The Research Process

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The Research Process by Mind Map: The Research Process

1. RELEVANT QUESTIONS

1.1. 1

1.1.1. SOURCES OF NEW KNOWLEDGE

1.1.1.1. INTUITION

1.1.1.1.1. OPINION

1.1.1.1.2. FAITH

1.1.1.1.3. BELIEF

1.1.1.1.4. FEELINGS

1.1.1.2. AUTHORITY

1.1.1.3. RATIONAL-INDUCTIVE ARGUMENT

1.1.1.4. SCIENTIFIC EMPIRICISM

1.1.1.4.1. HYPOTHESIS BASED ON EXISTING KNOWLEDGE

1.1.1.4.2. RELATIONSHIP

1.1.1.4.3. EVIDENCE

1.1.1.4.4. DATA COLLECTION

1.1.1.4.5. DATA ANALYSIS

1.1.1.4.6. DEFEND CONCLUSION BASED ON QUALITY OF DATA

1.2. 2

1.2.1. RATIONALE

1.2.1.1. CRITICAL EXPERIMENT

1.2.1.2. CONVERGING OPERATIONS

1.3. 3

1.3.1. RESEARCH LOOP

1.3.1.1. RATIONALE

1.3.1.1.1. CRITICAL EXPERIMENT

1.3.1.1.2. CONVERGING OPERATIONS

1.3.1.2. STEPS

1.3.1.2.1. 2 REPLICATION

1.3.1.2.2. 3 CONVERGENCE

1.3.1.2.3. INITIAL RESEARCH

1.3.1.3. LIBRARY RESEARCH

1.3.1.3.1. CURRENT KNOWLEDGE

1.3.1.3.2. PREVIOUSLY TESTED HYPOTHESIS

1.3.1.3.3. PREVIOUSLY USED RESEARCH DESIGNS

1.3.1.3.4. PREVIOUSLY USED STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

1.3.1.3.5. BASES FOR PREVIOUS CONCLUSIONS

1.4. 4

1.4.1. TYPES OF RESEARCH VALIDITY

1.4.1.1. MEASUREMENT

1.4.1.2. STATISTICAL CONCLUSION

1.4.1.2.1. PROGRAMMATIC RESEARCH

1.4.1.3. CULTURAL

1.4.1.4. ECOLOGICAL

1.4.1.5. INTERNAL VALIDITY

1.4.1.5.1. INITIAL EQUIVALENCE

1.4.1.5.2. ONGOING EQUIVALENCE

1.4.1.6. SOCIETAL/TEMPORAL

1.4.1.7. EXTERNAL VALIDITY

1.4.1.7.1. POPULATION

1.4.1.7.2. SETTING

1.4.1.7.3. TASK/STIMULUS

1.4.1.7.4. THREATS

1.4.1.7.5. GENERALIZABILITY

1.5. 5

1.5.1. PARTICIPANT SAMPLING DECISIONS

1.5.1.1. COMPLETE POPULATION OR SUPPORTIVE SAMPLING FRAME

1.5.1.2. RESEARCHER SELECTED OR INVITED/SELF-SELECTED

1.5.1.3. SIMPLE OR STRATIFIED

1.6. 6

1.6.1. ROLE OF EACH MEASURE/BEHAVIOR

1.6.1.1. CONSTANT

1.6.1.1.1. MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL (IV)

1.6.1.1.2. MEASURED/SUBJECT(DV)

1.6.1.1.3. CONTROL

1.6.1.2. VARIABLE

1.6.1.2.1. MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL(IV)

1.6.1.2.2. MEASURED/SUBJECT(DV)

1.6.1.2.3. CONTROL

1.6.1.2.4. CONFOUND

1.6.1.3. CONFOUNDING

1.6.1.4. ACRONYMS

1.6.1.4.1. MANIPULATED

1.6.1.4.2. MEASURED

1.7. 7

1.7.1. BEFORE STUDY

1.7.1.1. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

1.7.1.2. DEPENDENT VARIABLE

1.7.1.3. POTENTIAL CONFOUNDS

1.7.2. AFTER STUDY

1.7.2.1. DEPENDENT VARIABLE

1.7.2.2. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

1.7.2.3. CONFOUNDS

1.7.2.3.1. CONTROL CONSTANT

1.7.2.3.2. CONTROL VARIABLE

1.7.2.3.3. CONFOUND

1.8. 8

1.8.1. STAGES OF PARTICIPANT SAMPLING

1.8.1.1. SAMPLING FRAME

1.8.1.1.1. PURPOSIVE

1.8.1.1.2. COMPLETE

1.8.1.2. SELECTED SAMPLE

1.8.1.2.1. RESEARCH SELECTED

1.8.1.2.2. SELF-SELECTED

1.9. 9

1.9.1. EXTERNAL VALIDITY

1.9.1.1. POPULATION

1.9.1.1.1. MEASURED/SUBJECT

1.9.1.2. SETTING

1.9.1.2.1. LABORATORY

1.9.1.2.2. STRUCTURED SETTING

1.9.1.2.3. FIELD

1.9.1.2.4. MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL

1.9.1.3. TASK/STIMULUS

1.9.1.3.1. MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL

1.9.1.4. THREATS

