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Learning design and technology by Mind Map: Learning design and technology
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Learning design and technology

Instructional design & Learning theories

Basics of Learning theories

Behaviorism, Definition, Weakness, Strengths

Cognitivism, Definition, Schema, Three-stage information processing model, Sensory register, Short-term memory, Long-term memory, Memory related points, Meaningful effects, Serial position effects, Practical effects, Organization effects, State dependent effects, Mnemonic effects, Prior knowledge related points, Transfer effects, Interference effects, Schema effects, Advance organizers, Weakness, Strengths

Constructivism, Definition, Redefinition for knowledge, Redefinition for learning, Redefinition for conceptual growth, Weakness, Strenghths

Learning theories comparison

Cognitivism vs. Constructivism, Difference, whether learning should be controlled in instruction, Whether learning could be predicted, Similarity, How human mind process information

Behaviorism vs. Cognitivism, Similarities, Analyzing tasks and breaking it down to small chunks, Establishing learning objectives, Measuring learning performance based on objectives, Difference, Human mind's role in learning process

Instructional Design (ID) and learning theories

Different learning theories' guidance for ID, ID based on Behaviorism, Behavior objective, Taxonomic analysis, Mastery learning, Programmed instruction, Individualized instruction, Computer-assisted instruction, System approach, ID based on Cognitivism, Artificially intelligent learning program, ID based on Constructivism, Open-ended facilitating learning environment that representing the real world, Hypertext, Hypermedia

Instructional design for different learning levels, Introductory learning, Advanced knowledge acquisition, Expertise level learning

Online learning

Advantages of tech-based education

Flexibility

Economy

Enhanced learning

Instructional forms of online learning materials

Information access, Definition, Examples, Advantages, Better information accessibility, Less printing, Faster information delivery

Interactive learning, Definition, Example, Advantages, Better capability of engaging learners, Encourage learners to make reflection or decisions

Networked learning, Definition, Examples

Materials development, Definition, Examples

Components of online learning settings

General

Lecture

Group discussion

Learning events, Computer-based activity, Hands-on acitivity

Communication

Self-study

Individual project

Group project

Testing

Learning outcomes

Initial knowledge

Advanced knowledge

Expertise

Understanding of lerning

Previous, Planned knowledge transmission, Sequenced instruction and learning

Current, Individually constructed knowledge, Ability of knowledge application and problem solving, Learning environment, Provide experience, Ownership of learning process, Exploration of errors, Holistic form of assessment, Electronic performance support system, Resources, Performance context, Tools, Scaffolding

Critical components of learning settings based on constructivism

Learning tasks, Active and engaging, cooperative and collaborative

Learning resources, Less strict or rigid, Diversified and authentic

Learning supports, With an active facilitator, Scaffolding

Instructional design approaches

Resource-based learning

Teacher-centered learning

Task-based learning

Reusable information object strategy

Definitions

Reusable Information Object (RIO)

Reusable Learning Object (RLO)

RLO-RIO structure

A RLO is created by combining 7 relevant RIOs together.

Overview

RIOs (7+/-2), Content items, Practice items, Assessment items

Summary

Assessment

Guidance for building RLOs

Overview, Introduction, Importance, Objectives, Prerequisites, Scenario, Topology, Outline

Summary, Review, Next Steps, Additional resources

Assessment, Pass or Fail Threshold, Number of Re-Takes, Weighted assessment items

Guidance for building RIOs

Practice items

Assessment items

Cognitive level

Concept

Facts

Procedure, Content items, 1. Introduction, 2. Facts, 3. Procedure Table, 4. Decision table, 5. Combined Table, 6. Demonstration, 7. Instructor Notes, Practice items, Use, Remeber

Process

Principle

Complex learning

Complex learning

Complex learning is featured by the requirement for master of integrated set of learning goals.

Mastering task-specific constituent skills

Integrate and coordinate among different separate skills

A proposed learning model (4C/ID)

Component 1: Learning tasks, Task classes, Learning support, Product-oriented support, Process-oriented support

Component 2: Supportive information, Mental modes, Cognitive stratagies, Cognitive feedback

Component 3: Just-in-time information, Information displays, Demonstrations and instances, Corrective feedback

Component 4: Part-task practice, Practice items, Just-in-time information for part-task practice, Overtraining

Web 2.0's Educational application

Read-Write Web

Definition

Examples

Subscribing to information

Definition

Example

Future Opportunity

Social spaces

Definition

Examples

Future Opportunity

The Internet as a platform

Definition

Examples

Open source

Definition

Examples

Future Opportunity 1

Future Opportunity 2

Instructional design based on Behaviorism & Cognitivism

Components of instruction planning

Determining learning outcomes

Defining performance objectives

Deciding sequence of topics & lessons

Nature of instruction——Communication

Form, Verbal, Gesture, Picture

Aim, Not merely informing learners, Facilitating learning process

Structure of cognitive learning theory

Receptors

Sensory registers

Short-term memory

Long-term memory

Working memory

Learning process based on cognitive learning theory

1. Attention

2. Selective perception

3. Rehearsal

4. Semantic encoding

5. Retrieval

6. Response organization

7. Feedback

Instruction events based on learning process

1. Getting attention

2. Informing learners of objective

3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning

4. Presenting the stimulus material

5. Providing learning guidance

6. Eliciting the performance

7. Providing feedback about performance correctness

8. Assessing the performance

9. Enhancing retention and transfer

Multimedia learning

Learning style comparasion

Information delivery style, Learning is just adding new info to memory

Deep learning, Making sense of (understanding) the learning material, Learning that leads to problem-solving transfer

Multimedia instructional message

Words + Pictures

Aiming at fostering deep learning

Multimedia learning principles

The following principles in sub-branches are only applicable to multimedia messages that provide explanations of how sth works.

