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1. Lesson 1 WHAT IS MEDIA?

1.1. 1.1 What is "MEDIA" - The main means of mass communication (broadcasting, publishing, and the Internet) regarded collectively.

1.1.1. 1.1.1 The Communication Process - In order to understand how information flows within the media, we should first understand how the basic communication works. - There are various types of communication models to show us how humans relay messages to each others. The simplest and perhaps the oldest model is the Shannon-Weaver of Communication (see Fig 1) that shows a linear type of communication process.

1.1.2. 1.1.2 The Feedback Mechanism - However, there are other improvements to this basic model of communication. A very important factor was considered: a feedback. Developing the Shannon-Weaver model, other communication theorists like David Berlo were able to add the receiver's reaction which is sent to the sender of the message (see Fig.2). - Why is feedback important? This is to know if the message was effective.

1.1.3. 1.1.3 Media as an Information Industry - As mentioned earlier, "medium" is the singular form of the plural from "media" but when referring to communication and information media, the proper collective term to use, whether in singular or plural form, is "the media".

1.1.4. 1.1.4 Media as a Culture of Entertainment - Aside from using or accessing the media for information, we may be more concerned with using or accessing media for its entertainment value. Thus, we purchase various forms of media gadgets or participate in media event (like watching movies at the theater house) mainly to have fun.

1.2. 1.2 Kinds of media - From the moment you wake up, you could hear your parents or guardians listen to news announcements on the radio or television

1.2.1. 1.2.1 Traditional Media - Traditional media covers the kinds of media that were invented prior to the invention of the internet. This includes all kinds of written or print media like newspapers and magazine. Comics and books are also included in print media.

1.2.2. 1.2.2 New Media - In comparison to traditional media, new media was term coined to refer to media the developed when the use of computer technology became ordinary and common in most parts of the world

1.2.3. 1.2.3 Social Media - From the world of the new media, a special sub category developed in leaps and bounds, making it a viable sub-category itself

1.2.4. 1.2.4 Media Communications Technology - If you look at how fast media and ICT's have developed in just a span of three decades, it will surprise you how technology is bringing the human race to have new levels and ways of information and communication dissemination.

1.2.5. 1.2.5 Related and Emerging Technologies - Since a huge part of media consumer culture involves accessing entertainment and popular culture (or pop culture for short), gaming consoles are sometimes lumped into media technology.


2.1. 2.1 Brief History of Media - Ever since the first human being evolved on planet Earth, communication with each others is one of the most essential and immediate need that they had to learn, develop, and master,.

2.1.1. 2.1.1 Pre-industrial Age - Society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from 1750 to 1850. Pre-industrial is a time before there were machines and tools to help perform tasks en masse.

2.1.2. 2.1.2 Industiral Age - Is a period of history that encompasses the changes in economic and social organization that began around 1760 in Great Britain and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines such as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments.

2.1.3. 2.1.3 Electronic Age - In the dictionary is the electronic age the electronic age began when electronic equipment, including computers came into use.

2.1.4. 2.1.4 Digital Age - Also called the information age, is defined as the time period starting in the 1970s with the introduction of the personal computer with subsequent technology introduced providing the ability to transfer information freely and quickly.

2.2. 2.2 Brief History of Philippine Media -The history of media in the Philippines usually coincides with the colonial history of the nation, wherein it becomes a bi-product of various political movement and upheavals. Similar to the development of media in the world, the development of media in the country also had local endemic roots as well as foreign-brought predecessors.

2.2.1. 2.2.1 Pre-colonial Traces - Like the early ancestor of humankind, our ancestor also developed a system of communication and information dissemination. When there is a system of oral communication, if follows that a system of written communication also existed.

2.2.2. 2.2.2 The Print Industry and Filipino Freedom - Books, magazines, and newspapers were brought to the Philippines by the ancient colonizers, mostly printed in language that not everybody in the archipelago could speak.

2.2.3. 2.2.3 The European Film Import - Another European import is film. two years after successfully launching cinema, the Lumiere brothers' cinematographe film camera and project invention made its way to Philippine shores via the efforts of a Spanish soldier named Carlo Naquera.

2.2.4. 2.2.4 The Broadcast Industry - The introduction of the broadcast industry in the Philippines started with the introduction of the telegraph and telephone system in the country.

2.2.5. 2.2.5 Local Online Media - The Philippines officially connected to the world of the internet on March 1994 through the efforts of PHNET or Philippines Network Foundation, a consortium of various academic institutions, private companies, and government agencies.

2.3. 2.3 State of Media Today - Today's media is characterized by the blurring of lines and boundaries, especially with the passing of information superhighway.

2.3.1. 2.3.1 From Globalization to Glocalization - The concept of glolabization has changed the way media is produced, circulated, distributed, and consumed.

2.3.2. 2.3.2 The Local Landscape - The current media landscape in the Philippines is still predominantly Manila-centric. Since most -- if not all -- of the major media outlets, production studios and head officers are based in Manila, there are often times when media content becomes too reflective of Manila's issues and concern only.

