How Can Humans Survive on Mars?

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How Can Humans Survive on Mars? by Mind Map: How Can Humans Survive on Mars?

1. Real World Application (NOS)

1.1. NASA Moon to Mars:

1.1.1. How is Biotechnology Preparing us to Live on the Moon and Mars?

1.1.2. Gateway Rocket

1.1.3. Lunar research and human lunar outpost

1.1.4. Moon stepping stone for future Mars missions

1.2. SpaceX

1.2.1. Mars Mission: 2022-2024 Human settlements on Mars

1.2.2. Starship Rocket

1.2.3. Private Company

1.3. SciShow Space

1.4. Blue Origin Reusable Rocket

1.5. Past and Present Missions to Mars

1.5.1. Landers

1.5.2. Orbiters

1.5.3. Rovers

1.5.4. Flybys

1.6. Economics

1.6.1. NASA commercial research

1.6.2. Potential for self-sustainability

1.6.3. Risks

2. Cross-curriculum connection (E)

2.1. Grade 9 Science

2.1.1. Unit A: Biological Diversity (Social and Environmental Emphasis) GLO 1. Investigate and interpret diversity among species and within species, and describe how diversity contributes to species survival SLO 1.3 Investigate and interpret dependencies among species that link the survival of one species to the survival of others SLO 1.4 Identify the role of variation in species survival under changing environmental conditions (e.g., resistance to disease, ability to survive in severe environments) GLO 3. Describe, in general terms, the role of genetic materials in the continuity and variation of species characteristics; and investigate and interpret related technologies SLO 3.5 Describe, in simple terms, some genetic technologies (e.g., cloning and genetic engineering); and identify questions and issues related to their application GLO 4. Identify impacts of human action on species survival and variation within species, and analyze related issues for personal and public decision making SLO 4.4 Investigate and describe the use of biotechnology in environmental, agricultural or forest management; and identify potential impacts and issues

2.1.2. Unit B: Matter and Chemical Change (Nature of Science Emphasis) GLO 1. Investigate materials, and describe them in terms of their physical and chemical properties SLO 1.1 Investigate and describe properties of materials (e.g., investigate and describe the melting point, solubility and conductivity of materials observed) GLO 2. Describe and interpret patterns in chemical reactions SLO 2.1 Identify and evaluate dangers of caustic materials and potentially explosive reactions SLO 2.2 Observe and describe evidence of chemical change in reactions between familiar materials, by: − describing combustion, corrosion and other reactions involving oxygen − observing and inferring evidence of chemical reactions between familiar household materials SLO 2.4 Observe and describe patterns of chemical change, by: − observing heat generated or absorbed in chemical reactions, and identifying examples of exothermic and endothermic reactions − identifying evidence for conservation of mass in chemical reactions, and demonstrating and describing techniques by which that evidence is gathered.

2.1.3. Unit D: Electrical Principles and Technologies (Science and Technology Emphasis) GLO 1. Investigate and interpret the use of devices to convert various forms of energy to electrical energy, and electrical energy to other forms of energy SLO 1.1 Identify, describe and interpret examples of mechanical, chemical, thermal, electrical and light energy SLO 1.2 Investigate and describe evidence of energy transfer and transformation SLO 1.3 Investigate and evaluate the use of different electrodes, electrolytes and electrolytic concentrations in designing electrical storage cells SLO 1.4 Construct, use and evaluate devices for transforming mechanical energy into electrical energy and for transforming electrical energy into mechanical energy GLO 3. Identify and estimate energy inputs and outputs for example devices and systems, and evaluate the efficiency of energy conversions SLO 3.1 Identify the forms of energy inputs and outputs in a device or system SLO 3.3 The concepts of conservation of energy and efficiency to the analysis of energy devices SLO 3.5 investigate and describe techniques for reducing waste of energy in common household devices GLO 4. Describe and discuss the societal and environmental implications of the use of electrical energy SLO 4.1 Identify and evaluate sources of electrical energy, including oil, gas, coal, biomass, wind and solar SLO 4.3 Identify example uses of electrical technologies, and evaluate technologies in terms of benefits and impacts SLO 4.4 Identify concerns regarding conservation of energy resources, and evaluate means for improving the sustainability of energy use

2.1.4. Unit C: Environmental Chemistry (Social and Environmental Emphasis) GLO 1. Investigate and describe, in general terms, the role of different substances in the environment in supporting or harming humans and other living things SLO 1.1 Identify common organic and inorganic substances that are essential to the health and growth of humans and other living things, and illustrate the roles served by these substances SLO 1.2 Describe, in general terms, the forms of organic matter synthesized by plants and animals, including carbohydrates, proteins and lipids SLO 1.3 Describe and illustrate processes by which chemicals are introduced to the environment or their concentrations are changed SLO 1.4 Describe the uptake of materials by living things through ingestion or absorption, and investigate and describe evidence that some materials are difficult for organisms to break down or eliminate SLO 1.5 Identify questions that may need to be addressed in deciding what substances—in what amounts—can be safely released into the environment GLO 2. Identify processes for measuring the quantity of different substances in the environment and for monitoring air and water quality SLO 2.1 Identify substrates and nutrient sources for living things within a variety of environments SLO 2.2 Describe and illustrate the use of biological monitoring as one method for determining environmental quality SLO 2.3 Identify chemical factors in an envirnment that might affect the health and distribution of living things in that environment GLO 3. Analyze and evaluate mechanisms affecting the distribution of potentially harmful substances within an environment SLO 3.1 describe mechanisms for the transfer of materials through air, water and soil; and identify factors that may accelerate or retard distribution (e.g., wind speed, soil porosity)

