Connections Overview of References

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3. What policy briefs or other recommendations have been put forward so as to address the issue of 21st Century Learning

3.1. 'In the «digital society», a new generation is emerging: the «digital natives». Not only they have new and specific digital abilities; they also bring new concepts, new stakes. The traditional school and traditional pedagogies can hardly cope with this new generation. This policy brief aims at considering the question of digital natives, their place in a digital society and a knowledge society, and the new issues that such a generation brings forth, in order to help design appropriate pedagogical and educational strategies for the era of digital natives. Knowledge is changing; lifelong learning is now for everyone; the society is more and more structured in networks; collective intelligence is made possible by technologies and seems natural to digital natives. But there is a risk that the gap will increase between technology and pedagogy. How do the digital natives learn? How to teach them? These are the core questions that we try to address.' (UNESCO POLICY BRIEF, DIGITAL NATIVES:HOW DO THEY LEARN?HOW TO TEACH THEM? 2011 page 12

3.2. 'The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies is designed to assess the state of the skills of individuals and nations in this new information world. Clearly, one of those skills is literacy and the framework set out in this paper by the Literacy Expert Group for PIAAC reflects its understanding of what the literacy skills that are necessary in the 21st century are.' (PIAAC LITERACY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OECD Education Working Paper No. 34, 2009

3.2.1. Gfggg

3.2.2. New

3.3. "The main objective of the study commissioned by the UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education to Tapio Varis (University of Tampere, Finland) and José Manuel Pérez Tornero (Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain) was to investigate digital and media literacy in the context of educommunication and new humanism that is committed to the goal of counteracting the depersonalising effects of mass technology. The study was initiated to provide a deeper insight into the recent trends in the development of media culture and media literacy movement, and to provide conceptual framework for media literacy, new media literacy curriculum and teacher training." (Media Literacy and New Humanism,UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010, page 5

3.4. "This report sets out to prepare a similar excursion into the future, by outlining a set of scenarios on how governance and policy modelling, supported and enhanced by the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), could develop by 2030 in order to identify the research needs and policy challenges to be addressed" The report sets out four possible scenarios - each representing an a possible anticipated future, some good, some not so good. (from Envisioning Digital Europe 2030 This is A Participative Roadmap for ICT Research on Electronic Governance and Policy Modelling, to help policy makers implement the Digital Agenda for Europe

4. What areas are lacking or needing researched or further developed

4.1. The area of LITERACY

4.1.1. citations showing how LITERACY is needing to be promoted and researched "research, especially in the United States and Canada, has shown had many individuals still have difficulty with the underlying skills, such as vocabulary and fluency, that are the building blocks necessary to developing the higher levels of literacy. To have a full picture of literacy in any society, it is necessary to have more information about these individuals because these groups are at the greatest risk of experiencing negative social, economic and labor market outcomes." (PIAAC Literacy: A Conceptual Framework, page 6) a need for understanding engagement with media "Studies have found that engagement with (attitude toward and practice of) reading is an important correlate with the direct cognitive measures. As such it is necessary to understand these differences to get a full picture of adult literacy." page 10, PIAAC Literacy: A Conceptual Framework a need for understanding how new media facilitates and enables participation in society a need for understanding how new media develops individual skills, knowledge a need for understanding cognitive development as it is being redefined by youth usage of digital media "the rapid evolution of the brain that is occurring today is making many reconsider the validity of traditional thought on cognitive development. Small makes the following statement regarding this dramatic change in the brains of children today: The nineteenth-century French psychologist Jean Piaget charted these milestones to adulthood, beginning with the first two years of life, when a toddler develops awareness of other people and learns to relate to them. From two to six years, the young child learns basic language skills. However, the thinking is relatively concrete until the teen years, when the ability for abstract thought and reason takes hold. If digital technology continues to distract young susceptible minds at the present rate, the traditional developmental stages will need to be redefined. (Small & Vorgon, 2008, p. 28)" from Understanding the Digital Generation, chapter 1 New node a need for understanding how the lack of interpersonal face-face interaction is impacting the devlopment of young people "A major concern is what this decreased face-to-face interpersonal interaction is doing to brain development and the acquisition of interpersonal skills. Following are two quotes from Small that highlight this concern. Without enough face-to-face interpersonal stimulation, a child’s neural circuits can atrophy, and the brain may not develop normal interactive social skills. (Small & Vorgon, 2008, p. 27) Recent neuroscience points to pathways in the brain that are necessary to hone interpersonal skills, empathetic abilities, and effective personal instincts. In the digital generation, which has been raised on technology, these interpersonal neural pathways are often left unstimulated and underdeveloped. (Small & Vorgon, 2008, p. 117)" from Understanding the Digital Generation, chapter 1

