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BIO 311C by Mind Map: BIO 311C


1.1. Mitosis

1.1.1. Interphase G1 Cellular Growth Accumulation of materials for DNA Synthesis or s phase S Phase DNA Synthesis and Replication G2 Cell synthesizes proteins needed for cell division

1.1.2. Mitotic (M) Phase Mitosis Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis Cytoplasm divides

1.2. Meiosis

1.2.1. Meiosis I Prophase I Chromosomes condense and pair up Crossing over occurs Metaphase I Spindle fibers from opposing centrosomes connect and align them to the middle of the cell Anaphase I Spindle fibers contract and split the bivalve the Homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell Telophase I Chromosomes decondense Nuclear membrane may reform Cytokinesis Cell divides to form two haploid daughter cells

1.2.2. Meiosis II Prophase II Chromosomes condense n Nuclear membrane dissolves con Centrosomes move to opposite poles perpendicular to before Metaphase II Spindle fibers from opposing centrosomes attach to chromosomes Anaphase II Spindle fibers contract and separate the sister chromatids (now chromosomes) Telophase II Chromosomes condense n Nuclear membrane may reform Cytokinesis Cells divide to form four haploid daughter cells


2.1. Ionic bond

2.1.1. Attraction between positively charged and negatively charged atoms

2.1.2. Strong interaction depending on placement in water Hydrophilic Forming ionic or hydrogen bonds when placed in water

2.2. Covalent bond

2.2.1. Sharing of electrons between two or more atoms Polar Covalent Unequal sharing of electrons that creates dipoles within the molecules H20 Non-Polar Covalent Equal sharing amongst atoms CH4 Repel water molecules leading them to be hydrophobic

2.3. Hydrogen bond

2.3.1. Interactions in specific polar molecules

2.3.2. Partial positive H bonded to the partial negative atoms of fluorine nitrogen or oxygen

2.4. Van Der Waals Interactions

2.4.1. Weak interaction found within molecules

2.4.2. Result of electrons moving around an atom and gathering completely on one side creating a partial charge


3.1. Local

3.1.1. gap junctions

3.1.2. plasmodesmata

3.1.3. Paracrine Secretory vesicles

3.2. Long Distance

3.2.1. Hormonal signaling

3.3. Synaptic

3.3.1. Electrical Synapse gap junctions electrical current cell to cell

3.3.2. Chemical Synapse neurotransmitter action potential depolarization ion channel

3.4. Non-Polar Signaling

3.4.1. goes straight through membrane

3.4.2. In cytoplasm or nucleus

3.4.3. faster response

3.4.4. Testosterone receptor inside cell Binding=activation of DNA replication

3.5. Polar Signaling

3.5.1. cell membrane G Protein Binds with G protein coupled receptor activated means GDP to GTP phosphatase Tyrosine Kinase Kinase Signal molecule connects two receptors autophosphorylation Ion Channel Open/close gates Second Messengers CAMP transduction phosphodiesterase


4.1. Prokaryotes

4.1.1. Bacteria Capsule Made of polysaccharides Keep bacteria from drying out Protection from phagocytosis Cell Envelope Made of two to three layers Includes the cytoplasmic membrane cell wall and in some special. The capsule Cell wall Composed of peptidoglycan Gives the cell its shape and surrounds cytoplasmic membrane Helps anger pili and flagella Helps balance osmosis Cytoplasm Functions of cell growth, metabolism, and replication are carried out Gel like matrix Encased by the cell envelope Flagella hair like structures that provide means of locomotion c Can be at one end or both ends Beat in a propeller like motion Nucleoid Region of cytoplasm where the chromosomal DNA is located Pili Assist the bacteria in attaching to other cells and surfaces wi Without these bacteria may loose their ability to infect Ribosomes Translate the genetic code from the molecular language of nucleic acid to amino acids Never found to other organelles, free standing

4.2. Eukaryotes

4.2.1. Plants Cell Wall Rigid wall surrounding he plasma membrane Protects the cell and regulates the life Chloroplasts Has the ability to photosynthesize Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth ER Rough ER Golgi apparatus Distribution and shipping department for the cells chemical products Modifies proteins and fats built in the ER Prepares them for export Microfilaments Made of globular proteins called actin Primarily structural in function Microtubles Found in the cytoplasm c Carry out functions such as transport and structural support Mitochondria Found in the cytoplasm Break down carbohydrates and sugar molecules to provide energy Nucleus Serves as the information processing and administrative center Stores the cells hereditary material or DNA Coordinates the cells activities Plasmodesmata Connect plant each other Plasma Membrane Encloses the contents r Regulate the passage of molecules in and out of cells Ribosomes Made of four strands of RNA 60 percent RNA 40 percent DNA Vacuole Stores compounds Helps in plant growth Important structural role

4.2.2. Animals Centrioles Self replicating organelles made of nine bundles of microtubles Help in organizing cell division Cilia Essential for movement Endoplasmic Reticulum Network of sacs that manufactures, processes and transports chemical compounds Connected to nuclear envelope Golgi Apparatus Distribution and shipping department for cells chemical products Modifies proteins and fats built in the ER Prepares for transport out of the cell Lysosomes Main function of digestion Break down cellular waste products and debris from outside the cell Microfilaments Important component in the cytoskeleton Microtubles Carry out functions ranging from transport to structural support Mitochondria Main power generators Convert oxygen and nutrients into energy Nucleus Information processing and administration Stores hereditary material (DNA) Coordinates cells activity Plasma membrane Only the membrane to contain and protect their contents Regulate the passage of molecules Ribosomes Makes protein in the cell Found in the cytoplasm or attached to the ER


5.1. Replication

5.1.1. Origin of replication proteins Helicase (starts replication) Lagging Strand Leading Strand Single strand binding protein Topoisomerase Primase DNA polymerase III DNA ploymerase I DNA ligase (ends replication) Joins Okazaki fragments together

5.1.2. Nucleotides A with T C with G

5.2. Transcription

5.2.1. Prokaryotes Cytoplasm mRNA Initiation RNAP

5.2.2. Eukaryotes Nuclear Envelope Pre-mRNA Introns 5' Cap Poly-A tail Initiation DNA polymerase II TATA box

5.2.3. Elongation Complementary RNA nucleotides added A with U C with G

5.2.4. Termination Terminators stop it

5.3. Translation

5.3.1. Cytoplasm

5.3.2. Ribosomes P site A site E site

5.3.3. tRNA Codons with Anti-codons AUG=Met/start codon Stop codons


6.1. Fluidity

6.1.1. Cholesterol

6.1.2. Unsaturated fatty acids

6.2. selective permeability

6.2.1. three ways to cross Simple diffusion Non-polar small molecules No charge with concentration gradient Facilitated diffusion Charged molecules Big molecules with concentration gradient Active transport Against concentration gradient ATP required Na+/K+

6.2.2. Transport proteins Aquaporins helps water hydrophilic substances

6.3. pumps

6.3.1. Electrogenic pump Voltage energy that can be used for cellular respiration

6.3.2. Proton pump active transport H+

6.3.3. Ion pump Voltage Ion Channels Gated Ungated

6.4. Osmosis

6.4.1. Plants Turgid Flaccid Plasmolyzed

6.4.2. Animals Lysed Shriveled Normal

6.5. Vesicles

6.5.1. Exocytosis

6.5.2. Endocytosis Phagocytosis Pinocytosis receptor mediated