The Internet and World Wide Web

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The Internet and World Wide Web by Mind Map: The Internet and World Wide Web

1. The Internet

1.1. research tool, providing society w/ access to global info & instant communication

1.2. access from a comp anywhere

1.3. aka Net

1.4. worldwide collection of netwks that links millions of businesses, gvt, agencies, educational institutions, & individuals

1.4.1. New node

1.5. > billion users

1.6. Internet services: WWW, e-mail, chat rooms, etc

2. History of the Internet

2.1. roots in Pentagon's Advanced REsearch Projects Agency (ARPA) - agency for US Department of Defense

2.1.1. Goal: to build netwk (ARPANET) that (1) allowed scientists at dif locations to share info & wk 2gether on military & scientific projects & (2) cld function even if pt of netwk were disabled or destroyed by a disaster

2.1.2. ARPANET - 1969

2.1.3. host/server: any comp that provides services & connections to other comps on netwk

2.1.3.1. 4 main comps : University of CA at LA, University of CA at Santa Barbara, the Stanford Research Institute, & University of Utah

2.1.3.2. hosts use high-speed communications to transfer data & messages over netwk

2.1.4. used e-mail to share data & info --> phenomanal growth

2.1.4.1. 1984: ARPANET had > 1,000 individual comps linked as hosts

2.1.4.2. Today: > 500 million hosts connect to Internet

2.1.5. 1986: National Science Foundation (NSF) connected its huge netwk of 5 supercomp centers, called NSFnet, to ARPANET

2.1.5.1. <Became internet

2.1.5.2. til 1995, NSFnet handled bulk of communications activity (traffic) on the Internet

2.1.5.3. 1995: NSFnet terminated netwk on Internet & resumed its status as a research netwk

2.2. Today: Internet made of local, regional, national, & international netwks .. both public & private organizations own netwks on Internet

2.2.1. Netwks, along w/ telephone companies, Verizon & AT&T. cable & satellite companies, & gvt all contribute toward internl structure of Internet

2.3. Even as Internet grows, remains a public, cooperative, & independent netwk

2.3.1. Each organization responsible only for maintaining its own netwk

2.3.2. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) oversees research and sets standards and guidelines for many areas of Internet

2.3.2.1. Mission: to contribute to growth of Web

2.3.2.2. 400 organizations are mems of W3C

3. How the Internet Works

3.1. Data sent over the Internet travels via many netwks & communications media

3.2. Connecting to the Internet

3.2.1. Business or school netwk - comps usually pt of netwk that connects to an Internet access provider thru a high-speed connection

3.2.2. Dial-up access: takes place when modem in ur computer uses a standard telephone line to connect to the Internet (slow-speed)

3.2.2.1. must establish the connection to the Internet

3.2.3. Broad-band thru DSL, cable television netwks, fiber-optic cables, radio signals, or satellite

3.2.3.1. DSL, cable modem, Fiber to the Premises (FTTP), Fized wireless, wireless modem, Wi-Fi, & satellite modem

3.2.3.2. In most cases, broadband Internet access is always on (connected to internet whole time comp is running

3.2.3.3. Wireless internet access technologies allow modbile users to connect easily to Internet w/ notebook comps, Tablet PCs, smart phones, & other personal mobile devices

3.3. Access Providers

3.3.1. Access provider: a business that provides individuals & companies access to the Internet free or for a fee

3.3.2. $5-$22 for dial-up, $13-$80 for DSL, $20-$50 for cable, $40-$200 for FTTP, $35-$80 for fixed wireless, $60-$80 via cellular netwks, & $60-$99 for satellite

3.3.3. Users access thru regional or national ISPs, online service providers, & wireless Internet service providers

3.3.3.1. ISP (Internet Service Provider): regional or national access provider

3.3.3.1.1. regional: provides access to specific geographic area

3.3.3.1.2. national: business that provides access to cities & towns nationwide ex: AT&T

3.3.3.2. Online service provider (OSP): provides Internet access & has many mems-only features

3.3.3.2.1. fees for OSP slightly higher than ISP

3.3.3.2.2. ex: AOL (America Online) & MSN (Miscrosoft Netwk)... AOL - free access to services to any user w/ broadband internet