4.1.2. we can discern the existence of several predominant orientations in the approach to integrating media literacy in education- this provides of course, some pointers to where teaching approaches can be improved "a) the protectionist orientation, b) the promoting orientation and c) the participatory orientation" (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010 "The protectionist orientation upholds the goal of protecting vulnerable parties against potential threats of the media system. It is grounded on a serious concern about the risks of the rising media power and thus adopts preventative and defensive actions. It upholds the implementation of policies regulating the media and surveillance systems to monitor its actions and their consequences. In this sense, protectionist policies are quite frequently associated with children and youth, who are the most vulnerable to the potentially harmful effects of the media due to their age and education.30 Yet these policies can also be found regarding sexual content, xenophobic and racist content and policies concerning the need of sustain cultural diversity." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010 "The second is the promoting orientation. This consists of spearheading or encouraging activities that tend to stimulate greater awareness of the media universe and citizen empowerment. This orientation is based on the conviction that the new media offer all citizens opportunities and potentialities that should not be squandered. Therefore, it seeks to launch actions that positively help to develop these potentialities. Their attitude is less defensive than the protectionist orientation and stresses the constructive facet of the relationship with the media through either intellectual creativity or communication relations. This attitude can be found in both schools and informal education, and it is also quite entrenched in the local media system through local newspapers and radio stations, for example." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010 the participatory orientation stresses the spread of social production and communication for the development of knowledge, interactivity and dialogue. It regards the sphere of communication and its products as the legacy of all of humanity and therefore as open and free. This attitude is associated with a political philosophy that trusts in individuals’ autonomy, critical capacity and ability to properly guide their own personal development and thus contribute to the collective welfare. It has been fully developed through the spread of the Internet and the web (Berners-Lee and Fischetti, 2000), which is unquestionably the medium that does the most to facilitate the sharing of resources and social interactivity. It is beginning to be viewed as an important part of deliberative democracy (Dahl, 1993) and the concept of active citizenship

4.2. The ways in which digital natives learn and how they should be taught

4.2.1. "changes occurring in a digital society, which are not only technological changes. Analyse the competences of digital natives: competences that they have, competences that they should acquire. Analyse and take into account what knowledge is in a digital society and what knowledge is for digital natives, as well as how it evolves. Digital societies lead to information societies and knowledge societies. Keep in mind and take into account the human stakes of a knowledge society, and develop the human aspects of digital societies. In order to design teaching and learning strategies for digital natives, we must identify not only their digital characteristics, but also their social, economical, and human characteristics. Digital natives are involved in networks, collaborative working, and collective intelligence. Teaching and learning strategies must take into account such concepts. Networks should be introduced in schools and schools should be networked. Digital natives learn in a new way. Launch research projects about the ways in which digital natives learn. What will they learn? Why? How? At what pace? Will they learn alone or in a collaborative way? How can we establish “individual learning parameters” for a digital native? Digital natives must be taught in a different way. Design and experiment new pedagogical strategies for digital natives, bridging the increasing gap between technology and pedagogy. Involve digital students in the design of appropriate teaching strategies. Identify the political stakes for digital natives in a knowledge society. What political vision must be developed for a knowledge society and for digital native citizens? What values should be developed in such a society?" from UNESCO Policy Brief, DIGITAL NATIVES:HOW DO THEY LEARN? HOW TO TEACH THEM? page 10

4.2.2. new pedagogies are suggested "This also implies transforming pedagogy to invent new forms of it, the pedagogies of the generation Y: pedagogies of time and space. In doing so, we must take into account the possibility of learning “when I want, where I want,” through presence or distance teaching. The diversity of spaces and times can enrich pedagogy. We also have to move from “paper pedagogy” to digital pedagogies. Paper pedagogies cannot adapt to digital tools. We have to invent digital pedagogies. We must invent mobile pedagogies, adapted to the new mobile and nomadic tools. It is not possible to simply transfer the traditional resources to mobile devices. Pedagogical scenarios must be adapted to the specificities of mobile devices and “mobile learning.” We also have to design “social pedagogies”, adapted for collective learning, collective intelligence, collective competences, and collective achievement. The development of networks leads to new forms of pedagogies oriented towards collaborative work and that use all the possibilities of interactions in those networks (such as the web 2.0). We must investigate how social networks can enhance teaching and learning, and we must use the most advanced technologies in order to design “augmented and enriched pedagogies”. A major improvement made possible by ICTs is the possibility of personalization and individualization of teaching. We must invent personalized pedagogies based on the individual learning parameters of each student – pedagogy management systems!" (UNESCO POLICY BRIEF, DIGITAL NATIVES:HOW DO THEY LEARN?HOW TO TEACH THEM? 2011 page 8