1.9.1.4.1. DEFENSES

1.9.1.5. GENERALIZABILITY

1.9.1.5.1. APPLICABILITY

1.9.2. INTERNAL VALIDITY

1.9.2.1. INITIAL EQUIVALENCE

1.9.2.1.1. MEASURED/SUBJECT

1.9.2.2. ONGOING EQUIVALENCE

1.9.2.2.1. MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL

1.9.2.2.2. THREATS

1.9.2.2.3. CONVERGING OPERATIONS

1.10. 10

1.10.1. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

1.10.1.1. TYPES

1.10.1.1.1. ATTRIBUTIVE

1.10.1.1.2. ASSOCIATIVE

1.10.1.1.3. CAUSAL

1.11. 11

1.11.1. TRUE EXPERIMENT

1.11.2. ROLE OF EACH MEASURE/BEHAVIOR

1.11.2.1. CONSTANT

1.11.2.1.1. MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL (IV)

1.11.2.1.2. MEASURED/SUBJECT(DV)

1.11.2.1.3. CONTROL

1.11.2.2. VARIABLE

1.11.2.2.1. MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL(IV)

1.11.2.2.2. MEASURED/SUBJECT(DV)

1.11.2.2.3. CONTROL

1.11.2.2.4. CONFOUND

1.12. 12

1.12.1. NON-EXPERIMENT

1.12.1.1. WITHIN-GROUPS

1.12.1.2. BETWEEN GROUPS

1.12.1.3. QUASI-EXPERIMENT

1.12.1.3.1. ASSIGNMENT

1.12.1.3.2. TREATMENT/MANIPULATION

1.12.1.3.3. CONTROL

1.12.1.4. NATURAL GROUPS (CONCOMITANT MEASURES OR CORRELATIONAL DESIGN)

1.12.1.4.1. ASSIGNMENT

1.12.1.4.2. TREATMENT/MANIPULATION

1.12.1.4.3. CONTROL

1.13. 13

1.13.1. RESEARCH PROCESS

1.13.1.1. 1 POPULATION IDENTIFICATION

1.13.1.2. 2 SAMPLING

1.13.1.2.1. TARGET POPULATION

1.13.1.2.2. SAMPLING FRAME

1.13.1.2.3. SELECTED SAMPLE

1.13.1.2.4. DATA SAMPLE

1.13.1.3. 3 ASSIGNMENT

1.13.1.4. 4 IV MANIPULATION

1.13.1.5. 5 DV MEASUREMENT

1.13.1.6. 6 DATA ANALYSIS

1.13.1.6.1. STATISTICAL CONCLUSION

1.14. 14

1.14.1. INTERNAL VALIDITY

1.14.1.1. INITIAL EQUIVALENCE

1.14.1.1.1. MEASURED/SUBJECT

1.14.1.2. ONGOING EQUIVALENCE

1.14.1.2.1. MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL

1.14.1.2.2. THREATS

1.14.1.2.3. CONVERGING OPERATIONS

1.14.2. EXTERNAL VALIDITY

1.14.2.1. POPULATION

1.14.2.1.1. MEASURED/SUBJECT

1.14.2.2. SETTING

1.14.2.2.1. LABORATORY

1.14.2.2.2. STRUCTURED SETTING

1.14.2.2.3. FIELD

1.14.2.3. TASK/STIMULUS

1.14.2.3.1. MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL

1.14.2.4. THREATS

1.14.2.4.1. DEFENSES

1.14.2.5. GENERALIZABILITY

1.14.2.5.1. APPLICABILITY

2. KEY TERMS

2.1. RESEARCH PROCESS

2.1.1. 1 POPULATION IDENTIFICATION

2.1.2. 2 SAMPLING

2.1.2.1. TARGET POPULATION

2.1.2.1.1. MEASURED/SUBJECT

2.1.2.2. SAMPLING FRAME

2.1.2.2.1. PURPOSIVE

2.1.2.2.2. COMPLETE

2.1.2.3. SELECTED SAMPLE

2.1.2.3.1. RESEARCH SELECTED

2.1.2.3.2. SELF-SELECTED

2.1.2.4. DATA SAMPLE

2.1.2.4.1. VOLUNTEERISM

2.1.2.4.2. INFORMED CONSENT

2.1.2.4.3. RIGHT TO REFUSE

2.1.2.4.4. ATTRITION

2.1.3. 3 ASSIGNMENT

2.1.4. 4 IV MANIPULATION

2.1.5. 5 DV MEASUREMENT

2.1.6. 6 DATA ANALYSIS

2.1.6.1. STATISTICAL CONCLUSION

2.1.6.1.1. PROGRAMMATIC RESEARCH

2.1.7. DATA ANALYSIS

2.1.7.1. TEST HYPOTHESIS

2.1.7.1.1. REQUIRES COMBINING

2.1.7.2. MANIPULATE DATA

2.1.7.2.1. SCORE

2.1.7.2.2. COLLATE

2.1.7.2.3. AGGREGATE

2.1.7.3. DRAW CONCLUSION

2.1.7.3.1. KNOWLEDGE FROM LIT REVIEW

2.1.7.3.2. KNOWLEDGE YOU ACQUIRED

2.1.8. DATA COLLECTION

2.1.8.1. TIME FRAME

2.1.8.1.1. OBSERVATION

2.1.8.1.2. SELF-REPORT

2.1.8.1.3. ?

