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Linguistic by Mind Map: Linguistic

1. Psycholinguistics

1.1. Psycholinguistics is a study of the language and the mind to find out the structure and process of language and it underlies the human ability to speak and understand.

1.1.1. A. Psycholinguistic evidence: the mind cannot be directly observed. Spontaneous utterances which deviate from the norm in some way are the most informative.

1.1.2. B. Acquiring language - NATURE: traditionally language was seen as an innate human ability. Example: dogs naturally bark. - NURTURE: language is a product of upbringing and environment. Example: dogs may be taught to beg.

1.1.3. C. The content-process controversy - Content approach: There are those who consider that this uniformity of speech development indicates that children innately contain a blueprint for language.

1.1.4. D. The rule-governed nature of child language - The rule used by children is simpler than that of adults. Example: Put no or not in front of the sentence. - Children’s own rules of grammar are more important to them than mere imitation. - Process approach: There are those who support a process approach, and argue that children could not possibly contain specific language universals. - Children do not formulate a new rule overnight, and suddenly replace the old one with a new one.

1.1.5. E. Learning the meaning of words Children have to learn not only the syntax and sounds of their language, but also the meaning of words. - Under generalization - Overgeneralization

1.1.6. F. Recognizing words Understanding speech by taking down a mental dictation perspective is wrong. Understanding speech is active not passive process.

1.1.7. G. Understanding syntax The problem arose because when interpreting sentences, people tend to impose a subject–verb–object sequence on them. Example: The boy kicked the ball threw it back. - The boy who kicked the ball threw it back. - The boy kicked the ball, then threw it back.

1.1.8. H. The human’s language abilities A. Speech production - words selection - integration of syntax - Slips of the tongue -Pauses (where the speaker stops to think) B. Speech comprehension - Construction process -Utilization approach

2. Semantics

2.1. Semantics is the philosophical and scientific study of meaning in natural and artificial languages.

2.1.1. Types of Semantics 1. Lexical semantics is a word that contains various meaning. Example Band : Music Group, material, wavelength 2. Homophones is the word which have similar pronunciation, but different writing and meaning. Example : Write - Right

2.1.2. Semantics Relations A. Hyponym : Relation. Example : Plant = Flower, tree, etc. B. Meronymy : Part of relation. C. Synonym : The word that sound different, but have the same meaning. Example : Mother and Father = Parents D. Antonym : The word has the opposite of meaning. Example : tall >< short

2.1.3. Semantics Relations Among Words 1. Polysemy : A word which has two more related meanings. For the example, Bright : Shining : Intelligent 2. Homonymy : A word which has two or more entirely distinct meanings. For example, Club : A social organization : a blunt weapon 3. Homophony : Different words pronounced the same, but spelled differently. Example : Two and too 4. Homography : Different words, the pronounced differently.

3. Pragmatics is the study of how language is used and how language is integrated in context.


3.1.1. 1. Maxim of quantity (give the right amount of information when you talk).

3.1.2. 2. Maxim of quality (be truthful).

3.1.3. 3. Maxim of relevance (be relevant).

3.1.4. 4. Maxim of manner (be clear and orderly).

3.2. SPEECH ACTS - to describe actions.

3.2.1. 1. Declarative

3.2.2. 2. Representative

3.2.3. 3. Directive

3.2.4. 4. Expressive

3.2.5. 5. Commisive

3.3. TAKING IT IN TURNS - people take it in turns to talk.

3.3.1. For example"Would you like to visit the museum with me this evening?" → "I'd love to!"

3.4. REPAIRS - People cannot always explain things properly. Or they make a mistake.

3.4.1. 1. Self - repair when a speaker spontaneously notices a problem and solves it.

3.4.2. 2. Other - repair when someone is not quite sure about what has been said, or suspects that the other person has made a mistake.

3.5. POLITENESS - No criticism and interference.

3.5.1. Politeness Strategies 1. Bald on-record strategy: The speaker directly addresses the other as a mean of expressing the speaker needs. 2. Off-record indirect strategies: The main purpose is to take some of the pressure off of you. 3. The positive politeness strategy: Leads the requester to appeal to a common goal and confirms that the relationship is friendly. 4. The negative politeness strategy: The main focus for using this strategy is to assume that you may not be imposing on the hearer.

4. Corpus Lingustic

4.1. Study of language based on large colections of "real life" language

4.2. Corpus and Corpora

4.2.1. Corpus is a collection of natural language

4.2.2. Corpora is a plural form from corpus

4.3. Concordancing

4.3.1. Software program to analyze corpora and list the result

4.4. Function

4.4.1. To discover pattern and meaning

4.5. Register Variation

4.5.1. Varieties of language which are used for different situation

4.5.2. General Register Fiction Academic Propose Newspaper Casual Conversation

4.5.3. Specific Register Scientific Text Literary Critism Linguistic Studies

4.6. Advantages of Corpus

4.6.1. Investigates almost many language

4.6.2. discover not only the pattern but also the extent to which they are used

4.6.3. More objective view of language

4.7. Applying Corpus Linguistic to Teaching

4.7.1. Syllabus Design The syllabus organized the teacher

4.7.2. Materials Development What student needed Could conduct the analysis or simply use a published corpus as a references guide

