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BIO 311C by Mind Map: BIO 311C

1. CELL CYCLE

1.1. Mitosis

1.1.1. Interphase

1.1.1.1. G1

1.1.1.1.1. Cellular Growth

1.1.1.1.2. Accumulation of materials for DNA Synthesis or s phase

1.1.1.2. S Phase

1.1.1.2.1. DNA Synthesis and Replication

1.1.1.3. G2

1.1.1.3.1. Cell synthesizes proteins needed for cell division

1.1.2. Mitotic (M) Phase

1.1.2.1. Mitosis

1.1.2.1.1. Prophase

1.1.2.1.2. Prometaphase

1.1.2.1.3. Metaphase

1.1.2.1.4. Anaphase

1.1.2.1.5. Telophase

1.1.2.2. Cytokinesis

1.1.2.2.1. Cytoplasm divides

1.2. Meiosis

1.2.1. Meiosis I

1.2.1.1. Prophase I

1.2.1.1.1. Chromosomes condense and pair up

1.2.1.1.2. Crossing over occurs

1.2.1.2. Metaphase I

1.2.1.2.1. Spindle fibers from opposing centrosomes connect and align them to the middle of the cell

1.2.1.3. Anaphase I

1.2.1.3.1. Spindle fibers contract and split the bivalve the

1.2.1.3.2. Homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell

1.2.1.4. Telophase I

1.2.1.4.1. Chromosomes decondense

1.2.1.4.2. Nuclear membrane may reform

1.2.1.5. Cytokinesis

1.2.1.5.1. Cell divides to form two haploid daughter cells

1.2.2. Meiosis II

1.2.2.1. Prophase II

1.2.2.1.1. Chromosomes condense n

1.2.2.1.2. Nuclear membrane dissolves con

1.2.2.1.3. Centrosomes move to opposite poles perpendicular to before

1.2.2.2. Metaphase II

1.2.2.2.1. Spindle fibers from opposing centrosomes attach to chromosomes

1.2.2.3. Anaphase II

1.2.2.3.1. Spindle fibers contract and separate the sister chromatids (now chromosomes)

1.2.2.4. Telophase II

1.2.2.4.1. Chromosomes condense n

1.2.2.4.2. Nuclear membrane may reform

1.2.2.5. Cytokinesis

1.2.2.5.1. Cells divide to form four haploid daughter cells

2. CHEMICAL BONDS

2.1. Ionic bond

2.1.1. Attraction between positively charged and negatively charged atoms

2.1.2. Strong interaction depending on placement in water

2.1.2.1. Hydrophilic

2.1.2.1.1. Forming ionic or hydrogen bonds when placed in water

2.2. Covalent bond

2.2.1. Sharing of electrons between two or more atoms

2.2.1.1. Polar Covalent

2.2.1.1.1. Unequal sharing of electrons that creates dipoles within the molecules

2.2.1.1.2. H20

2.2.1.2. Non-Polar Covalent

2.2.1.2.1. Equal sharing amongst atoms

2.2.1.2.2. CH4

2.2.1.2.3. Repel water molecules leading them to be hydrophobic

2.3. Hydrogen bond

2.3.1. Interactions in specific polar molecules

2.3.2. Partial positive H bonded to the partial negative atoms of fluorine nitrogen or oxygen

2.4. Van Der Waals Interactions

2.4.1. Weak interaction found within molecules

2.4.2. Result of electrons moving around an atom and gathering completely on one side creating a partial charge

3. CELL SIGNALING

3.1. Local

3.1.1. gap junctions

3.1.2. plasmodesmata

3.1.3. Paracrine

3.1.3.1. Secretory vesicles

3.2. Long Distance

3.2.1. Hormonal signaling

3.3. Synaptic

3.3.1. Electrical Synapse

3.3.1.1. gap junctions

3.3.1.2. electrical current

3.3.1.3. cell to cell

3.3.2. Chemical Synapse

3.3.2.1. neurotransmitter

3.3.2.2. action potential

3.3.2.2.1. depolarization

3.3.2.3. ion channel

3.4. Non-Polar Signaling

3.4.1. goes straight through membrane

3.4.2. In cytoplasm or nucleus

3.4.3. faster response

3.4.4. Testosterone

3.4.4.1. receptor inside cell

3.4.4.1.1. Binding=activation of DNA replication

3.5. Polar Signaling

3.5.1. cell membrane

3.5.1.1. G Protein

3.5.1.1.1. Binds with G protein coupled receptor

3.5.1.1.2. activated means GDP to GTP