4.3. there is a need for an awareness and responsibility for how digital communication technologies can be used

4.3.1. "we must first dissolve the axiom of spontaneous technological progress and accept the fact that when technological alternatives are chosen, progress is only one option among many. The positive development of media technologies will depend on our ability to take the right decisions and gain cognizance of their potential impact. The global communication society harbours enormous potential, along with some risks. However, its full, positive realisation depends on whether humanity, including each and every one of us, gains in awareness and responsibility." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

4.3.2. this awareness must be media related and humanistic. this awareness.."must situate the human person at the core of this media civilisation, this new manmade, telecom world around us, just as in the Renaissance the humanists managed to place human beings at the centre of a world that had previously been organised by theology" (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010 and more about this awareness..."this new awareness must drive the primacy of the critical sense towards technology and thus replace this trusting and rather unselective attitude that prevails today and forces us to unconditionally accept technological innovation." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

4.4. formal educational institutions need to fuilfill these functions//roles

4.4.1. validating, standardising and certifying knowledge from both formal and informal sources "Formal learning institutions have an important role of validating, standardising, and certifying knowledge in many areas but their role in imparting knowledge must change significantly as the ability to seek and construct knowledge is removed from the educational institutions and incorporated into informal learning experiences. If students become disengaged and disillusioned with the value of formal learning they may continue to learn but choose to bypass tertiary qualifications because the person learning informally can learn in their own time," from Informal learning on the Internet and its importance to curriculum, Deirdre Wilmott, Ballarat University, Australia they need to recognise that PEER REVIEW ON THE INTERNET is an excellent evaluator and in fact PIVOTAL TO THE FUTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION ( if recognised) "one of the greatest strengths of the Internet and its web of social interconnections is that much of the content that is developed through community is also peer reviewed by users, through wiki talk pages, blog comments and public forums. Internet content can therefore be subjected to a much wider and intense form of peer assessment than can happen in formal tertiary assessment, where learning is validated by a limited number of expert assessors. In Internet communities, people’s ideas, information, and contributions are open to public scrutiny and review and successful people can achieve recognition of knowledge, skills, and status within their communities and sometimes globally if they are involved with a successful resource. Wiley (2006)[27] believes the Internet to be the future of higher education because it is subject to non-blind peer review, one of the most demanding forms of review." from Informal learning on the Internet and its importance to curriculum, Deirdre Wilmott, Ballarat University, Australia, 2011, page 4

4.5. the current attitudes prevalent in formal education towards informal learning through Idigital technologies

4.5.1. "However, educationalists in higher education institutions often chose to reject student’s previous informal learning because it lacks academic rigour and formal assessment. They frown upon the use of tools such as Wikipedia and tell students that ‘googling’ will lead them to non-peer reviewed content that is perceived to be of dubious value (Achterman, 2005)[1], (McArthur, 2008) [15], (Reilly, 2008).[18].." from Informal learning on the Internet and its importance to curriculum, Deirdre Wilmott, Ballarat University, Australia, 2011, page 2

4.5.2. a difficult vetting process for informal learning "As a result of this access to informal learning on the Internet, when people choose to be educated at formal institutions they may bring a body of experience, knowledge, and learning, achieved by using the Internet. They will also bring their own constructions of learning, written expression, critical application and review, search skills, use of media and specialist subject knowledge. When this learning is considered by formal learning institutions, it is generally through the Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector which recognises current competencies. In order to have such informal learning validated students may have to work through a complex process of achieving recognition through Recognition of Current Competencies (RCC) within VET qualifications then using a pathways program such as a VET diploma, to enter university." from Informal learning on the Internet and its importance to curriculum, Deirdre Wilmott, Ballarat University, Australia, 2011, page 2

4.5.3. presently not recognising ENGAGEMENT "According to Krause (2005)[10] engagement refers to the time, energy and resources students devote to activities designed to enhance learning at university. Engagement has become a pivotal focus of attention as institutions locate themselves in an increasingly competitive higher education environment. She says that this engagement is the single best predictor of learning and personal development. If students believe that they are not learning anything new, they have no incentive to make the investment required to obtain a formal qualification. Kuh (2001)[11] believes that the level of student engagement is one of the key factors in assessing the quality of the education. Therefore, when educators disengage students by not recognising what they bring to courses they place some core organisational reputations at risk." from Informal learning on the Internet and its importance to curriculum, Deirdre Wilmott, Ballarat University, Australia, 2011, page 2