Multimedia effect

Coherence effect

Spatial Contiguity effect

Personalization effect

History of Instructional Media and Design

History of Instructional Media

Media Tools, School Museum, Visual Instruction Movement, Slide Projectors, Stereopticons, Motion Picture Projectors, Audiovisual Instruction Movement, Sound Motion Pictures, Radio, Training Films, Instructional Television, Computer, Personal Computer and Internet

Media Research, Researches on features of audiovisual instruction, Researches of learning principles, Efficiency comparison of learning via different media, Researches of communication theories, Terminology shifts, Current and future research scopes, Attributes of media, How media influence learning, Instructional methods

History of Instructional Design

1940s, The origin of instructional design, Training material development, Trainees assessment and selection

1950s, The programmed instruction movement, Learning content analysis, Learning steps devising, Learning result evaluation

1960s, Behavior objective movement, Desired learning behavior description, Learning condition specification, Judgment standards establishment, Criteria-referenced testing movement, Purpose I: To assess student entry-level behavior, Purpose II: To determine students' performance after learning, Learning domains classification, verbal info, intellectual skill, psychomotor skill, attitude, cognitive strategy, Instructional events, Hierarchical analysis, Evaluation methods for educational material, Summative evaluation, Formative evaluation

1970s, Increasing enthusiasm in systems approach

1980s, Growth and redirection, Similar strong enthusiasm in systems approach, Researches on application of cognitive psychology

1990s, Changing views and practice, Performance technology movement, Growing interests in Constructivism, Growth in the employment and development of e-performance support system, Widely usage of Rapid prototyping, Usage of Internet in distance learning, Knowledge management

Concept learning

Traditional perspective

Classification of the views, Classical view of concepts, Definition, Limitations, Prototype & probabilistic view of concepts, Definition, Limitations, Exemplar view of concepts, Definition, Limitations

Common Problems of the views, Limit people's knowledge about concepts, unable to account for concept in use, lack coherence, unable to account for varying functions of concepts

Revolutionary perspective

New view of concepts, Definition, When changes happen, What features changes have, View of Evolution, View of Revolution, Implication for concept learning & assessment design, Implication for instruction, Implication for assignment, Types of assignment, Free word associations, Similarity rating, Card sort, Approaches of presenting assignment, Cognitive maps, pathfinder networks, Implication for assessment, Focus, Methods

Handheld devices' educational application

A proposed classification of educational applications on handheld devices by functionality

Administration, Function, Examples, Little pedagogy

Referential, Function, Examples, Instructional pedagogy

Interactive, Function, Examples, Instructional and Behaviorist pedagogy

Microwold, Function, Examples, Constructionist pedagogy

Collaborative, Function, Examples, Contextual, Constructionist, and Constructivist pedagogy

Location aware, Function, Examples, Constructivist and Contextual pedagogy

Data collection, Function, Examples, Little pedagogy

Collaborative learning supported by technology

Educational trend

Traditional instructional model

New instructional models

Collaborative learning supported by technology

Learner-centered view's guidance, Cognitive and Metacognitive factors, Motivational and Affective factors, Developmental and Social factors, Online dabate, Freedom to comment, Online query, In-time feedback and encouragement, Individual Difference

Constructivist view's guidance, Cognitive Constructivism, Social Constructivism

Socialcultural view's guidance, Mediation, Zone of proximal development, Internalization, Cognitive apprenticeship, Modeling, Coaching, Scaffolding and fading, Articulation, Reflection, Exploration, Assisted learning, Modeling, Feedback, Contingency management, Instructing, Cognitive structuring, Questioning, Teleapprenticeship, Scaffold learning, Intersubjectivity, Activity setting as unit of analysis, Distributed intelligence in a learning community

Instructional design based on Constructivism

Constructivism

Understanding

Stimulus

Knowledge

Instructional principles derived from Constructivism

Specify learning goals

Align learning goals with learners' incentives

Design an authentic learning environment

Require students to develop learning processes

Provide support and scaffolding

Encourage idea testing

Include reflection in the learning process

Problem based learning

Learning process of a proposed model

1. Starting a new class, 1.1 Introduction, 1.2 Climate setting

2. Starting a new problem, 2.1 Set the problem, 2.2 Bring the problem home, 2.3 Describe the product/performance required, 2.4 Assign tasks, 2.5 Reasoning through the problem, 2.6 Commitment as to outcome, 2.7 Learning issue shaing, 2.8 Resource identification, 2.9 Schedule follow-up

3. Problem follow-up, 3.1 Resources used and their critique, 3.2 Reassess the problem

4. Performance presentation

5. After Conclusion of problem, 5.1 Knowledge abstraction and summary, 5.2 Self-evaluation

Critical features

Learning goals

Problem generation

Problem presentation

Facilitator role