2.4. 2.4 Media Ownership - As we have established that media is part of the creative industries, we should also discuss how the ownership of such industries affect the way media products are created. This is where the concept of media as business entity enters the discussion

2.4.1. 2.4.1 Mainstream Media - Is a term and abbreviation used to refer collectively to the various large mass news media that influence many people, and both reflect and shape prevailing currents of thought.

2.4.2. 2.4.2 Alternative and Independent Media - Refers to any form of media, such as radio, television, newspapers or the Internet, that is free of influence by government or corporate interests.

2.4.3. 2.4.3 Community Media - Are generally defined as a distinct sector of the media for their independence, base in civil society and provision of a social service as opposed to seeking profits.

2.4.4. 2.4.4 State-Owned Media - Or state-owned media is media for mass communication which is "controlled financially and editorially by the state." These news outlets may be the sole media outlet or may exist in competition with corporate and non-corporate media.


3.1. 3.1 Framing and Reading - Framing means to construct, compose or imagine something, meaning to create with a solid plan to follow using a specific structure in mind.

3.1.1. 3.1.1 Newspapers and Journalism - Most of today's spreading of the printed word happens because of immediate information dissemination and exchange. This is most evident in the world of news.

3.1.2. 3.1.2 Books, Comics, Magazines, and the publishing industry - Even with the advent of the internet and social media, the printed book is still a viable way of getting information and being entertained by information.

3.1.3. 3.1.3 Photography and Timeless Image Concepts - Photography, as originally defined, is "the process of recording surface" referring to the celluloid film known before as the negative.

3.2. 3.2 Framing and Listening - When reading a book, we tend to imagine what happens to the story. We could picture in our minds what the book scenes could appear like, and sometimes we could hear the characters speak.

3.2.1. 3.2.1 Radio and Evoking Imagination - Radio is the most popular form of mass media all over the world. For the message senders, it is powerful since the broadcast could reach a wide array of areas, covering many households and reaching many individuals at a given time. For the message receivers, radio becomes an immediate source of news because information is always fresh and delivered fast


4.1. 4.1 The Film Form - Looking closely at the traditional way movies are made; a typical celluloid film strip actually has separate frames.

4.1.1. 4.1.1 Modes of Film Production - No matter where you are in the world and no matter whether your film is funded by huge mainstream studios or by independent cinema funders, all films in the world undergo three modes of film production. The first mode is preproduction - This is where all the planning stages of a film are made before actually making the film The second mode is the production stage - In film and video, production refers to the part of the process in which footage is recorded. This is what most people imagine when they think of a film being made — actors on sets, cameras rolling, etc. The production phase is also known as principal photography. The third mode is thepostproduction stage - In some cases post-production is relatively straightforward, consisting of choosing and arranging footage in the correct sequence. In most cases however, post-production is a time-consuming job taking longer than the actual production phase. -Editing video footage -Editing the soundtrack, adding sound effects, music, etc. -Adding titles and graphics -Colour and exposure correction -Adding special effects -Re-shooting certain scenes if required ("pick-up" shots)

4.1.2. 4.1.2 Film Format - Is a technical definition of a set of standard characteristics regarding image capture on photographic film, for either stills or filmmaking. It can also apply to projected film, either slides or movies. The primary characteristic of a film format is its size and shape. Narrative - Fictional film or fiction film is a film that tells a fictional or fictionalized story, event or narrative. In this style of film, believable narratives and characters help convince the audience that the unfolding fiction is real. Documentary - Is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. Animation - Is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Experimental - Experimental cinema or avant-garde cinema is a mode of film making that rigorously re-evaluates cinematic conventions and explores non-narrative forms and alternatives to traditional narratives or methods of working.

4.1.3. 4.1.3 Film Image Composition - Refers to how the elements on screen (actors, scenery, props, etc.) appear in respect to each other and within the frame itself. In the earliest days of cinema, film composition basically mimicked that of a stage play. Directors staged all actors and important information to face the audience.

4.1.4. 4.1.4 Motion Framing Concept - Aside from composition, movement is also important in communicating a film's message to the audience. Since films are motion pictures, how moving elements interact in a given film frame may impact the meaning of the story. However, movement could be done by two things: the camera itself (producing a moving shot) or the character/s in the frame (the subjects moving).

4.2. 4.2 The TV Broadcast - Television, or TV for short, is somewhat similar to the aesthetics of the film form. TV production processes also use the same technology, especially in today's digital shooting style.

4.2.1. 4.2.1 Kinds of TV Shows - Due to the overwhelming need for content in a given TV station, the variety of programming has expanded since the TV was invented. Informative Programming - To fulfill its role of delivering information, news programs were created to deliver current events relevant to the viewing public. Entertainment Programming - A variety of fictional entertainment options fills our daily TV programming schedule guide.

4.2.2. 4.2.2 TV Show Anatomy and Advertising - In any kind of programming format, a key element of how a TV show is designed centers on the way the show's content could be subdivided into segment.