4.5.4. a possible resolution...causing educators to become FAMILIAR with social informal learning "Seely Brown & Adler (2008)[20] see the informal social learning of the Internet as contrasting with the way education has been structured where pedagogy was transference from teachers to students. They suggest that one of the factors limiting the recognition of informal learning is the lack of familiarity and therefore fear that many educators have with the process of social informal learning compared to their students who readily accept it. Some of the concerns with what students already know would be eased if educators considered the potential of the Internet and apply it to their own practice." from Informal learning on the Internet and its importance to curriculum, Deirdre Wilmott, Ballarat University, Australia, 2011, page 6 "Seely Brown & Adler (2008)[21] note that the ability to support socially constructed learning is one of the most profound impacts of the Internet." from Informal learning on the Internet and its importance to curriculum, Deirdre Wilmott, Ballarat University, Australia, 2011, page 6 SEE: Seely Brown, J. & Adler, R. (2008). Minds on Fire:Open Education, the Long Tail,and Learning 2.0. EDUCAUSE Review, 43(1). Selwyn, N. (2007). Web 2.0 applications as alternative environmentsfor informal learning - a critical review. OECD-KERIS. Retrieved from New node


4.6.1. An excursion into 4 different scenarios exploring how governance and policy modelling can be facilitated with ICT ..see link Open governance: characterised by high openness and transparency and high integration in policy intelligence; Leviathan governance: characterised by low openness and transparency and high integration in policy intelligence Scenario 1:::"In the Open Governance Scenario, users will enjoy unprecedented access to information and knowledge. By shifting cognitive capacities, the work of memorizing and processing data and information will be passed onto machines, while humans will focus on critical thinking and developing new analytical skills. This will enhance collective intelligence (both human and ICT-enabled). Humans will be able to use policy modelling techniques to help solve global challenges." The report sets out four possible scenarios - each representing an a possible anticipated future, some good, some not so good. (from Envisioning Digital Europe 2030 This is A Participative Roadmap for ICT Research on Electronic Governance and Policy Modelling, to help policy makers implement the Digital Agenda for Europe Scenario 2:::The Leviathan Governance Scenario assumes that an ‘enlightened oligarchy’ will emerge that uses high-tech tools and systems to collect and manage public information and services. Judgment and decision-making will be based on analytical processing of factual information from the many by the few for the benefit of all. Full-scale 3D automatic simulations and policy intelligence tools will facilitate decisionmaking and the oligarchs will simply approve the recommendations of these tools for the best policy option for the majority of citizens. ‘Real-time governance’ will be possible, where the government/citizen relationship is under total control. Public service delivery will be personalized without people having to ask, thus saving a great deal of time. In this context, citizens will trust the government and will be willing to delegate their right of initiative. Privatised governance: characterised by low openness and transparency and low integration in policy intelligence Scenario 3:::In the Privatised Governance Scenario, society will be shaped by decisions taken by corporate business representatives. Discussion on social issues and about the role and behaviour of citizens will be muted, as people will be pawns whose needs and desires are managed by large corporations. Interactive and participatory governance mechanisms will be sidelined, along with democracy as we know it today. Decision making will depend on ICT. ICT-enabled modelling and decision-support systems will be highly developed by individual companies but not necessarily integrated. Simulations based on data gathered by sensors and collected from continuous monitoring and analysing networks, businesses, customers and the environment will produce global information that will still be fragmented and owned by corporations Self-service governance: characterised by high openness and transparency and low integration in policy intelligence. Scenario 4:::The Self-Service Governance Scenario envisages a society where citizens will be empowered to play the role of policy makers. In small expert communities, citizens will devise policies in accordance with the do-it-yourself principle; they will choose from a menu of public services those they need and consent to. This ICTenabled, self-organised society will be able to address emerging problems faster than traditional government could. Its creative, contextual solutions could prove more robust and resilient in a crisis. Nevertheless, the diversity of opinions between discrete communities may result in the deepening of existing divides and a lack of social cohesion

5. Expected Learning Outcomes / citizenship outcomes for New Media Learners/Digital Natives/ 21st Century Learners

5.1. new media will engender citizens with a clear sense of citizenship, rights and responsibilities ( see more on terms media awareness and new humanism)

5.1.1. "Finally, in the sense that, just as Renaissance humanism, through the new media and humanistic awareness, now is the time for us to be capable of reviving the classical idea of the cosmopolitan, universal citizen, with very clear rights and responsibilities, that entail a planet-wide commitment. We must foster a kind of citizenship that stimulates the idea that individuals view themselves as the bearers of universal rights as well as responsibilities that are also universal." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

