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The Research Process by Mind Map: The Research Process
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The Research Process

Counseling Psychology Doctorate Candidate - UNL TOPICS: How do we acquire new knowledge about behavior? How to be a “producer” of psyc knowledge -- a researcher How do we evaluate the new “knowledge” about behavior that others claim to have found? How to be a “consumer” of psyc knowledge -- a practitioner

RELEVANT QUESTIONS

1

Briefly describe each of the sources of new knowledge. What is the accepted role of each source of knowledge in modern scientific psychological research?

SOURCES OF NEW KNOWLEDGE, INTUITION, OPINION, FAITH, BELIEF, FEELINGS, AUTHORITY, RATIONAL-INDUCTIVE ARGUMENT, SCIENTIFIC EMPIRICISM, HYPOTHESIS BASED ON EXISTING KNOWLEDGE, RELATIONSHIP, EVIDENCE, DATA COLLECTION, SYSTEMATIC, OBJECTIVE, CONTROLLED, DATA ANALYSIS, DEFEND CONCLUSION BASED ON QUALITY OF DATA, QUALITY, APPROPRIATENESS

2

Contrast "proof" vs. "evidence." Which is preferred, what keeps us from obtaining it, and what do we do instead? What do we do to convince ourselves that our new knowledge is correct?

RATIONALE, CRITICAL EXPERIMENT, CONVERGING OPERATIONS

3

Describe the research loop (be sure to briefly describe each stage). Tell the (3) different ways that it is applied and what we learn from that each type of application.

RESEARCH LOOP, RATIONALE, CRITICAL EXPERIMENT, CONVERGING OPERATIONS, STEPS, 2 REPLICATION, 3 CONVERGENCE, INITIAL RESEARCH, NEW LITERATURE REVIEW, PRIOR RESEARCH FINDINGS, DEVELOP NEW RH, LIBRARY RESEARCH, CURRENT KNOWLEDGE, PREVIOUSLY TESTED HYPOTHESIS, PREVIOUSLY USED RESEARCH DESIGNS, PREVIOUSLY USED STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, BASES FOR PREVIOUS CONCLUSIONS

4

Briefly describe the kinds of validity we want our research to have and the dependent nature among them.

TYPES OF RESEARCH VALIDITY, MEASUREMENT, STATISTICAL CONCLUSION, PROGRAMMATIC RESEARCH, NOVEL RH TEST, REPLICATION, CONVERGENCE, CULTURAL, ECOLOGICAL, INTERNAL VALIDITY, INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, MEASURED/SUBJECT, ONGOING EQUIVALENCE, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL, THREATS, FIELD (NON-LABORATORY_ RESEARCH, TIME FRAME, MANIPULATION, TASK COMPLETION, DATA COLLECTION, CONVERGING OPERATIONS, SOCIETAL/TEMPORAL, EXTERNAL VALIDITY, POPULATION, MEASURED/SUBJECT, SETTING, LABORATORY, STRUCTURED SETTING, FIELD, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL, TASK/STIMULUS, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL, THREATS, DEFENSES, EMPHASIZE INTERNAL VALIDITY, ESCHEW EXTERNAL VALIDITY, COMBAT ATTRITION, EDUCATION, CHOICE, REPLACEMENT, AVERSION, CONFOUNDS, REPLICATION AND CONVERGENCE, GENERALIZABILITY, APPLICABILITY

5

What is required to have a “truly random sample”? Is this often accomplished? When you are told that a sample is "random," what has usually been done?

PARTICIPANT SAMPLING DECISIONS, COMPLETE POPULATION OR SUPPORTIVE SAMPLING FRAME, RESEARCHER SELECTED OR INVITED/SELF-SELECTED, SIMPLE OR STRATIFIED

6

Compare and contrast IVs & confounds. Respond to the statement, “You only have to worry about confounds when you are testing a causal research hypothesis.”