2.2. GRADE 6: Democracy: Action and Participation

2.2.1. GLO 6.1 Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the dynamic relationship between governments and citizens as they engage in the democratic process. SLO 6.1.1 Recognize how individuals and governments interact and bring about change within their local and national communities: • value citizens’ participation in a democratic society (C) • value the contributions of elected representatives in the democratic process (PADM) SLO 6.1.2 demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental principles of democracy by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues: • What is democracy (i.e., justice, equity, freedoms, representation)? (C, PADM) • What are the similarities and differences between direct and representative democracy? (PADM) • What are the rights and responsibilities of citizens living in a representative democracy? (C, PADM) SLO 6.1.6 analyze how individuals, groups and associations within a community impact decision making of local and provincial governments by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues: • How can individuals, groups and associations within a community participate in the decision-making process regarding current events or issues? (C, PADM) • In what ways do elected officials demonstrate their accountability to the electorate? (C, PADM)

2.3. Grade 9 Mathematics

2.3.1. GLO 1 Develop Number Sense SLO 4 Explain and apply the order of operations, including exponents, with and without technology.

2.3.2. GLO 2 Use patterns to describe the world and to solve problems. SLO 1 Generalize a pattern arising from a problem-solving context, using a linear equation, and verify by substitution.

2.3.3. GLO 4 Describe the characteristics of 3-D objects and 2-D shapes, and analyze the relationships among them SLO 2 Determine the surface area of composite 3-D objects to solve problems.

2.3.4. GLO 6 Collect, display and analyze data to solve problems. SLO 1 Describe the effect of: -bias -use of language -ethics -cost -time and timing -privacy -cultural sensitivity on the collection of data. SLO 3 Develop and implement a project plan for the collection, display and analysis of data by: -formulating a question for investigation -choosing a data collection method that includes social considerations -selecting a population or a sample -collecting the data -displaying the collected data in an appropriate manner -drawing conclusions to answer the question.

2.3.5. GLO 7 Use experimental or theoretical probabilities to represent and solve problems involving uncertainty. SLO 4 Demonstrate an understanding of the role of probability in society.

3. Previous classes (P)

3.1. Grade 4 Science, Topic C: Building Devices and Vehicles that Move

3.1.1. GLO 4-7. Construct a mechanical device for a designated purpose, using materials and design suggestions provided SLO 4.7.1: Design and construct devices and vehicles that move or have moving parts—linkages, wheels and axles. SLO 4.7.3: Design and construct devices and vehicles that employ energy-storing or energy-consuming components that will cause motion; e.g.,elastic bands, springs, gravity, wind, moving water

3.2. Grade 6 Science, Topic C: Sky Science

3.2.1. GLO 6.7.Observe, describe and interpret the movement of objects in the sky; and identify pattern and order in these movements SLO 6.7.5: Construct and use a device for plotting the apparent movement of the Sun over the course of a day; e.g., construct and use a sundial or shadow stick. SLO 6.7.11: Identify technologies and procedures by which knowledge, about planets and other objects in the night sky, has been gathered SLO 6.7.10: Recognize that the other eight known planets, which revolve around the Sun, have characteristics and surface conditions that are different from Earth; and identify examples of those differences.

3.3. Grade 6 Science,Topic B: Flight

3.3.1. GLO 6.6.Construct devices that move through air, and identify adaptations for controlling flight SLO 6.6 3: Conduct tests of glider designs; and modify a design so that a glider will go further, stay up longer or fly in a desired way; e.g., fly in a loop, turn to the right. SLO 6.6.7: Describe differences in design between aircraft and spacecraft, and identify reasons for the design differences.

3.4. Grade 7 Science, Plants for food and fiber

3.4.1. GLO 2: Investigate life processes and structures of plants, and interpret related characteristics and needs of plants in a local environment SLO 2C: investigate and interpret variations in needs of different plants and their tolerance for different growing conditions SLO 2D: describe the processes of diffusion, osmosis, conduction of fluids, transpiration, photosynthesis and gas exchange in plants

3.4.2. GLO 3: Analyze plant environments, and identify impacts of specific factors and controls SLO 3A: describe methods used to increase yields, through modifying the environment and by creating artificial environments SLO 3B: investigate and describe characteristics of different soils and their major component

3.5. Grade 7 Science, Structures and forces:

3.5.1. GLO 1: Describe and interpret different types of structures encountered in everyday objects, buildings, plants and animals; and identify materials from which they are made SLO 1E: identify points of failure and modes of failure in natural and built structures SLO 1A: recognize and classify structural forms and materials used in construction