4.7.3. Classroom Activity Student can analyze using concordancing and chosen corpus to make their own discoveries

4.8. Teacher or Students Roles and Benefits

4.8.1. Teacher Act as a research facilitator

4.8.2. Student The center of the learning process

4.8.3. Goals The potential different meanings and uses of common word Useful phrases and typical colocation they might use themselves The structure and nature of both written and spoken discource The certain language features and more typical of some kind of text

4.8.4. Functions Comparing language analyzing the language in the book Generate students' exercises and activities Analyze usage Examine word order Comparing similar words

5. Psycholinguistic

5.1. Study of the language and the mind

5.2. Evidence

5.2.1. The mind cannot be directly observed

5.3. Acquiring Language

5.3.1. Nature and Nurture

5.4. The Content Process Controversy

5.4.1. Content Approach

5.4.2. Process Approach

5.5. The Rule Governed of Child

5.5.1. Simpler

5.5.2. Children's own rules grammar are more important to them than mere imitation

5.5.3. Do not formulate a new rule overnight

5.6. Learning The Meaning of The Words

5.6.1. Under Generalize Child uses a word in a more limited way than adults

5.6.2. Overgeneralization The extension of a rule beyond to its proper limits

5.7. Recognizing Words

5.7.1. Understanding speech by taking down a mental dictation perspective is wrong

5.8. Understanding Syntax

5.8.1. People tend to impose a subject-verb-object sequence on them

5.9. The Human Language Abilities

5.9.1. Speech Production Words Selection Integration of Syntax

5.9.2. Speech Comprehension Construction Process Syntactic approach Semantic approach Utilization process Speech art Prepositional content Thematic structure

5.10. Speech Disorder

5.10.1. Broca Aphasia Understand everything Have difficulty in finding words

5.10.2. Wernickle Aphasia Speak fluently, but do not always make sense Impaired understanding

6. Phonology and Phonetics

6.1. Phonetics is the study of speech sounds.

6.1.1. Consonants 1. Place of articulation Velar Bilabial Labio-dental Palatal Alveolar 2. Manner of articulation Stops Fricatives Affricatives 3. Vocal cord Voiced

6.1.2. Vowels Voiceless

6.2. phonology is the study of sound patterns.

6.2.1. Phoneme The smallest segment of sound which can distinguishtwowords.

6.2.2. Allophone A variation of phonetics

7. Morphology

7.1. Morphology is the study of the internal structure of words and forms a core part of linguistic study today.

7.2. Morphemes are the smallest units of meaning in a language. Morphemes have two types.

7.2.1. Free Morphemes Free morpheme is a morpheme (or word element) that can stand alone as a word. The examples : Bird, Drive, Read. etc

7.2.2. 2. Conversion : The process of changing the class of word without changing the form. Example : Butter (Noun) to Do not butter (Verb) the bread for me.

7.2.3. Bound Morphemes Bound Morphemes 1. Derivational : a bound morphemes that create new words or make words become different grammatical class the stem. For example : Hope (N) to Hopeful (adj). 2. Inflectional : a bound morphemes does not changing the original grammatical category. Word Formation 1. Blending : A word created by combining two separate words with different meaning. Example : Breakfast + Lunch = Brunch. 3. Compounding : The process of combining two words to create a new word. Example : Text + Book = Textbook. 4. Coinage : The invention of totally new words.

8. Syntax

8.1. Syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences (sentence structure) in a given language, usually including word order.

8.1.1. Content and Function words A. Content words have a descriptive meaning. For examples : Noun, Verb, Adjective, and Adverb. B. Function words show grammatical relationship between content words, phrases or clauses. C. Constituent : syntactic unit in a sentence. Example : The Indonesia set a new record.

8.1.2. Rewrite rules The symbol to the left of an arrow is replaced by an expanded from written to the right of the arrow. Example : S - NPVP. They are explicit.

8.1.3. Complex Sentences Conjoining sentence. For example : I teaching linguistics and he teaches literature. Embedding Sentence : An embedded clause is a clause used in the middle of another clause.

8.1.4. Componential Analyst A way proposed by the structural semantics to analyze word meaning. Example : Man ( Human+ adult + male).

8.1.5. Prototype Theory A cognitive reference point that representative the meaning of a word in a category.. Example : Furniture = chair, table, cupboard.

9. Stylistic

9.1. Science which explores how readers interact with the language of (mainly literary) texts in order to explain how we understand, and are affected by texts when we read them.

9.2. Phonological Level

9.2.1. Combination of sound

9.3. Graphological Level

9.3.1. The arrangement of words

9.4. Lexical Level

9.4.1. The total numbers of word forms words may be repeated

9.5. Syntactic Level

9.5.1. The arrangement of the words in senten

9.6. Semantic Level

9.6.1. The level of meaning in every sentence Metaphor Personification Simile

9.7. Morphological Level

9.7.1. Study for the smallest grammaticel units

9.8. Discourse Level

9.8.1. Is any written or spoken communication

9.9. News

9.10. Advertising