3.3.3.3. Wireless Internet service provider (WISP): company that provides wireless Internet acess to desktop & notebook comps & modbile devices w/ built-in wireless capability or to comps using wireless modems or wireless access devices

3.3.3.3.1. an antenna on or built into comp, wireless modem, or wireless access device typically send signals thru airwaves to communicate w/ wireless Internet service provider ex: AT&T, Boingo Wireless, Sprint, T-Mobile, & Verizon Wireless

3.4. How Data Travels the Internet

3.4.1. Comps connected to Internet wk together to transfer data & info around wrld using servers & clients

3.4.1.1. on internet - comp is client that can access data, info, & services on variety of servers

3.4.2. inner structure wks like transportation system

3.4.2.1. several main transmission media carry heaviest amounts of traffic - Internet backbone

3.4.2.2. in US - transmission media that make up internet backbone exchange data at several different major cities across the country - transfer data from one netwk to another until it reaches final destination

3.5. Internet Addresses

3.5.1. Internet relies on addressing system to send data to comp at specific destination

3.5.2. IP address (Internet Protocal address): number that uniquely identifies each comp or device connected to the Internet

3.5.2.1. consists of 4 grps of numbers, separated by period .. first portion identifies netwk & last portion identifies specific comp

3.5.3. Internet supports the use of a text name that represents one or more IP addresses - domain name

3.5.3.1. domain name for the IP address 219.239.39.99 = www.google.com

3.5.3.2. top-level domain (TLD): last section of domain name

3.5.3.3. generic TLD (gTLD), such as the com, identifies the type of organization associated w/ domain

3.5.3.4. Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN): grpo that assigns & cntrls top-level domains

3.5.3.5. Domain name system (DNS): the method that the Internet uses to store domain names & their corresponding IP addresses

3.5.3.5.1. When you specify a domain name, a DNS server translates domain name to its associated IP address so that data can be routed to the correct comp- DNS server is an Internet server that usually is associated w/ an Internet access provider

4. The World Wide Web

4.1. a service of the Internet

4.1.1. Internet developed in late 1960s, WWW emerged in early 1990s

4.2. consists of a worldwide collection of electronic doms

4.2.1. Each electronic doc on the Web is called a Web page

4.2.1.1. Some Web pages are static (fixed), others are dynamic (changing)

4.2.1.2. Web site is a collection of related Web pages & associated items, such as docs & pictures, stored on a Web server (comp that delivers requested Web pages to ur comp)

4.2.1.3. Web 2.0 or participatory Web: Web sites that allow users to modify Web site content, provide a means for users to share personal info, & have application software built into the site for visitors to use

4.3. Browsing the Web

4.3.1. Web browser- application software that allows users to access & view web pages ex: Internet explorer, Firefox, Opera, & Safari

4.3.2. need Internet connection and Web browser

4.3.3. home page: first page that Web site displays

4.3.4. Microbrowser: for smart phones & PDAs - designed for their small screens & limited computing pwr

4.3.5. Web page must be downloaded in order for comp or mobile device to display it

4.3.5.1. Downloading: process of a comp receiving info from a server on the Internet

4.4. Web Addresses

4.4.1. Web page has unique address - URL (Uniform Resource Locator) or Web address

4.4.2. Web browser retrieves a Web page using its Web address

4.4.3. consists of a protocol, domain name, & sometimes the path to a specific Web page or location on a Web page

4.4.3.1. http (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) - a set of rules that deines how pages transfer on the Internet

4.4.4. When u enter the Web address in the Web browser, it sends a request to the Web server that contains the Web site. The server then retrievers the Web page that is located in the ... path and delivers it to ur browser, which then displays the Web page on the screen

4.4.5. When u enter a Web address in a browser, u request, or pull, info from a Web server - some Web servers also can push content to ur comp at regular intervals or whenever updates are made to the site

4.5. Navigating Web Pages

4.5.1. Link - short for hyperlink - built-in connection to another related Web page or part of a Web page

4.5.2. Hypertext: links in text-based docs

4.5.3. Hypermedia: combined text-based links w/ graphic, audio, & video links

4.5.4. Surfing the Web: referring to the activity of using links to explore the Web

4.6. Searching for Information on the Web

4.6.1. Search Engines: program that finds Web sites, Web pages, images, videos, news, & other info related to a specific topic