5.2. informed, reflective and engaged participants essential for a democratic society

5.2.1. "Media Literacy Education develops informed, reflective and engaged participants essential for a democratic society. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE 4.1 MLE promotes student interest in news and current events as a dimension of citizenship, and can enhance student understanding of First Amendment rights and responsibilities. 4.2 MLE is designed to create citizens who are skeptical, not cynical. 4.3 MLE gives students the skills they need to take responsibility for their own media use. 4.4 MLE invites and respects diverse points of view. 4.5 MLE explores representations, misrepresentations and lack of representation of cultures and countries in the global community. 4.6 MLE values independently produced media. 4.7 MLE trains students to examine how media structures (e.g., ownership, distribution, etc.) influence the ways that people make meaning of media messages. 4.8 MLE recognizes that HOW we teach matters as much as WHAT we teach. Classrooms should be places where student input is respected, valued and acted upon. 4.9 MLE is not partisan. 4.10 MLE is not a substitute for government regulation of media, nor is government regulation a substitute for MLE. 4.11 Censorship or other efforts aimed at keeping selected media beyond the access of selected audiences do not achieve the skill-building goals of MLE. 4.12 MLE is not a substitute for media meeting their responsibility to serve the public interest. At the same time it is not about media bashing, i.e., simplistic, rhetorical, or over-generalized attacks on some types of media or media industries as a whole" from CORE PRINCIPLES OF MEDIA LITERACY EDUCATION in the UNITED STATES, page 5 National Association for Media Literacy Education,

5.3. Plan and collaborate on projects

5.4. Manage and assign tasks

6. How is ICT/ digital knowledge media changing society?

6.1. 3 things are evident: -shock of change -liquid life, -corrosion of character

6.1.1. "It is thus that we have come to talk about the shock of change to describe the force of its impact, the liquid life to highlight the instability it produces and the corrosion of character to refer to the consequences of this change on the human psyche. Therefore, the most characteristic feature of our specific, current civilising stage seems to be instability, change and the risk associated with this change." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010 ) New node

6.2. information based economies are succeeding industrial based economies and personal, social and economic well being are increasingly hinging upon ICT kn owledge and skills

6.2.1. 'The Director-General of UNESCO, Ms. Irina Bokova, has said: “Digital development affects our way of life and even our way of thinking. This development is not only a technological, industrial, or commercial turning point: it is an anthropological turning point that has repercussions on human life, I would even say on the human spirit. This essentially human dimension is UNESCO’s focus.”' (UNESCO POLICY BRIEF, DIGITAL NATIVES:HOW DO THEY LEARN?HOW TO TEACH THEM? 2011 page 9

6.2.2. "A broadened view of literacy that includes skills and knowledge related to information and communication technologies is increasingly seen as an essential component of the knowledge, skills and attitudes that facilitate the creation of personal, social and economic well-being. (Kellner, 2002; Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2003; Rainie & Horrigan, 2005; Senn-Breivik, 2005). In the global economy, individuals and nations with information and communication technology skills will most likely prosper while those lacking them will struggle to compete. It is therefore essential that we understand more about the ways in which we use information and communication technologies and the associated outcomes of those uses. According to Murnane and Levy (1996), these “new basic skills” are needed by everyone regardless of their aspirations, regardless of whether they are male or female, and regardless of their social and economic backgrounds." PIAAC Literacy: A Conceptual Framework, page 5

6.3. an explosion of information, communication and interaction

6.3.1. "This chain reaction in the amount of information and communication has had a direct impact on three essential dimensions of human life: communicative energy, time and space. And it has transformed them in a profound, irreversible way" (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

6.4. how identities are being impacted

6.4.1. "in the era of global communication, everyday life has become transitory and provisional. It is undergoing a constant process of change and adaptation. This ever-changing life is accepted not only by individuals but also by large publics that, in perpetual connection, have already become the real social subjects.12 As a result, the culture has felt the pull of change. It has stopped being a fixed, structured reference and instead become unstable and moving, with a consequent impact on the processes of constructing personal identities." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

6.4.2. nomadism and a mbile culture "As Bauman has written, our (everyday) life has abandoned the solidity of the past and become liquid.The global communication society seems to correspond to a rushed life of nomadism. And this liquid life seems to come with the obligatory wrapping of a mosaic, disorderly, incoherent and mobile culture. Perhaps as a result of this, new subjects and new social personalities are emerging that are direct derivations of the media weaving and unravelling: huge conglomerates of publics connected via flexible mobile networks that are increasingly sophisticated and active, and hence a kind of personality dominated by “being alone together”." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

6.5. an explosion of knowledge, but is it knowledge that is true or knowledge that is without depth or truth?

