.1.1.3.2. Radio

8.1.1.3.3. Training Films

8.1.1.4. Instructional Television

8.1.1.5. Computer

8.1.1.6. Personal Computer and Internet

8.1.2. Media Research

8.1.2.1. Researches on features of audiovisual instruction

8.1.2.2. Researches of learning principles

8.1.2.3. Efficiency comparison of learning via different media

8.1.2.4. Researches of communication theories

8.1.2.5. Terminology shifts

8.1.2.6. Current and future research scopes

8.1.2.6.1. Attributes of media

8.1.2.6.2. How media influence learning

8.1.2.6.3. Instructional methods

8.2. History of Instructional Design

8.2.1. 1940s

8.2.1.1. The origin of instructional design

8.2.1.1.1. Training material development

8.2.1.1.2. Trainees assessment and selection

8.2.2. 1950s

8.2.2.1. The programmed instruction movement

8.2.2.1.1. Learning content analysis

8.2.2.1.2. Learning steps devising

8.2.2.1.3. Learning result evaluation

8.2.3. 1960s

8.2.3.1. Behavior objective movement

8.2.3.1.1. Desired learning behavior description

8.2.3.1.2. Learning condition specification

8.2.3.1.3. Judgment standards establishment

8.2.3.2. Criteria-referenced testing movement

8.2.3.2.1. Purpose I: To assess student entry-level behavior

8.2.3.2.2. Purpose II: To determine students' performance after learning

8.2.3.3. Learning domains classification

8.2.3.3.1. verbal info

8.2.3.3.2. intellectual skill

8.2.3.3.3. psychomotor skill

8.2.3.3.4. attitude

8.2.3.3.5. cognitive strategy

8.2.3.4. Instructional events

8.2.3.5. Hierarchical analysis

8.2.3.6. Evaluation methods for educational material

8.2.3.6.1. Summative evaluation

8.2.3.6.2. Formative evaluation

8.2.4. 1970s

8.2.4.1. Increasing enthusiasm in systems approach

8.2.5. 1980s

8.2.5.1. Growth and redirection

8.2.5.1.1. Similar strong enthusiasm in systems approach

8.2.5.1.2. Researches on application of cognitive psychology

8.2.6. 1990s

8.2.6.1. Changing views and practice

8.2.6.1.1. Performance technology movement

8.2.6.1.2. Growing interests in Constructivism

8.2.6.1.3. Growth in the employment and development of e-performance support system

8.2.6.1.4. Widely usage of Rapid prototyping

8.2.6.1.5. Usage of Internet in distance learning

8.2.6.1.6. Knowledge management

9. Concept learning

9.1. Traditional perspective

9.1.1. Classification of the views

9.1.1.1. Classical view of concepts

9.1.1.1.1. Definition

9.1.1.1.2. Limitations

9.1.1.2. Prototype & probabilistic view of concepts

9.1.1.2.1. Definition

9.1.1.2.2. Limitations

9.1.1.3. Exemplar view of concepts

9.1.1.3.1. Definition

9.1.1.3.2. Limitations

9.1.2. Common Problems of the views

9.1.2.1. Limit people's knowledge about concepts

9.1.2.2. unable to account for concept in use

9.1.2.3. lack coherence

9.1.2.4. unable to account for varying functions of concepts

9.2. Revolutionary perspective

9.2.1. New view of concepts

9.2.1.1. Definition

9.2.1.1.1. When changes happen

9.2.1.1.2. What features changes have

9.2.1.2. Implication for concept learning & assessment design

9.2.1.2.1. Implication for instruction

9.2.1.2.2. Implication for assignment

9.2.1.2.3. Implication for assessment

10. Handheld devices' educational application

10.1. A proposed classification of educational applications on handheld devices by functionality

10.1.1. Administration

10.1.1.1. Function

10.1.1.2. Examples

10.1.1.3. Little pedagogy

10.1.2. Referential

10.1.2.1. Function