4.2.3. Editing video footage Editing the soundtrack, adding sound effects, music, etc. Adding titles and graphics Colour and exposure correction Adding special effects Re-shooting certain scenes if required ("pick-up" shots)

4.3. 4.3 Crafting Media Messages - Both film and television are considered as audiovisual media. This means different types of content are being crafted and presented.

4.3.1. 4.3.1 Creating Meaning in Audio Production - All the thins we hear in an audiovisual production are composed of sounds, music, noise, or dialogue, sometimes, we hear all of these thing at the sometimes.

4.3.2. 4.3.2 Creating Meaning In Image Production - People are generally visual minded. When someone or something is trying to catch our attention, they usually do it visually. when our eyes are"caught," we are automatically hooked.

4.3.3. 4.3.3 Creating Meaning in Audiovisual Production - In an audiovisual production, the audio hook is important to make us see the believability of the TV show we are watching.


5.1. 5.1 Deconstruction New Media - As we learned in Lesson 1, The term "new media" encompasses the computer-originated and usually internet-delivered forms of information and communication technologies or ICTs, including mobile forms of technology like smartphones and computer tablets.

5.1.1. 5.1.1 New Media Technology: Convergence and Characteristics - To dismiss new media as better than traditional media is a fallacy. In most of the creative industries today, traditional media and new media exist and are utilized side by side.

5.1.2. 5.1.2 New Media as Multimedia - New media gadgets like mobile smartphones and computer tablet also signify this convergence of the old and the new.

5.1.3. 5.1.3 New Media Transitions: from Synergy to Transmedia - Big media corporations who run media industries for profit, always try to find ways of making more money out of existing media content.

5.2. 5.2 Intersecting Traditional Media and New Media - The digitalization of specific ICT's with the platform served by the internet has produced interesting convergences that influence the way media content is created and delivered.

5.2.1. 5.2.1 Journalism + Internet = Blogging - When a news reporter stumbles upon a news, he or she writes the story and sends it to the newspapers editor for analysis and approval.

5.2.2. 5.2.2 Broadcasting + Internet = Podcast - When you release media content over the radio or television, that is called a broadcaster. When you do a broadcast over the internet, it is called a "podcast".

5.2.3. 5.2.3 Film + Internet = YouTube - We have already sen how the traditional media ways of filmmaking has embraced the new media technologies. The mode or manner of distribution is also being embraced by traditional media of film: the exhibition: If you have a short film, you could upload it on video sharing sites like YouTube.


6.1. 6.1 Deeper Understanding of Social Media - An offshoot of new media is social media. It needs a closer look for the huge role it has been playing -- and continuing to be played -- in the way we navigate media processes as media producers and consumers.

6.1.1. 6.1.1 What is Social Networking? - The use of dedicated websites and applications to interact with other users, or to find people with similar interests to oneself.

6.1.2. 6.1.2 Kinds of Social Media and Its Varying Uses Print-based - Print-based social media networks hone in one the power of immediate and often uncensored publication of thought in new media platform Audio-based - Sole audio-based social networking platform don't seem to be as popular as their print, photo, or video counterpart. But that doesn't mean they don't exist. Photo-based - Perhaps the most popular photograph- based social networking platform is the mobile app Instagram. Originally starting with the Apple's IOS mobile system only. Video-based - As its tagline implies,YouTube is a social networking site encouraging you to "Broadcast Yourself" via uploading videos in you own YouTube channel. People could subscribe to your channel to see you have new content. Social Networking Sites - Among all kinds of social networking sites, those that enable people to connect with other people are the most popular.

6.2. 6.2 Relevance of Social Media in Today's Society - In essence, a social networking platform user should be the one who personally owns, control, upload, and operate their own social media account.

6.2.1. 6.2.1 Personal Communication - The primary attraction of new media ICT's combined with social networking apps is evident in the way people communicate with each other today.

6.2.2. 6.2.2 Business and Customer Care Tools - Social networking apps used for personal communication are also utilized for professional use.

6.2.3. 6.2.3 Social Services and Governance - Governments of the world have already learned to keep abreast of technological advances.This is why most of them now keep various website for official department or branches.

6.2.4. 6.2.4 Educational Tools - It is no doubt that students have evolved in their studying and learning habits. Teachers are also adapting to this evolution by evolving with their students.

6.2.5. 6.2.5 Advocacy Campaigns for Social Change - If traditional media was delegated to have a watchdog function to monitor the ills of the government, image what new media -- particularly the "closeness factor" of social networking-- could do to facilitate the watchdog function faster.

6.2.6. 6.2.6 Traditional Media Coverage and Social Media Enhancement - Form the previous examples, it is clear that mainstream media, with the help of new media technologies, has rapidly changed the way messages are captured. structured, distributed, and reworked.

6.2.7. 6.2.7 Entertainment Portals - Perhaps the most enjoyable use of social media for everyone is pop culture content curating. Earlier site like MySpace and Multiply designed it specifically for the purpose, and users who are also artists could direct potential, employers, or audiences to their kind of art.