6.5.1. "According to Plato’s dialogue, for example, writing can lead to wisdom (Theuth) or to its opposite: ignorance that is ignorant of itself — apparent wisdom, uneducated erudition (Thamus). And extending that reasoning, perhaps the entire communication revolution today can contribute to this false awareness of knowledge with no depth and no truth." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010 and in extension of this observation "Regardless of its convenience, all indications point to the fact that our society has adopted Theuth’s attitude. Trusting of technology, it accepts a kind of axiom that states that every technical development is positive. Thus, it seems to have deified or naturalised technology. And so, without quite realising it, we are probably subordinating humans to the often uncontrolled designs of technical progress. Is this, in essence, a kind of fatalism with regard to the future? Is not it accepting that only technology affects our lives? Are we not regarding it as a factor independent of our will? Are we not, then, de facto giving up our ability to conduct and direct it?" (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

7. What do we know about New Millennium Learners/Digital Natives

7.1. Multitasking makes it difficult for them to concentrate for a long time on one activity.

7.1.1. short concentration span about the short concentration span from understanding nthe digital generation New node

7.2. usage with new media

7.2.1. statistics

7.2.2. digital natives display these learning behaviours they strive to accrue knowledge and they create knowledge 'The basic knowledge of the generation Y cannot be reduced to “read, write, count”count”; knowledge cannot be reduced to the addition of traditional school subjects. There is a tremendous accumulation of knowledge, knowledge that is ever more complex.' from UNESCO POLICY BRIEF, DIGITAL NATIVES:HOW DO THEY LEARN?HOW TO TEACH THEM, page 4 more on this from another document more on this from yet another document again they learn and participate in networks "“Network thinking” is now common, and this is a new challenge for digital natives. Thinking in terms of networks changes profoundly the vision of the world and of human relationships. Almost everyone is now a member of many networks." UNESCO POLICY REPORT; 2011 DIGITAL NATIVES: HOW DO THEY LEARN? HOW TO TEACH THEM? they add value to collective intelligence in digital networks "The networked society needs and reinforces a collective intelligence, and ICTs make it possible to move towards a global network of collective intelligence. The digital natives, who are both individual and collective, are invited to take part in this collective intelligence." UNESCO POLICY REPORT; 2011 DIGITAL NATIVES: HOW DO THEY LEARN? HOW TO TEACH THEM?, page 7

7.3. a generation with new attitudes and new visions

7.3.1. "This generation is the generation of “web 2.0”: interactivity, community, communication, collaboration. This gives them a new vision of time and space: “I can communicate with any person, at any time, in any place,” “I can access lots of information.” (Policy Brief from UNESCO, 2011 : "DIGITAL NATIVES: HOW DO THEY LEARN? HOW TO TEACH THEM?"

7.4. digital natives process information differently compared to other generations

7.4.1. new neural pathways evolving "the digital world is changing the way kids think—their brains are being altered by the audiovisual and interactive experiences provided by new online digital tools. This has been confirmed by research. Small begins his book with the following statement: Daily exposure to high technology—computers, smart phones, video games, search engines like Google and Yahoo—stimulates brain cell alteration and neurotransmitter release, gradually strengthening new neural pathways in our brains while weakening old ones. Because of the current technological revolution, our brains are evolving right now—at a speed like never before. (Small & Vorgon, 2008, p. 1)* Understanding the Digital Generation, chapter 1

7.4.2. accessing knowledge randomly note about this fromk born digital - grazing and diving Rather than a linear access to knowledge, a demonstrative reasoning, and a logical sequence of reasoning, they access knowledge in a random process and through “hypertext” approaches (UNESCO POLICY BRIEF, DIGITAL NATIVES:HOW DO THEY LEARN?HOW TO TEACH THEM? 2011 page 7 note about this from connectivism

7.4.3. their preferences for learning They prefer learning through visual and graphics rather than reading text. They are used to learning through interactivity and games. They have to be permanently connected, since knowledge is in the connectivity (UNESCO POLICY BRIEF, DIGITAL NATIVES:HOW DO THEY LEARN?HOW TO TEACH THEM? 2011 page 7

7.4.4. are described as weavers of networks and hybridisers of contexts "active multimedia users...they act in various dimensions — communicative networks and live activities — in relation to increasingly extensive and more varied collectives and using a vast variety of semiotics and languages. They are constant weavers of networks and hybridisers of contexts, situations, activities and spaces. And through their extensive media relations, they take on new roles and identities, fulfil new functions and accommodate their personal psychology to the new media circumstances." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