2.1.8.2. PROCESS

2.1.8.3. POPULATION

2.1.8.3.1. PRIMARY

2.1.8.3.2. ARCHIVAL

2.1.8.4. SETTING

2.1.8.4.1. LABORATORY

2.1.8.4.2. STRUCTURED SETTING

2.1.8.4.3. FIELD

2.1.8.5. ETHICS AND VALIDITY

2.1.8.5.1. DATA INTEGRITY

2.1.8.5.2. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

2.1.8.5.3. LEVELS OF DISCLOSURE

2.1.8.5.4. EXPERIMENTER EXPECTANCY EFFECTS

2.1.8.5.5. PARTICIPANT EXPECTANCY EFFECTS

2.1.8.5.6. MINIMIZING BIAS

2.1.8.5.7. REACTIVITY AND RESPONSE BIAS

2.1.8.5.8. OBSERVER AND INTERVIEWER BIAS

2.1.9. RESEARCH LOOP

2.1.9.1. RATIONALE

2.1.9.1.1. CRITICAL EXPERIMENT

2.1.9.1.2. CONVERGING OPERATIONS

2.1.9.2. STEPS

2.1.9.2.1. 2 REPLICATION

2.1.9.2.2. 3 CONVERGENCE

2.1.9.2.3. INITIAL RESEARCH

2.1.9.3. LIBRARY RESEARCH

2.1.9.3.1. CURRENT KNOWLEDGE

2.1.9.3.2. PREVIOUSLY TESTED HYPOTHESIS

2.1.9.3.3. PREVIOUSLY USED RESEARCH DESIGNS

2.1.9.3.4. PREVIOUSLY USED STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

2.1.9.3.5. BASES FOR PREVIOUS CONCLUSIONS

2.1.10. PARTICIPANT SAMPLING DECISIONS

2.1.10.1. COMPLETE POPULATION OR SUPPORTIVE SAMPLING FRAME

2.1.10.2. RESEARCHER SELECTED OR INVITED/SELF-SELECTED

2.1.10.3. SIMPLE OR STRATIFIED

2.1.11. RESEARCH DESIGN

2.1.11.1. TYPES

2.1.11.1.1. TRUE EXPERIMENT

2.1.11.1.2. NON-EXPERIMENT

2.1.11.2. ELEMENTS

2.1.11.2.1. TARGET POPULATION

2.1.11.2.2. SETTING

2.1.11.2.3. TASKS

2.1.11.2.4. MANIPULATIONS

2.1.11.2.5. DATA COLLECTION

2.1.12. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

2.1.12.1. TYPES

2.1.12.1.1. ATTRIBUTIVE

2.1.12.1.2. ASSOCIATIVE

2.1.12.1.3. CAUSAL

2.1.12.2. CHARACTERISTICS

2.1.12.2.1. CAUSATION

2.1.12.2.2. HIERARCHICAL ARRANGEMENT

2.1.12.3. FORMATION

2.1.12.3.1. WHAT IS KNOWN

2.1.12.3.2. HOW IT IS LEARNED

2.1.13. ROLE OF EACH MEASURE/BEHAVIOR

2.1.13.1. CONSTANT

2.1.13.1.1. MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL (IV)

2.1.13.1.2. MEASURED/SUBJECT(DV)

2.1.13.1.3. CONTROL

2.1.13.2. VARIABLE

2.1.13.2.1. MANIPULATED/PROCEDURAL(IV)

2.1.13.2.2. MEASURED/SUBJECT(DV)

2.1.13.2.3. CONTROL

