Geography Study MAterial

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1. Physical Geography

1.1. 1

1.1.1. Landforms and Natural Regions Canada's Natural Regions: An area with similar characteristics is A Natural Region. Canada has 6 Natural Regions! The in betweens of each natural region is called a Transition Zone. 3 Main Mountain ranges, The Appalachian, The Western Cordillera, and the Innuitian.

1.2. 2

1.2.1. Climate Graphs and Lowern LOWERN Is a short-form for... Latitude Ocean Current Wind and Air masses Elevation Relief Near Water Climate Graphs: Temperature is labelled on the left hand side with -35 on the bottom and increasing by 5 up until 40. It is marked as A Red Line. Precipitation is marked with Blue Bars and labelled on the right side, starting at zero, increasing by 20, and endng at 300.

1.3. 3

1.3.1. Soils and Vegetation The 4 main components of soil are... B Bacteria and Organics Bacteria breaks down humus, organic sediment left from plants.: A: Air- Plants need air around their roots. M: Moisture- For plants to use Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Keeps the soil fertile and speeds up decomposition M: Minerals- Give nutrients to the plant, found in bedrock and given to soil by erosion or strong plant roots.

1.4. 4

1.4.1. National Parks and Climate Change National parks are made in Canada to protect endangered wildlife, protect historical areas and cultures, to protect land forms, and keep Canada's beauty. Some are even used to educate the public. Banff is a good example of a park dedicated to protecting Canada's beauty and land forms. Climate Change and It's Impacts to Canada Climate Change is described as "A change or Variation in regional or global Climate patterns." While there is slow variation naturally, such as the ice ages, current human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and the removal of trees have caused excess gases to be released into the atmosphere increasing the greenhouse effect.

1.5. 5

1.5.1. Earth's Structure The earth is made with an inner and out core, a mantle, and a crust. The crust is made up of many plates that float above the molten mantle. When these plates interact they can create earthquakes or mountains. There are 3 types of interactions. Diverging Converging Transforming

2. Resources

2.1. 1

2.1.1. Natural Resources Renewable Renewable Resources can be replaced by nature or at a relatively fast pace. Non-Renewable Non-Renewable Resources are created very slowly and cannot be replaced quickly enough. Flow Resources Flow resources are produced endlessly by nature.

2.2. 2

2.2.1. Trade Indusries Jobs In Canada Fall under 4 Catergories: Importing and Exporting Trade Deficit Trade Surplus Choropleth map

2.3. 3

2.3.1. Harnessing Natural Resources Agriculture Agriculture is in grave danger from... Can be divided into two Types, Intensive or Extensive. Intensive are family farms. Aquaculture and Fishing as well as Water Fishing can lead to extinction of species such as Cod in the 1990s. AquaCulture Our water is used in many ways, such as Agriculture, Domestic USe, and Industry. Fish are classified into 3 Types Ground fish, Pelagic, and Shellfish, and can be caught Offshore or Inshore. Mining Mining is done in three ways. Forestry Mostly Done in BC, Forestry is done in 3 different ways. Issues facing the forestry Industry:

3. Changing Populations

3.1. 1

3.1.1. First Nations Issues Attawapiskat People in attawapiskat show a great example of First Nations Issues, as there is not enough education for young people, and there is lots of damaged housing. To top it all off, A massive corporation is trying to buy their reserve land from them, and with the lack of jobs they will have almost no choice but to accept. Living Remotely Living remotely comes with it's drawbacks, as it may be beautiful and full of indigenous culture, there is no built infrastructure to bring in services, supplies, or jobs. Healthcare Lack of materials Economic Problems Residential schools Residential schools have left scars on the indigenous population with many people going through drug and alcohol abuse, as well as mental health problems. Many have parents who went to residential school, and the parents never learned how to be a proper family and abuse or mistreat children. European contact happened 500 years ago.

3.2. 2

3.2.1. Immigration types and Points system. There are 3 Types of Immigrants: Refugee Family Economic Illegal immigrants are detained upon border crossing and are held trial shortly after and if deemed worthy can become citizens.

3.3. 3

3.3.1. Demography and Aging Populations Demography is the study of population. In the case of Canada, we have a Stationary Population pyramid, but if there was no immigration we would have a declining pyramid, as baby boomer from the early 1900s are dying off. The First Nation's on the other hand are expanding, with a high fertility rate and a low life expectancy rate. There are three types of Population Pyramids, Stationary, Expansive/Declining, and Constrictive. Population Pyramids are important because they show patterns of changing populations and show future trends for each sex in the form of percentages. The Dependency load is the Children under 15, and senior 65+. They are unable to support themselves. China created a one child per family Rule. This caused many issues, including protests and societal problems, and lots of tax money to implement. Developing Countries have High Birthrates due to Disrespect to women, cultural laws, and a need for more children so a few survive.

4. Livable Cities

4.1. 1

4.1.1. Majority of people live in Ontario and Quebec, with 80% living in urban areas and majority of cities near 50km of the US border.

4.2. 2

4.2.1. Population Density The number of people within a Square km Canada's Population Density is 3.6 Settlement Patterns: Linear Dispersed Concentrated

4.3. 3

4.3.1. Urbanization and Land Use Land Use The way that land is used in a city. 1/3 of land is used for cars. Urbanization The Percentage of a Country's Population Living in Urban Areas (80% for Canada)

4.4. 4

4.4.1. Creating Sustainable Cities To Create Cities that allow for easy access to all services within Walking Distance, and allow a high quality of life while maintaining resources for future Generations. Sustainable Practices and Energy Sources Changing From Cars to Bikes Making Better Architecture.

5. Canadian Geographic Issues

5.1. 1

5.1.1. WWW 1 What is where: What is the issue and Where is it located? 2 Why there: Why is this issue occurring? List reasons that caused this issue to take place. 3 Why care: List reasons why you should care abut this issue. 4 What now? list potential solutions or practices to do now.

5.2. 2

5.2.1. Types of maps There are a few different types of maps. Choropleth General Purpose Thematic Topographic

5.3. 3.

5.3.1. Canadian Geographic Issues Def: Issues relating to Canada's Natural landscape and resources as well as population and society.