Distance Education in US and Nursing Concept Map

NSG 525 Module 1 concept map

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Distance Education in US and Nursing Concept Map by Mind Map: Distance Education in US and Nursing Concept Map

1. Definitions

1.1. Distance education

1.1.1. Formal education process where the majority of interaction between student and instructor occurs when students and instructors are not in the same place (Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges, 2018).

1.1.1.1. Defined by the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 as: education that uses one or more forms of technologies to deliver instruction to students separated from the instructor and to support regular interaction between students and the instructor. Approved forms of technology include the internet, one-way or two-way transmission through communication devices, audio-conferencing, or video (Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, 2018).

1.2. Online education

1.2.1. Includes courses in which most (greater than 80%) or all of the content is delivered online. This type of formal education typically includes no face-to-face meetings (Allen I. E. & Seaman J., 2015).

1.3. Correspondense course

1.3.1. Formal education process under which the institution provides instructional materials, through mail or electronic transmission. Interaction is limited and irregular between the instructor and student. Interactions are primarily initiated by the student and course are usually self-paced (Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges, 2018).

2. Accreditation Standards

2.1. CCNE

2.1.1. Accredits:

2.1.1.1. Baccalaureate degree nursing programs

2.1.1.2. Master's degree nursing programs

2.1.1.3. Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs

2.1.1.4. Post-graduate certificate programs that prepare Advance Practice Registered Nurses

2.1.1.5. Nurse residency programs

2.1.2. Applies same standards to all programs seeking CCNE accreditation, including programs with distance education opportunities (Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, 2018).

2.1.2.1. Examples of standards pertaining to distance education

2.1.2.1.1. Standard I: Mission and governance - Faculty and students participate in program governance. Participation of faculty and students should be promoted

2.1.2.1.2. Standard II: Institutional commitment and resources - Academic support services are sufficient to meet program and student needs. Resources can include library, technology, distance education support, and admission/advising support (Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, 2018).

2.1.2.1.3. Standard III: Curriculum and teaching-learning practices - Teaching learning practices must support the achievement of expected student outcomes. Distance education requires the same variety of teaching-learning strategies in order to meet expected course objectives.

2.1.2.1.4. Standard III: Curriculum and teaching-learning practices - Curriculum involved includes planned clinical experiences that enable students to integrate new knowledge, demonstrate attainment of program outcomes, and foster a collaborative process. These clinical experiences are required in distance educations programs and are evaluated by faculty (Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, 2018).

2.1.3. Standards are written as broad statements that encompass several areas of expected institutional performance. Each standard includes key elements which better provide an indication of whether the standard at hand has been met. (Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, 2018).

2.2. NLN CNEA

2.2.1. Applies Standards of accreditation to all types of nursing programs, including distance education programs.

2.2.1.1. Examples of standards pertaining to distance education

2.2.1.1.1. Standard II: Cultures of integrity and accountability: mission, governance, and resources - The organizational structure of the nursing program provides opportunities for faculty and students to demonstrate involvement. Governance structures facilitate the inclusion of online students in distance education programs (National League for Nursing Commission for Nursing Education Accreditation, 2016).

2.2.1.1.2. Standard IV: Culture of Excellence and Caring: Students - All information regarding student policies is documented and easily accessible in multiple media formats for both on-campus and distance education students (National League for Nursing Commission for Nursing Education Accreditation, 2016).

2.2.1.1.3. Standard V: Culture of Learning and Diversity: curriculum and evaluation processes - Distance learning programs are held to the same curricular, teaching/learning, clinical, and evaluation standards as on-campus programs. Teaching, learning, and evaluation strategies in all settings should be selected and planned by faculty based upon the evidence of best practices in education (National League for Nursing Commission for Nursing Education Accreditation, 2016).

2.2.2. Accredits nursing programs across the academic spectrum including:

2.2.2.1. LPN/LVN programs

2.2.2.2. Diploma programs

2.2.2.3. Associate Degree Nursing programs

2.2.2.4. Bachelor Degree Nursing programs

2.2.2.5. Master's Degree Nursing programs

2.2.2.6. Clinical doctorate degree programs

3. Current state of distance education

3.1. Positive influences on nursing education

3.1.1. Public institutions enroll 72% of U.S. higher education students. Public institutions tend to offer higher education degrees at a cheaper cost, which motivates students to pursue advanced degrees more.

3.1.2. 14% of higher education students are enrolled exclusively in a distance education program (Allen I. E. & Seaman J., 2015).

3.1.2.1. An additional 14% of all higher education students were found to be taking some but not all of their courses at a distance (Allen I. E. & Seaman J., 2015).

3.1.3. Growth of distance education enrollment grew by 7% between Fall 2012 and Fall 2014

3.1.4. Institutions continue to develop and add distance education courses/programs

3.1.4.1. A majority of institutions with distance education programs reports online education as critical to their long-term strategy

3.1.5. Online education removes distance as a barrier for students to obtain a degree

3.1.6. In a survey, a large majority of distance students believe that they can achieve the same educational outcomes with online courses as they can with face-to-face courses (Jaschick, S. & Lederman, D., 2019).

3.2. Negative influences on nursing education

3.2.1. Resources in smaller institutions are typically lacking, which makes the growth of distance education programs more difficult

3.2.2. Between the years of 2012 and 2013, smaller institutions decreased the amount of online education courses available.

3.2.2.1. While institutions with online offerings are positive about its growth within the program, schools with no offerings are no longer stating that online education will be part of their future plans (Allen I. E. & Seaman J., 2015).

3.2.3. Skepticism of online education remains high amongst academic faculty leaders.

3.2.4. Faculty members are more negative about the success of online education, where only 36% of faculty surveyed believe that students can achieve the same learning goals with online education as with face-to-face courses (Jaschick, S. & Lederman, D., 2019).

4. How nursing education is impacted

4.1. Online education opportunities are growing, allowing the advancement of nursing education in the workforce

4.1.1. Cost of higher education degrees and variety of degrees are increasing through distance education

4.2. Faculty skepticism and lack of resources at smaller institutions are listed as deterrents to developing online education programs

4.2.1. This means that the majority of online degrees are being obtained from larger institutions, which can limit variety of geographical proportions, as well as degree specialization

4.3. Online education remains flexible for nurses in the workforces, allowing opportunities for nurses to return to school while still working

4.3.1. This helps to develops staff within the nursing workforce, increasing the percentage of nurses with higher education degrees