ROLE OF EACH MEASURE/BEHAVIOR, CONSTANT, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL (IV), ONGOING EQUIVALENCE, THREATS, FIELD (NON-LABORATORY_ RESEARCH, TIME FRAME, MANIPULATION, TASK COMPLETION, DATA COLLECTION, CONVERGING OPERATIONS, MEASURED/SUBJECT(DV), INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, CONTROL, INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, VARIABLE, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL(IV), SERIATED IV, ONGOING EQUIVALENCE, THREATS, FIELD (NON-LABORATORY_ RESEARCH, TIME FRAME, MANIPULATION, TASK COMPLETION, DATA COLLECTION, CONVERGING OPERATIONS, CONFOUND, BALANCE, ELIMINATE, MEASURED/SUBJECT(DV), INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, CONFOUND, BALANCE, ELIMINATE, CONTROL, INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, CONFOUND, BALANCE, ELIMINATE, CONFOUNDING, ACRONYMS, MANIPULATED, CAUSAL, INDEPENDENT, THREE MEANINGS, MANIPULATED VARIABLE, GROUPING/CONDITION/TREATMENT VARIABLE, PRESUMED CAUSAL VARIABLE, MEASURED, OUTCOME, RESPONSE, EFFECT, DEPENDENT

7

Describe the variables that exist “before the study begins” and “after the study is completed” and how they are related. What determines what variables exist after the study is completed?

BEFORE STUDY, INDEPENDENT VARIABLE, DEPENDENT VARIABLE, POTENTIAL CONFOUNDS

AFTER STUDY, DEPENDENT VARIABLE, INDEPENDENT VARIABLE, CONFOUNDS, CONTROL CONSTANT, CONTROL VARIABLE, CONFOUND

8

Distinguish between participant selection and participant assignment and tell the specific type of validity associated with each. Tell how “randomization” is applied to each and whether or not it is considered necessary.

STAGES OF PARTICIPANT SAMPLING, SAMPLING FRAME, PURPOSIVE, COMPLETE, SELECTED SAMPLE, RESEARCH SELECTED, SIMPLE, STRATIFIED, SELF-SELECTED, SIMPLE, STRATIFIED

9

Describe the two different characterizations of the relationship between internal validity and external validity. Which do you prefer and why? (You are free to prefer either characterization -- points are awarded based on the quality and completeness of you description of why you prefer that characterization. Be sure you articulately defend the opinion you state!)

EXTERNAL VALIDITY, POPULATION, MEASURED/SUBJECT, SETTING, LABORATORY, STRUCTURED SETTING, FIELD, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL, TASK/STIMULUS, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL, THREATS, DEFENSES, EMPHASIZE INTERNAL VALIDITY, ESCHEW EXTERNAL VALIDITY, COMBAT ATTRITION, EDUCATION, CHOICE, REPLACEMENT, AVERSION, CONFOUNDS, REPLICATION AND CONVERGENCE, GENERALIZABILITY, APPLICABILITY

INTERNAL VALIDITY, INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, MEASURED/SUBJECT, ONGOING EQUIVALENCE, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL, THREATS, FIELD (NON-LABORATORY_ RESEARCH, TIME FRAME, MANIPULATION, TASK COMPLETION, DATA COLLECTION, CONVERGING OPERATIONS

10

Can all causal research hypotheses be studied? Why or why not? (Be sure to give examples to support your answer!)

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS, TYPES, ATTRIBUTIVE, UNIVARIATE HYPOTHESIS, SUPPORTING EVIDENCE, ASSOCIATIVE, BIVARIATE HYPOTHESIS, SUPPORTING EVIDENCE, BIVARIATE HYPOTHESIS, SUPPORTING EVIDENCE, CAUSAL, SUPPORTING EVIDENCE, TEMPORAL PRECEDENCE, STATISTICAL RELATIONSHIP, CONFOUNDING VARIABLES, BIVARIATE HYPOTHESIS

11

Respond to each of these statements. “Unless you run a true experiment there is no way you can causally interpret your results.” “Running a true experiment guarantees your results will be causally interpretable.”

TRUE EXPERIMENT

ROLE OF EACH MEASURE/BEHAVIOR, CONSTANT, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL (IV), ONGOING EQUIVALENCE, THREATS, FIELD (NON-LABORATORY_ RESEARCH, TIME FRAME, MANIPULATION, TASK COMPLETION, DATA COLLECTION, CONVERGING OPERATIONS, MEASURED/SUBJECT(DV), INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, CONTROL, INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, VARIABLE, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL(IV), SERIATED IV, ONGOING EQUIVALENCE, THREATS, FIELD (NON-LABORATORY_ RESEARCH, TIME FRAME, MANIPULATION, TASK COMPLETION, DATA COLLECTION, CONVERGING OPERATIONS, CONFOUND, BALANCE, ELIMINATE, MEASURED/SUBJECT(DV), INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, CONFOUND, BALANCE, ELIMINATE, CONTROL, INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, CONFOUND, BALANCE, ELIMINATE

12

Suppose a colleague said to you, “Why even bother running non-experiments? We can’t get any useful information from them!” What seems to be the type of information this colleague thinks is the only useful kind? How should you respond to this statement?