2.1.13.2.4. CONFOUND

2.1.13.3. CONFOUND

2.1.13.4. ACRONYMS

2.1.13.4.1. MANIPULATED

2.1.13.4.2. MEASURED

2.1.14. STAGES OF PARTICIPANT SAMPLING

2.1.14.1. TARGET POPULATION

2.1.14.2. SAMPLING FRAME

2.1.14.2.1. PURPOSIVE

2.1.14.2.2. COMPLETE

2.1.14.3. SELECTED SAMPLE

2.1.14.3.1. RESEARCH SELECTED

2.1.14.3.2. SELF-SELECTED

2.1.14.4. DATA SAMPLE

2.1.14.4.1. VOLUNTEERISM

2.1.14.4.2. INFORMED CONSENT

2.1.14.4.3. RIGHT TO REFUSE

2.1.14.4.4. ATTRITION

2.1.15. TYPES OF PARTICIPANT ASSIGNMENT

2.1.15.1. ACCEPTABLE

2.1.15.1.1. RA OF INDIVIDUALS BY RESERACHER

2.1.15.2. UNNACCEPTABLE

2.1.15.2.1. RANDOM ASSIGNMENT OF GROUPS

2.1.15.2.2. ARBITRARY ASSIGNMENT BY RESEARCHER

2.1.15.2.3. SELF-ASSIGNMENT

2.1.15.2.4. ADMINISTRATIVE ASSIGNMENT

2.1.15.2.5. NON-ASSIGNMENT OR NATURAL ASSIGNMENT

2.1.16. TYPES OF RESEARCH VALIDITY

2.1.16.1. MEASUREMENT

2.1.16.2. STATISTICAL CONCLUSION

2.1.16.2.1. PROGRAMMATIC RESEARCH

2.1.16.3. CULTURAL

2.1.16.4. ECOLOGICAL

2.1.16.5. SOCIETAL/TEMPORAL

2.1.16.6. EXTERNAL VALIDITY

2.1.16.6.1. POPULATION

2.1.16.6.2. SETTING

2.1.16.6.3. TASK/STIMULUS

2.1.16.6.4. THREATS

2.1.16.6.5. GENERALIZABILITY

2.1.16.7. INTERNAL VALIDITY

2.1.16.7.1. INITIAL EQUIVALENCE

2.1.16.7.2. ONGOING EQUIVALENCE

2.2. SOURCES OF NEW KNOWLEDGE

2.2.1. INTUITION

2.2.1.1. OPINION

2.2.1.2. FAITH

2.2.1.3. BELIEF

2.2.1.4. FEELINGS

2.2.2. AUTHORITY

2.2.3. RATIONAL-INDUCTIVE ARGUMENT

2.2.4. SCIENTIFIC EMPIRICISM

2.2.4.1. HYPOTHESIS BASED ON EXISTING KNOWLEDGE

2.2.4.2. RELATIONSHIP

2.2.4.3. EVIDENCE

2.2.4.4. DATA COLLECTION

2.2.4.4.1. SYSTEMATIC

2.2.4.4.2. OBJECTIVE

2.2.4.4.3. CONTROLLED

2.2.4.5. DATA ANALYSIS

2.2.4.6. DEFEND CONCLUSION BASED ON QUALITY OF DATA

2.2.4.6.1. QUALITY

2.2.4.6.2. APPROPRIATENESS

2.3. TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE

2.3.1. DESCRIPTIVE

2.3.1.1. DEFINING BEHAVIOR

2.3.1.2. CLASSIFYING BEHAVIOR

2.3.1.3. MEASURING BEHAVIOR

2.3.2. PREDICTIVE

2.3.3. CAUSAL (UNDERSTANDING)

2.3.3.1. WHAT BEHAVIORS ARE RELATED

2.3.3.2. WHAT THE CAUSAL BEHAVIOR IS