Macromolecules

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Macromolecules by Mind Map: Macromolecules

1. polysaccharides

1.1. multiple monosaccharides

1.2. functions

1.2.1. energy storage

1.2.1.1. starch

1.2.1.2. glycogen

1.2.2. structural support

1.2.2.1. Cellulose

1.2.2.2. Peptidoglycan

1.2.2.3. Chitin

1.2.2.4. Glycosaminoglycans

1.3. Glycosidic Linkages

1.3.1. 1,4 forms a linear chain

1.3.2. 1,6 forms branches

2. fat/triglyceride

2.1. glycerol and 3 fatty acids

2.1.1. Saturated

2.1.1.1. Straight, linear structure

2.1.1.2. Solid at room temp (butter)

2.1.1.3. all carbons linked by single bonds

2.1.2. Unsaturated

2.1.2.1. contain one or more double bonds

2.1.2.2. liquid at room temp (oil)

3. storage, expression, and transmission of genetic expression

3.1. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA

3.1.1. stores genetic information encoded in the sequence nucleotide monomers

3.2. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

3.2.1. decodes DNA into instructions for linking together a specific sequence of amino acids to form a polypeptide chain

3.2.2. single stranded

3.2.3. ribose

3.2.4. uracil instead of thymine

3.2.5. mRNA, rRNA, tRNA

4. carbohydrates

4.1. monosaccharides

4.1.1. simplest sugars

4.1.2. Pentoses (Ribose, Deoxyribose)

4.1.3. Hexose (Glucose, Fructose)

4.1.4. function: quick energy

4.2. disaccharides

4.2.1. two monosaccharides joined by dehydration reaction

4.2.2. maltose = glucose + glucose

4.2.3. sucrose = glucose + fructose

4.2.4. lactose = glucose + galactose

5. lipids

5.1. Composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms

5.1.1. insoluble in water

5.1.2. non polar

5.1.3. store energy

5.2. phospholipid

5.2.1. glycerol, 2 fatty acids, + phosphate group

5.2.1.1. glycerol "head"

5.2.1.2. two fatty acid "tails"

5.2.2. amphipathic

5.2.2.1. phosphate head (polar/hydrophilic)

5.2.2.2. Fatty acid tail (non polar/hydrophobic)

5.3. types

5.3.1. steroid

5.3.1.1. four interconnected rings of carbon atoms

5.3.1.1.1. Ex. Cholesterol

5.3.2. waxes

5.3.2.1. long structures resembling a fatty acid attached to another long hydrocarbon chain

5.3.2.2. nonpolar - exclude water

5.3.2.3. protect organisms from water loss or structural elements

5.3.2.4. Waxy surface on leaves

5.3.2.4.1. beeswax in honeycombs

6. proteins

6.1. Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

6.2. amino acids

6.2.1. 20 different types

6.2.2. determine structure and function

6.2.3. joined together by dehydration reactions to make polypeptides

6.2.4. protein structure

6.2.4.1. primary structure

6.2.4.1.1. amino acid sequence

6.2.4.2. secondary structure

6.2.4.2.1. protein folding

6.2.4.3. hydrogen bonds

6.2.4.3.1. tertiary structure

6.2.4.4. quaternary strucuture

6.2.4.4.1. 2+ polypeptide chains

6.2.5. Protein folding + stability

6.2.5.1. ionic bonds and polar interactions

6.2.5.2. hydrophobic interactions

6.2.5.3. van der Waals forces

6.2.5.4. disulfide bonds

7. nucleic acids

7.1. phosphate group, five carbon sugar (pentose), and a nitrogenous base

7.1.1. linked together by a sugar phosphate backbone

8. assembly

8.1. size

8.1.1. monomers

8.1.1.1. small, simple "pieces"

8.1.1.2. basic "building block"

8.1.2. polymers

8.1.2.1. larger, more complex

8.1.2.2. built out of many monomers joined together

8.2. chemical reactions

8.2.1. dehydration rxn

8.2.1.1. a molecule of water is removed each time a new monomer is added to form long polymers

8.2.2. hydrolysis rxm

8.2.2.1. a molecule of water is added back to breakdown monomers