4.6.1.1. Search text or keywords: describe the item u want to find

4.6.1.2. Hits: results of search

4.6.1.3. Many search engines use a program called a spider to build & maintain lists of words found on Web sites

4.6.2. Subject Directories: classifies Web pages in an organized set of categories (sports or shopping, & related subcategories)

4.7. Types of Web Sites

4.7.1. Portal: a Web site that offers a variety of Internet services from a single, convenient location

4.7.1.1. Many have online communities - a Web site that joins a specific grp of ppl w/ similar interests or relationships

4.7.1.2. ex: AOL, Excite, GO.ocm, iGoogle, Yahoo!

4.7.2. News

4.7.3. Informational

4.7.4. Business/Marketing

4.7.5. Educational

4.7.6. Entertainment

4.7.7. Advocacy

4.7.8. Blog

4.7.8.1. short for Weblog - an informal Web site consisting of time-stamped articles, or posts, in a diary or journal format, usually listed in reverse chronological order

4.7.8.2. video blog or vlog: blog that contains video clips

4.7.8.3. blogosphere: wrldwide collection of blogs .. vlogosphere: all vlogs wrldwide

4.7.9. WIKI

4.7.9.1. a collaborative Web site that allows users to create, add to, modify, or delete the Web site content via their Web browser

4.7.9.2. most are open to modification by general public

4.7.10. Online Social Network

4.7.10.1. aka social netwking Web site - a Web site that encourages mems in its online community to share their interests, ideas, stories, photos, music, & video w/ other registered users

4.7.10.2. media sharing Web site: a specific type of online social netwk that enables mems to share media such as photos, music, & videos ex: Flickr & YouTube

4.7.11. Content Aggregator

4.7.11.1. Content aggregator: a business that gathers & organizes Web content & then distributes, or feeds, the content to subscribers for free or a fee

4.7.11.2. RSS 2.0 (Really Simple Syndication): a specification that content aggregators use to distribute content to subscribers

4.7.11.3. Atom: another specification sometimes used by content aggregators to distribute content

4.7.12. Personal

4.8. Evaluating a Web Site

4.8.1. Affiliation, Audience, Authority, Content, Currency, Design, & Objectivity

4.9. Multimedia on the Web

4.9.1. Multimedia: any application that combines text w/ graphics, animations, audio, video, and/or virtual reality

4.9.2. Graphics

4.9.2.1. Graphic, or graphical image, is a digital representation of nontext information such as drawing, chart, or photo ... graphics formats: JPEG & GIF

4.9.2.2. thumbnail: small version of a larger graphic

4.9.3. Animation

4.9.3.1. animation: the appearance of motion created by displaying a series of still images in sequence

4.9.4. Audio

4.9.4.1. includes music, speech, or any other sound

4.9.4.2. copyright issues led to the development of digital rights management (DRM) - strategy designed to prevent illegal distribution of music & other digital content

4.9.4.3. to listen to audio file need player

4.9.4.4. some apps use streaming (the process of transferring data in a continuous & even flow

4.9.4.5. Podcast: recorded audio that can be downloaded to a comp or a portable media player

4.9.5. Video

4.9.5.1. Full0motion images that are played back at various speeds

4.9.5.2. Moving Pictures Experts Croup (MPEG) defines a popular video compression standard, a widely used on called MPEG-4 o MP4

4.9.6. Virtual Reality

4.9.6.1. VR: the use of comps to stimulate a real or imagined environment that appears as a 3D space

4.9.6.2. VR world: entire 3D environment that contains infinite space & depth

4.9.7. Plug-ins

4.9.7.1. aka add-on - a program that extends the capability oft a browser ex: Flash Player, Java, QuickTime

4.10. Web Publishing

4.10.1. Web publishing: the development & maintenance of WEb pages

4.10.2. 5 steps to web publishing: (1) plan a Web site, (2) analyze & design a Web site, (3) create a Web site, (4) deploy a Web site, (5) maintain a Web site