8. What should new media LITERACY encompass anyway and how is it being defined

8.1. What are people saying 21st Century skills are?

8.1.1. media literacy..please see all the nodes below

8.2. from a new humanism perspective

8.2.1. media literacy s defined from a new humanism perspective as ‘the process of assimilating and using the codes involved in the contemporary media system as well as the operative skills needed to properly use the technological systems on which these codes are based’ and as ‘the capacity to access, analyse and evaluate the power of the images, sounds and messages with which we are faced every day and which play an important role in contemporary culture. It includes the individual capacity to communicate using the media competently. Media literacy concerns all media, including television, film, radio and recorded music, the press, the Internet and any other digital communication technology." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

8.2.2. new humanim is: ‘The idea of ‘new humanism’ has become a new credo for UNESCO. Being applied to education, it suggests the creation of a more inclusive society in which all humans have a chance to access knowledge and quality education and every voice is heard in the universal dialogue." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

8.2.3. intercultural dialogue "On the basis of the analysis of the recent UNESCO, EC and other initiatives in media literacy, Varis and Pérez Tornero formulated basic principles of an agenda intended to strengthen the contribution of media literacy to intercultural dialogue." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

8.2.4. "today’s communicative universe..will have to ground and support itself on the individual’s full autonomy and capacity to judge freely, to adopt informed decisions based on the fulfilment of the right to information and transparency, to freely express opinions and convey information, to freely create and interact with others, to use all the media available within their reach and to reciprocally demand respect for diversity. One key to this lies in the possibility of media literacy" (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

8.3. a definition of literacy from OECD: 'Literacy is understanding, evaluating, using and engaging with written texts to participate in society, to achieve one’s goals, and to develop one’s knowledge and potential.' (PIAAC LITERACY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OECD Education Working Paper No. 34, 2009 page 8

8.3.1. engagement 'The concept of reading engagement is an important one in adult literacy, referring to the degree of importance of reading to an individual and to the extent that reading plays a role in their daily life. Empirical studies with children and adults have shown that differences in engagement are systematically related to differences in performance on assessments. Engagement theory typically identifies 5 integrated aspects of the concept. a) Amount and variety of reading. The more one reads and the more different types of reading (purposes, types of text) one uses, the greater one is engaged with reading. b) Interest in reading. The more one seeks out reading as a means of obtaining information and for enjoyment, the greater one is engaged with reading. c) Control. The more one feels in control of what one reads and is able to direct one’s own reading, the greater the engagement. d) Efficacy. The more an individual feels able to read well, especially the confidence to read successfully new texts, the greater one is engaged with reading. e) Social interaction. The more one is interested in sharing reading experiences and seeks out others to talk about reading, the more one is engaged with reading.”' (PIAAC LITERACY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OECD Education Working Paper No. 34, 2009

8.3.2. understanding

8.3.3. evaluating

8.3.4. using

8.3.5. achieving goals

8.3.6. developing knowledge and potential


8.5. The IALS / ALL definition reads: “Literacy is defined as a particular capacity and mode of behaviour: the ability to understand and employ printed information in daily activities, at home, at work, and in the community – to achieve one’s goals and to develop knowledge and potential.” from (PIAAC LITERACY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OECD Education Working Paper No. 34, 2009 but originally from

8.6. media literacy IS NOT digital literacy

8.6.1. "This is where talking about digital literacy begins to become partial and insufficient. We must now talk about media competence and literacy." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

8.6.2. "Digital literacy is linked to the new digital media and is largely dependent upon the language of IT. Its emergence has necessitated a serious transformation in the literacy competences and the addition of new skills and aptitudes. It is a very recent concept that often tends to be used synonymously with the technical skills required to use the new digital instruments." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

8.6.3. "Media literacy: This is required by the convergence of media, both analogical and digital and new multimedia platforms. It characterises the advanced stage of development of the Information Society. However, it is obvious that this new literacy encompasses and includes all of the previous ones. In the realm of this communicative and technological development, there are two major turning points that fostered the need for this new media literacy: a) the appearance of the electronic media (telephone, film, radio and television), which characterise the paradigm of mass communication that was dominant from the 1950s to the 1990s; and b) the arrival of digital media. The latter, which are disseminated with a speed and intensity previously unheard of, have prompted the appearance of a new intellectual, semiotic and communicative context." (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