3.5.1.1.3. phosphatase

3.5.1.2. Tyrosine Kinase

3.5.1.2.1. Kinase

3.5.1.2.2. Signal molecule connects two receptors

3.5.1.2.3. autophosphorylation

3.5.1.3. Ion Channel

3.5.1.3.1. Open/close gates

3.5.1.4. Second Messengers

3.5.1.4.1. CAMP

3.5.1.4.2. transduction

3.5.1.4.3. phosphodiesterase

4. CELL STRUCTURES

4.1. Prokaryotes

4.1.1. Bacteria

4.1.1.1. Capsule

4.1.1.1.1. Made of polysaccharides

4.1.1.1.2. Keep bacteria from drying out

4.1.1.1.3. Protection from phagocytosis

4.1.1.2. Cell Envelope

4.1.1.2.1. Made of two to three layers

4.1.1.2.2. Includes the cytoplasmic membrane cell wall and in some special. The capsule

4.1.1.3. Cell wall

4.1.1.3.1. Composed of peptidoglycan

4.1.1.3.2. Gives the cell its shape and surrounds cytoplasmic membrane

4.1.1.3.3. Helps anger pili and flagella

4.1.1.3.4. Helps balance osmosis

4.1.1.4. Cytoplasm

4.1.1.4.1. Functions of cell growth, metabolism, and replication are carried out

4.1.1.4.2. Gel like matrix

4.1.1.4.3. Encased by the cell envelope

4.1.1.5. Flagella

4.1.1.5.1. hair like structures that provide means of locomotion c

4.1.1.5.2. Can be at one end or both ends

4.1.1.5.3. Beat in a propeller like motion

4.1.1.6. Nucleoid

4.1.1.6.1. Region of cytoplasm where the chromosomal DNA is located

4.1.1.7. Pili

4.1.1.7.1. Assist the bacteria in attaching to other cells and surfaces wi

4.1.1.7.2. Without these bacteria may loose their ability to infect

4.1.1.8. Ribosomes

4.1.1.8.1. Translate the genetic code from the molecular language of nucleic acid to amino acids

4.1.1.8.2. Never found to other organelles, free standing

4.2. Eukaryotes

4.2.1. Plants

4.2.1.1. Cell Wall

4.2.1.1.1. Rigid wall surrounding he plasma membrane

4.2.1.1.2. Protects the cell and regulates the life

4.2.1.2. Chloroplasts

4.2.1.2.1. Has the ability to photosynthesize

4.2.1.3. Endoplasmic Reticulum

4.2.1.3.1. Smooth ER

4.2.1.3.2. Rough ER

4.2.1.4. Golgi apparatus

4.2.1.4.1. Distribution and shipping department for the cells chemical products

4.2.1.4.2. Modifies proteins and fats built in the ER

4.2.1.4.3. Prepares them for export

4.2.1.5. Microfilaments

4.2.1.5.1. Made of globular proteins called actin

4.2.1.5.2. Primarily structural in function

4.2.1.6. Microtubles

4.2.1.6.1. Found in the cytoplasm c

4.2.1.6.2. Carry out functions such as transport and structural support

4.2.1.7. Mitochondria

4.2.1.7.1. Found in the cytoplasm

4.2.1.7.2. Break down carbohydrates and sugar molecules to provide energy

4.2.1.8. Nucleus

4.2.1.8.1. Serves as the information processing and administrative center

4.2.1.8.2. Stores the cells hereditary material or DNA

4.2.1.8.3. Coordinates the cells activities

4.2.1.9. Plasmodesmata

4.2.1.9.1. Connect plant cells.to each other

4.2.1.10. Plasma Membrane

4.2.1.10.1. Encloses the contents r

4.2.1.10.2. Regulate the passage of molecules in and out of cells

4.2.1.11. Ribosomes

4.2.1.11.1. Made of four strands of RNA

4.2.1.11.2. 60 percent RNA 40 percent DNA

4.2.1.12. Vacuole

4.2.1.12.1. Stores compounds

4.2.1.12.2. Helps in plant growth

4.2.1.12.3. Important structural role

4.2.2. Animals

4.2.2.1. Centrioles

4.2.2.1.1. Self replicating organelles made of nine bundles of microtubles

4.2.2.1.2. Help in organizing cell division

4.2.2.2. Cilia

4.2.2.2.1. Essential for movement

4.2.2.3. Endoplasmic Reticulum

4.2.2.3.1. Network of sacs that manufactures, processes and transports chemical compounds

4.2.2.3.2. Connected to nuclear envelope