3.6. Grade 8 Science, Freshwater and saltwater systems

3.6.1. GLO 2: Investigate and interpret linkages among landforms, water and climate SLO 2D: identify evidence of glacial action, and analyze factors affecting the growth and attrition of glaciers and polar icecaps SLO 2B: investigate and describe stream characteristics

4. Future classes (E)

4.1. Science 30, Unit C: Electromagnetic Energy

4.1.1. GLO 2. Describe the properties of the electromagnetic spectrum and their applications in medical technologies, communication systems and remote-sensing technologies used to study the universe. SLO 30–C2.1k Describe the range of the electromagnetic spectrum from long, low-frequency radio waves through microwaves, infrared (IR) rays, visible light rays and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to very short, high-frequency waves, such as X-rays and gamma rays SLO 30–C2.2k Compare and contrast, to each other, the various constituents of the electromagnetic spectrum, on the basis of source, frequency, wavelength and energy, and their effect on living tissue; SLO 30–C2.3k Recognize that Earth’s atmosphere absorbs certain frequencies of EMR SLO 30–C2.7k Explain, in general terms, the design of telescopes that are used to gather information about the universe through the collection of as much EMR as possible; i.e., reflecting and refracting optical and radio telescopes SLO 30–C2.8k Explain that nuclear fusion in the sun, represented by the equation H + H → He + n, produces a wide spectrum of EMR SLO 30–C2.9k Describe, in general terms, how a spectroscope can be used to determine the composition of incandescent objects or substances, and the conditions necessary to produce emission (bright line) and absorption (dark line) spectra, in terms of light source and temperature SLO 30–C2.10k Describe technologies used to study stars • spectroscopes used to analyze the distribution of energy in a star’s continuous emission spectrum can be used to estimate the surface temperature of the star • Doppler-shift technology used to measure the speed of distant stars provides evidence that the universe is expanding SLO 30-C2.11k Describe, in general terms, the evolution of stars and the existence of black holes, white dwarves and neutron stars. SLO 30–C2.1sts Explain that the goal of technology is to provide solutions to practical problems (ST1) [ICT F2–4.4] • identify examples of technologies that apply EMR to solve medical, communication, industrial and environmental problems; e.g., use of UV radiation to kill bacteria; diagnostic use of MRIs and X-rays; use of radio waves, microwaves, fibre optics and infrared light in communications; use of remote-sensing technologies, including telescopes, space probes and satellites, in the study of the universe • describe technologies developed to protect astronauts from high-energy radiation SLO 30–C2.2sts Explain that scientific knowledge may lead to the development of new technologies, and new technologies may lead to or facilitate scientific discovery (ST4) [ICT F2–4.4, F2–4.8] • explain, in general terms, how EMR-detection technologies have advanced scientific knowledge of our universe and the structure of matter SLO 30–C2.3sts Explain how the appropriateness, risks and benefits of technologies need to be assessed for each potential application from a variety of perspectives, including sustainability (ST7) [ICT F2–4.2, F3–4.1] • assess the value to society of studying the structure and the history of the universe and the expense of building telescopes, such as the Hubble, or launching space probes

5. Grade 9 Science Topic E: Space Exploration

5.1. GLOs and SLOs

5.1.1. GLO 1. Investigate and describe ways that human understanding of Earth and space has depended on technological development SLO 1A: identify different ideas about the nature of Earth and space, based on culture and science SLO 1B: investigate and illustrate the contributions of technological advances—including optical telescopes, spectral analysis and space travel—to a scientific understanding of space SLO 1E: describe and apply techniques for determining the position and motion of objects in space SLO 1F: investigate predictions about the motion, alignment and collision of bodies in space SLO 1C: Describe, in general terms, the distribution of matter in star systems, galaxies, nebulae and the universe as a whole SLO 1D: Identify evidence for, and describe characteristics of, bodies that make up the solar system; and compare their composition and characteristics with those of Earth

5.1.2. GLO 2. Identify problems in developing technologies for space exploration, describe technologies developed for life in space, and explain the scientific principles involved SLO 2A: analyze space environments, and identify challenges that must be met in developing life-supporting systems SLO 2B: describe technologies for life-support systems, and interpret the scientific principles on which they are based SLO 2C: describe technologies for space transport, and interpret the scientific principles involved SLO 2D: identify materials and processes developed to meet needs in space, and identify related applications SLO 2E: describe the development of artificial satellites, and explain the major purposes for which they are used

5.1.3. GLO 3. Describe and interpret the science of optical and radio telescopes, space probes and remote sensing technologies SLO 3A: explain, in general terms, the operation of optical telescopes, including telescopes that are positioned in space environments SLO 3B: explain the role of radio and optical telescopes in determining characteristics of stars and star systems SLO 3C: describe and interpret, in general terms, the technologies used in global positioning systems and in remote sensing

5.1.4. GLO 4. Identify issues and opportunities arising from the application of space technology, identify alternatives involved, and analyze implications SLO 4A: recognize risks and dangers associated with space exploration SLO 4B: describe Canadian contributions to space research and development and to the astronaut program SLO 4C: identify and analyze factors that are important to decisions regarding space exploration and development