NON-EXPERIMENT, WITHIN-GROUPS, BETWEEN GROUPS, QUASI-EXPERIMENT, ASSIGNMENT, TREATMENT/MANIPULATION, CONTROL, NATURAL GROUPS (CONCOMITANT MEASURES OR CORRELATIONAL DESIGN), ASSIGNMENT, TREATMENT/MANIPULATION, CONTROL

13

Describe the key steps in the research process, briefly describing the type(s) of validity “at stake” during the completion of each. (Be sure to identify those steps that are particularly necessary for testing causal research hypotheses).

RESEARCH PROCESS, 1 POPULATION IDENTIFICATION, 2 SAMPLING, TARGET POPULATION, MEASURED/SUBJECT, SAMPLING FRAME, PURPOSIVE, COMPLETE, SELECTED SAMPLE, RESEARCH SELECTED, SIMPLE, STRATIFIED, SELF-SELECTED, SIMPLE, STRATIFIED, DATA SAMPLE, VOLUNTEERISM, INFORMED CONSENT, RIGHT TO REFUSE, ATTRITION, COMBAT ATTRITION, EDUCATION, CHOICE, REPLACEMENT, AVERSION, CONFOUNDS, REPLICATION AND CONVERGENCE, 3 ASSIGNMENT, 4 IV MANIPULATION, 5 DV MEASUREMENT, 6 DATA ANALYSIS, STATISTICAL CONCLUSION, PROGRAMMATIC RESEARCH, NOVEL RH TEST, REPLICATION, CONVERGENCE

14

Identify the attributes of a research study that do and do not directly influence the causal interpretability of the results. Also, tell the attributes of a study that can make it harder to maintain ongoing equivalence, and so, casual interpretability.

INTERNAL VALIDITY, INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, MEASURED/SUBJECT, ONGOING EQUIVALENCE, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL, THREATS, FIELD (NON-LABORATORY_ RESEARCH, TIME FRAME, MANIPULATION, TASK COMPLETION, DATA COLLECTION, CONVERGING OPERATIONS

EXTERNAL VALIDITY, POPULATION, MEASURED/SUBJECT, SETTING, LABORATORY, STRUCTURED SETTING, FIELD, TASK/STIMULUS, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL, THREATS, DEFENSES, EMPHASIZE INTERNAL VALIDITY, ESCHEW EXTERNAL VALIDITY, COMBAT ATTRITION, EDUCATION, CHOICE, REPLACEMENT, AVERSION, CONFOUNDS, REPLICATION AND CONVERGENCE, GENERALIZABILITY, APPLICABILITY

KEY TERMS

RESEARCH PROCESS

1 POPULATION IDENTIFICATION

2 SAMPLING, TARGET POPULATION, MEASURED/SUBJECT, SAMPLING FRAME, PURPOSIVE, COMPLETE, SELECTED SAMPLE, RESEARCH SELECTED, SIMPLE, STRATIFIED, SELF-SELECTED, SIMPLE, STRATIFIED, DATA SAMPLE, VOLUNTEERISM, INFORMED CONSENT, RIGHT TO REFUSE, ATTRITION, COMBAT ATTRITION, EDUCATION, CHOICE, REPLACEMENT, AVERSION, CONFOUNDS, REPLICATION AND CONVERGENCE

3 ASSIGNMENT

4 IV MANIPULATION

5 DV MEASUREMENT

6 DATA ANALYSIS, STATISTICAL CONCLUSION, PROGRAMMATIC RESEARCH, NOVEL RH TEST, REPLICATION, CONVERGENCE

DATA ANALYSIS, TEST HYPOTHESIS, REQUIRES COMBINING, RESULTS OF THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, SPECIFICS OF THE DESIGN AND DATA COLLECTION, BASES FOR SUPPORTING THE SPECIFIC TYPES OF RH, MANIPULATE DATA, SCORE, COLLATE, AGGREGATE, DRAW CONCLUSION, KNOWLEDGE FROM LIT REVIEW, KNOWLEDGE YOU ACQUIRED