10.1.2.2. Examples

10.1.2.3. Instructional pedagogy

10.1.3. Interactive

10.1.3.1. Function

10.1.3.2. Examples

10.1.3.3. Instructional and Behaviorist pedagogy

10.1.4. Microwold

10.1.4.1. Function

10.1.4.2. Examples

10.1.4.3. Constructionist pedagogy

10.1.5. Collaborative

10.1.5.1. Function

10.1.5.2. Examples

10.1.5.3. Contextual, Constructionist, and Constructivist pedagogy

10.1.6. Location aware

10.1.6.1. Function

10.1.6.2. Examples

10.1.6.3. Constructivist and Contextual pedagogy

10.1.7. Data collection

10.1.7.1. Function

10.1.7.2. Examples

10.1.7.3. Little pedagogy

11. Collaborative learning supported by technology

11.1. Educational trend

11.1.1. Traditional instructional model

11.1.2. New instructional models

11.2. Collaborative learning supported by technology

11.2.1. Learner-centered view's guidance

11.2.1.1. Cognitive and Metacognitive factors

11.2.1.2. Motivational and Affective factors

11.2.1.3. Developmental and Social factors

11.2.1.3.1. Online dabate

11.2.1.3.2. Freedom to comment

11.2.1.3.3. Online query

11.2.1.3.4. In-time feedback and encouragement

11.2.1.4. Individual Difference

11.2.2. Constructivist view's guidance

11.2.2.1. Cognitive Constructivism

11.2.2.2. Social Constructivism

11.2.3. Socialcultural view's guidance

11.2.3.1. Mediation

11.2.3.2. Zone of proximal development

11.2.3.3. Internalization

11.2.3.4. Cognitive apprenticeship

11.2.3.4.1. Modeling

11.2.3.4.2. Coaching

11.2.3.4.3. Scaffolding and fading

11.2.3.4.4. Articulation

11.2.3.4.5. Reflection

11.2.3.4.6. Exploration

11.2.3.5. Assisted learning

11.2.3.5.1. Modeling

11.2.3.5.2. Feedback

11.2.3.5.3. Contingency management

11.2.3.5.4. Instructing

11.2.3.5.5. Cognitive structuring

11.2.3.5.6. Questioning

11.2.3.6. Teleapprenticeship

11.2.3.7. Scaffold learning

11.2.3.8. Intersubjectivity

11.2.3.9. Activity setting as unit of analysis

11.2.3.10. Distributed intelligence in a learning community

12. Instructional design based on Constructivism

12.1. Constructivism

12.1.1. Understanding

12.1.2. Stimulus

12.1.3. Knowledge

12.2. Instructional principles derived from Constructivism

12.2.1. Specify learning goals

12.2.2. Align learning goals with learners' incentives

12.2.3. Design an authentic learning environment

12.2.4. Require students to develop learning processes

12.2.5. Provide support and scaffolding

12.2.6. Encourage idea testing

12.2.7. Include reflection in the learning process

13. Problem based learning

13.1. Learning process of a proposed model

13.1.1. 1. Starting a new class

13.1.1.1. 1.1 Introduction

13.1.1.2. 1.2 Climate setting

13.1.2. 2. Starting a new problem

13.1.2.1. 2.1 Set the problem

13.1.2.2. 2.2 Bring the problem home

13.1.2.3. 2.3 Describe the product/performance required

13.1.2.4. 2.4 Assign tasks

13.1.2.5. 2.5 Reasoning through the problem

13.1.2.6. 2.6 Commitment as to outcome

13.1.2.7. 2.7 Learning issue shaing

13.1.2.8. 2.8 Resource identification

13.1.2.9. 2.9 Schedule follow-up

13.1.3. 3. Problem follow-up

13.1.3.1. 3.1 Resources used and their critique

13.1.3.2. 3.2 Reassess the problem

13.1.4. 4. Performance presentation

13.1.5. 5. After Conclusion of problem

13.1.5.1. 5.1 Knowledge abstraction and summary

13.1.5.2. 5.2 Self-evaluation

13.2. Critical features

13.2.1. Learning goals

13.2.2. Problem generation

13.2.3. Problem presentation

13.2.4. Facilitator role