4.2.2.4. Golgi Apparatus

4.2.2.4.1. Distribution and shipping department for cells chemical products

4.2.2.4.2. Modifies proteins and fats built in the ER

4.2.2.4.3. Prepares for transport out of the cell

4.2.2.5. Lysosomes

4.2.2.5.1. Main function of digestion

4.2.2.5.2. Break down cellular waste products and debris from outside the cell

4.2.2.6. Microfilaments

4.2.2.6.1. Important component in the cytoskeleton

4.2.2.7. Microtubles

4.2.2.7.1. Carry out functions ranging from transport to structural support

4.2.2.8. Mitochondria

4.2.2.8.1. Main power generators

4.2.2.8.2. Convert oxygen and nutrients into energy

4.2.2.9. Nucleus

4.2.2.9.1. Information processing and administration

4.2.2.9.2. Stores hereditary material (DNA)

4.2.2.9.3. Coordinates cells activity

4.2.2.10. Plasma membrane

4.2.2.10.1. Only the membrane to contain and protect their contents

4.2.2.10.2. Regulate the passage of molecules

4.2.2.11. Ribosomes

4.2.2.11.1. Makes protein in the cell

4.2.2.11.2. Found in the cytoplasm or attached to the ER

5. DNA/PROTEIN MAKING

5.1. Replication

5.1.1. Origin of replication proteins

5.1.1.1. Helicase (starts replication)

5.1.1.1.1. Lagging Strand

5.1.1.1.2. Leading Strand

5.1.1.2. Single strand binding protein

5.1.1.3. Topoisomerase

5.1.1.4. Primase

5.1.1.5. DNA polymerase III

5.1.1.6. DNA ploymerase I

5.1.1.7. DNA ligase (ends replication)

5.1.1.7.1. Joins Okazaki fragments together

5.1.2. Nucleotides

5.1.2.1. A with T

5.1.2.2. C with G

5.2. Transcription

5.2.1. Prokaryotes

5.2.1.1. Cytoplasm

5.2.1.2. mRNA

5.2.1.3. Initiation

5.2.1.3.1. RNAP

5.2.2. Eukaryotes

5.2.2.1. Nuclear Envelope

5.2.2.2. Pre-mRNA

5.2.2.2.1. Introns

5.2.2.2.2. 5' Cap

5.2.2.2.3. Poly-A tail

5.2.2.3. Initiation

5.2.2.3.1. DNA polymerase II

5.2.2.4. TATA box

5.2.3. Elongation

5.2.3.1. Complementary RNA nucleotides added

5.2.3.1.1. A with U

5.2.3.1.2. C with G

5.2.4. Termination

5.2.4.1. Terminators stop it

5.3. Translation

5.3.1. Cytoplasm

5.3.2. Ribosomes

5.3.2.1. P site

5.3.2.2. A site

5.3.2.3. E site

5.3.3. tRNA

5.3.3.1. Codons with Anti-codons

5.3.3.1.1. AUG=Met/start codon

5.3.3.1.2. Stop codons

6. MEMBRANES

6.1. Fluidity

6.1.1. Cholesterol

6.1.2. Unsaturated fatty acids

6.2. selective permeability

6.2.1. three ways to cross

6.2.1.1. Simple diffusion

6.2.1.1.1. Non-polar

6.2.1.1.2. small molecules

6.2.1.1.3. No charge

6.2.1.1.4. with concentration gradient

6.2.1.2. Facilitated diffusion

6.2.1.2.1. Charged molecules

6.2.1.2.2. Big molecules

6.2.1.2.3. with concentration gradient

6.2.1.3. Active transport

6.2.1.3.1. Against concentration gradient

6.2.1.3.2. ATP required

6.2.1.3.3. Na+/K+

6.2.2. Transport proteins

6.2.2.1. Aquaporins

6.2.2.1.1. helps water

6.2.2.2. hydrophilic substances

6.3. pumps

6.3.1. Electrogenic pump

6.3.1.1. Voltage

6.3.1.2. energy that can be used for cellular respiration

6.3.2. Proton pump

6.3.2.1. active transport

6.3.2.2. H+

6.3.3. Ion pump

6.3.3.1. Voltage

6.3.3.2. Ion Channels

6.3.3.2.1. Gated

6.3.3.2.2. Ungated

6.4. Osmosis

6.4.1. Plants

6.4.1.1. Turgid

6.4.1.2. Flaccid

6.4.1.3. Plasmolyzed

6.4.2. Animals

6.4.2.1. Lysed

6.4.2.2. Shriveled

6.4.2.3. Normal

6.5. Vesicles

6.5.1. Exocytosis

6.5.2. Endocytosis

6.5.2.1. Phagocytosis

6.5.2.2. Pinocytosis

6.5.2.3. receptor mediated

7. MEGAN WILLIAMS

7.1. CELL CYCLE

7.2. CELL STRUCTURE

7.3. CHEMICAL BONDS

8. JENNIFER ROSAS

8.1. DNA AND PROTEIN MAKING

8.2. MEMBRANES

8.3. CELL SIGNALING