DATA COLLECTION, TIME FRAME, OBSERVATION, SELF-REPORT, ?, PROCESS, POPULATION, PRIMARY, ARCHIVAL, SETTING, LABORATORY, STRUCTURED SETTING, FIELD, ETHICS AND VALIDITY, DATA INTEGRITY, ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS, RESEARCHER HONESTY, INFORMED CONSENT, LEVEL OF DISCLOSURE, RISK-BENEFIT TRADE-OFF MODEL, RISK, BENEFIT, VOLUNTEERISM, REPORTING RESEARCH, LEVELS OF DISCLOSURE, PRIVACY, ANONYMITY, CONFIDENTIALITY, GROUP DISCLOSRE, "MASKED" INDIVIDUAL DISCLOSURE, INDIVIDUAL DISCLOSURE, EXPERIMENTER EXPECTANCY EFFECTS, BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION, DATA COLLECTION BIAS, PARTICIPANT EXPECTANCY EFFECTS, SOCIAL DESIRABILITY, ACQUIESCENCE/REJECTION RESPONSE, MINIMIZING BIAS, SINGLE BLIND PROCEDURES, DOUBLE BLIND PROCEDURES, REACTIVITY AND RESPONSE BIAS, RACTIVITY BIAS, RESPONSE BIAS, OBSERVER AND INTERVIEWER BIAS, OBSERVER BIAS, INTERVIEWER BIAS

RESEARCH LOOP, RATIONALE, CRITICAL EXPERIMENT, CONVERGING OPERATIONS, STEPS, 2 REPLICATION, 3 CONVERGENCE, INITIAL RESEARCH, NEW LITERATURE REVIEW, PRIOR RESEARCH FINDINGS, DEVELOP NEW RH, LIBRARY RESEARCH, CURRENT KNOWLEDGE, PREVIOUSLY TESTED HYPOTHESIS, PREVIOUSLY USED RESEARCH DESIGNS, PREVIOUSLY USED STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, BASES FOR PREVIOUS CONCLUSIONS

PARTICIPANT SAMPLING DECISIONS, COMPLETE POPULATION OR SUPPORTIVE SAMPLING FRAME, RESEARCHER SELECTED OR INVITED/SELF-SELECTED, SIMPLE OR STRATIFIED

RESEARCH DESIGN, TYPES, TRUE EXPERIMENT, WITHIN-GROUPS, BETWEEN GROUPS, NON-EXPERIMENT, WITHIN-GROUPS, BETWEEN GROUPS, QUASI-EXPERIMENT, ASSIGNMENT, TREATMENT/MANIPULATION, CONTROL, NATURAL GROUPS (CONCOMITANT MEASURES OR CORRELATIONAL DESIGN), ASSIGNMENT, TREATMENT/MANIPULATION, CONTROL, ELEMENTS, TARGET POPULATION, SETTING, STRUCTURED, FIELD, TASKS, MANIPULATIONS, DATA COLLECTION

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS, TYPES, ATTRIBUTIVE, UNIVARIATE HYPOTHESIS, SUPPORTING EVIDENCE, ASSOCIATIVE, BIVARIATE HYPOTHESIS, SUPPORTING EVIDENCE, BIVARIATE HYPOTHESIS, SUPPORTING EVIDENCE, CAUSAL, SUPPORTING EVIDENCE, TEMPORAL PRECEDENCE, STATISTICAL RELATIONSHIP, CONFOUNDING VARIABLES, BIVARIATE HYPOTHESIS, CHARACTERISTICS, CAUSATION, HIERARCHICAL ARRANGEMENT, ATTRIBUTIVE, CAUSAL, FORMATION, WHAT IS KNOWN, HOW IT IS LEARNED

ROLE OF EACH MEASURE/BEHAVIOR, CONSTANT, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL (IV), ONGOING EQUIVALENCE, THREATS, FIELD (NON-LABORATORY_ RESEARCH, TIME FRAME, MANIPULATION, TASK COMPLETION, DATA COLLECTION, CONVERGING OPERATIONS, MEASURED/SUBJECT(DV), INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, CONTROL, INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, VARIABLE, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL(IV), SERIATED IV, ONGOING EQUIVALENCE, THREATS, FIELD (NON-LABORATORY_ RESEARCH, TIME FRAME, MANIPULATION, TASK COMPLETION, DATA COLLECTION, CONVERGING OPERATIONS, CONFOUND, BALANCE, ELIMINATE, MEASURED/SUBJECT(DV), INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, CONFOUND, BALANCE, ELIMINATE, CONTROL, INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, CONFOUND, BALANCE, ELIMINATE, CONFOUND, ACRONYMS, MANIPULATED, CAUSAL, INDEPENDENT, THREE MEANINGS, MANIPULATED VARIABLE, GROUPING/CONDITION/TREATMENT VARIABLE, PRESUMED CAUSAL VARIABLE, MEASURED, OUTCOME, THREE MEANINGS, MANIPULATED VARIABLE, GROUPING/CONDITION/TREATMENT VARIABLE, PRESUMED CAUSAL VARIABLE, RESPONSE, EFFECT, DEPENDENT