5. E-Commerce

5.1. E-commerce: short for electronic commerce - a business transaction that occurs over an electronic netwk such as the Internet

5.2. even m-commerce: mobile commerce

5.3. ex: shopping, investing, banking

5.4. 3 dif types of e-commerce

5.4.1. Business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce: consists of the sale of goods & services to the general public

5.4.1.1. customer (consumer) visits online business thru electronic storefront, which contains product descriptions, images, & shopping cart

5.4.2. Consumer-to-consumer

5.4.2.1. consumers can purchase from each other

5.4.2.2. online auction: users bid on an item being sold by someone else .. site = eBay

5.4.2.3. Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce: one consumer sells directly to another

5.4.3. Business-to-business

5.4.3.1. Business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce: e-commerce that takes place between businesses

5.4.3.2. businesses often provide goods & services to other businesses, such as online advertising, recruiting, credit, sales, market research, technical support, & training

6. Other Internet Services

6.1. E-mail

6.1.1. short for electronic mail - the transmission of messages & files via a comp netwk

6.1.2. one of the original services of the Internet, establishing scientists & researchers wrking on gvt-sponsored projects to communicate w/ colleagues at other locations

6.1.3. Today - communications method for both personal & business use

6.1.4. Use e-mail program to create, send, receive, forward, store, print, & delete e-mail messages

6.1.5. E-mail address: a combination of a user name and a domain name that identifies a user so that he or she can receive Internet e-mail

6.1.5.1. user name: a unique combination of characters that identifies a specific user

6.1.6. Address book: contacts folder - contains a list of names & e-mail addresses

6.1.7. SMTP (Simple mail transfer protocol): a communications protocol used by come outoing mail servers

6.1.8. POP3 (Post office protocol): a communications protocol used by some incoming mail servers

6.2. Mailing Lists

6.2.1. aka distribution list - a grp of e-mail names & addresses given a single name .. when message sent to a mailing list, every person on list receives a copy of the message

6.2.2. to add ur name to a mailing list - u subscribe to it

6.3. Instant Messaging

6.3.1. IM - real-time Internet communications service that notifies u when one or more ppl are online & then allows u to exchange messages or files or join a private chat room w/ them

6.4. Chat Rooms

6.4.1. chat - a real-time typed conversation that takes place on a comp

6.4.2. chat room - a location on an Internet server that permits users to chat w/ each other

6.4.3. to start a chat session, u connect to chat server thru a program - chat client

6.5. VoIP

6.5.1. VoIP (Voice over IP, Internet Protocol): aka Internet telephony - enables users to speak to other users over the Internet

6.5.2. uses the Internet to connect a calling party to one or more local or long-distance called parties

6.6. FTP

6.6.1. FTP (File Transfer Protocol): an Internet standard that permits file uploading and downloading (transferring) w/ other computers on the Internet

6.6.2. Uploading is the opposite of downloading - uploading is process of transferring docs, graphics, & other objects from ur comp to a server on the Internet

6.6.3. FTP server: a comp that allows users to upload and/or download file using FTP

6.6.4. FTP site is a collection of files including text, graphics, audio clips, video clips, & program files that reside on an FTP server

6.6.5. Before u can use a compressed (unzipped) file, u must uncompress (unzip) it

6.7. Newsgroups & Message Boards

6.7.1. newsgroup: an online area in which users have written discussions about a particular subject

6.7.2. to participate in a discussion, a user sends a message to the newsgrp, & other users in the newsgrp read & reply to the message

6.7.3. News server: a comp that stores & distributes newsgrp messages

6.7.4. To participate in a newsgrp, typically u use a program called a newsreader

6.7.5. articles: a newsreader enables u to access a newsgrp to read previously entered messages

6.7.5.1. u can post, or add, particles of ur own

6.7.5.2. thread or threaded discussion: consists of the original article & all subsequent related replies

6.7.6. in some newsgrps, posted articles are sent to a moderator instead of immediately displayign on the newsgrp

6.7.6.1. moderator- revies the contents of the article & then posts it

6.7.7. message board: a popular Web-based type of discussion grp that does not require a newsreader