STAGES OF PARTICIPANT SAMPLING, TARGET POPULATION, SAMPLING FRAME, PURPOSIVE, COMPLETE, SELECTED SAMPLE, RESEARCH SELECTED, SIMPLE, STRATIFIED, SELF-SELECTED, SIMPLE, STRATIFIED, DATA SAMPLE, VOLUNTEERISM, INFORMED CONSENT, RIGHT TO REFUSE, ATTRITION, COMBAT ATTRITION, EDUCATION, CHOICE, REPLACEMENT, AVERSION, CONFOUNDS, REPLICATION AND CONVERGENCE

TYPES OF PARTICIPANT ASSIGNMENT, ACCEPTABLE, RA OF INDIVIDUALS BY RESERACHER, EQUAL CHANCE, BALANCED SUBJECT VARIABLES, INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, MEASURED/SUBJECT, UNNACCEPTABLE, RANDOM ASSIGNMENT OF GROUPS, ARBITRARY ASSIGNMENT BY RESEARCHER, SELF-ASSIGNMENT, ADMINISTRATIVE ASSIGNMENT, NON-ASSIGNMENT OR NATURAL ASSIGNMENT

TYPES OF RESEARCH VALIDITY, MEASUREMENT, STATISTICAL CONCLUSION, PROGRAMMATIC RESEARCH, NOVEL RH TEST, REPLICATION, CONVERGENCE, CULTURAL, ECOLOGICAL, SOCIETAL/TEMPORAL, EXTERNAL VALIDITY, POPULATION, MEASURED/SUBJECT, SETTING, LABORATORY, STRUCTURED SETTING, FIELD, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL, TASK/STIMULUS, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL, THREATS, DEFENSES, EMPHASIZE INTERNAL VALIDITY, ESCHEW EXTERNAL VALIDITY, COMBAT ATTRITION, EDUCATION, CHOICE, REPLACEMENT, AVERSION, CONFOUNDS, REPLICATION AND CONVERGENCE, GENERALIZABILITY, APPLICABILITY, INTERNAL VALIDITY, INITIAL EQUIVALENCE, MEASURED/SUBJECT, ONGOING EQUIVALENCE, MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL, THREATS, FIELD (NON-LABORATORY_ RESEARCH, TIME FRAME, MANIPULATION, TASK COMPLETION, DATA COLLECTION, CONVERGING OPERATIONS

SOURCES OF NEW KNOWLEDGE

All four are accepted “sources of hypotheses” • Intuition is often considered a reasonable source of research hypotheses -- especially when it is the intuition of a well know researcher or theoretician who “knows what is known” (i.e., Intuition by an Authority with a history of good intuition) • Rational Induction is often used to form “new hypotheses” by logically combining the empirical findings from separate areas of research • Prior empirical research findings are perhaps the most common source of new research hypotheses, especially when carefully combined using rational induction Only scientific empiricism is an accepted “source of scientific psychological knowledge” Only scientific empiricism is an accepted “source of scientific psychological knowledge”

INTUITION, OPINION, FAITH, BELIEF, FEELINGS

AUTHORITY

RATIONAL-INDUCTIVE ARGUMENT

SCIENTIFIC EMPIRICISM, HYPOTHESIS BASED ON EXISTING KNOWLEDGE, RELATIONSHIP, EVIDENCE, DATA COLLECTION, SYSTEMATIC, OBJECTIVE, CONTROLLED, DATA ANALYSIS, DEFEND CONCLUSION BASED ON QUALITY OF DATA, QUALITY, APPROPRIATENESS

TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE

3 Types of Knowledge about behavior Descriptive Knowledge Predictive Knowledge (Causal) Understanding

DESCRIPTIVE, DEFINING BEHAVIOR, CLASSIFYING BEHAVIOR, MEASURING BEHAVIOR

PREDICTIVE

CAUSAL (UNDERSTANDING), WHAT BEHAVIORS ARE RELATED, WHAT THE CAUSAL BEHAVIOR IS