8.6.4. media literacy, when it does exist, subsumes and includes all the others "Generally speaking, in all countries and societies, today the mass media, characterised by a broad range of audiences and by centralised production and dissemination, and the new digital multimedia context, characterised by capillarity and reticulation of the dissemination of information, interactivity and the multimediality of the messages, coexist alongside one another. In terms of the literacy processes, this means that all of the different kinds of literacy discussed survive and interact: classical literacy linked to reading and writing, audiovisual literacy, digital literacy and media literacy.25 However, we understand that media literacy, when it does exist, subsumes and includes all the others" (from Media Literacy and New Humanism, UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, 2010

8.6.5. media literacy expands the concept of literacy..and funny enpugh , media literacy education in the United Stats MLE iis not focused on changing media, but rather on changing educational practice and increasing students’ knowledge and skills "Media Literacy Education expands the concept of literacy (i.e., reading and writing) to include all forms of media. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE 2.1 Like print literacy, which requires both reading and writing, MLE encompasses both analysis and expression. 2.2 MLE enables students to express their own ideas through multiple forms of media (e.g., traditional print, electronic, digital, user-generated, and wireless) and helps students make connections between comprehension and inference-making in print, visual, and audio media. 2.3 MLE takes place in a variety of settings, including, but not limited to: schools, after school programs, online, universities & colleges, religious institutions, and the home. 2.4 MLE should be taught across the pre-K-12 curriculum. It can be integrated into nearly any subject area. 2.5 MLE welcomes the use of a broad range of media “texts,” including popular media. 2.6 MLE recognizes that evolving media forms, societal changes, and institutional structures require ever new instructional approaches and practices. 2.7 Effective MLE requires classrooms to be equipped with the tools to both analyze and produce media. 2.8 MLE intersects with other literacies, i.e., is distinct from but shares many goals and techniques with print, visual, technology, information, and other literacies. 2.9 As a literacy, MLE may have political consequences, but it is not a political movement; it is an educational discipline. 2.10 While MLE may result in students wanting to change or reform media, MLE itself is not focused on changing media, but rather on changing educational practice and increasing students’ knowledge and skills." from CORE PRINCIPLES OF MEDIA LITERACY EDUCATION in the UNITED STATES, page 4 National Association for Media Literacy Education,

8.7. Quite specifically what are the skills needed by 21st Century Learners?

8.7.1. "This Framework describes the skills, knowledge and expertise students must master to succeed in work and life; it is a blend of content knowledge, specific skills, expertise and literacies... Within the context of core knowledge instruction, students must also learn the essential skills for success in today’s world, such as critical thinking, problem solving, communication and collaboration " (from P21 Framework Definitions, The Partnership for 21st Century Skills,2009

8.7.2. "This Framework describes the skills, knowledge and expertise students must master to succeed in work and life; it is a blend of content knowledge, specific skills, expertise and literacies... When a school or district builds on this foundation, combining the entire Framework with the necessary support systems—standards, assessments, curriculum and instruction, professional development and learning environments—students are more engaged in the learning process and graduate better prepared to thrive in today’s global economy. While the graphic represents each element distinctly for descriptive purposes, the Partnership views all the components as fully interconnected in the process of 21st century teaching and learning. " (from P21 Framework Definitions, The Partnership for 21st Century Skills,2009 CORE SUBJECTS AND 21st CENTURY THEMES Mastery of core subjects and 21st century themes is essential for all students in the 21st century. Core subjects include: • English, reading or language arts • World languages • Arts • Mathematics • Economics • Science • Geography • History • Government and Civics IN ADDITION TO THESE SUBJECTS, the Framework believes schools "must move to include not only a focus on mastery of core subjects, but also promote understanding of academic content at much higher levels by weaving 21st century interdisciplinary themes into core subjects" LEARNING AND INNOVATION SKILLS Learning and innovation skills increasingly are being recognized as those that separate students who are prepared for a more and more complex life and work environments in the 21st century, and those who are not. A focus on creativity, critical thinking, communication and collaboration is essential to prepare students for the future. CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION Think Creatively • Use a wide range of idea creation techniques (such as brainstorming) • Create new and worthwhile ideas (both incremental and radical concepts) • Elaborate, refine, analyze and evaluate their own ideas in order to improve and maximize creative efforts Work Creatively with Others • Develop, implement and communicate new ideas to others effectively • Be open and responsive to new and diverse perspectives; incorporate group input and feedback into the work • Demonstrate originality and inventiveness in work and understand the real world limits to adopting new ideas • View failure as an opportunity to learn; understand that creativity and innovation is a long-term, cyclical process of small successes and frequent mistakes Implement Innovations • Act on creative ideas to make a tangible and useful contribution to the field in which the innovation will occur CRITICAL THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING Reason Effectively • Use various types of reasoning (inductive, deductive, etc.) as appropriate to the situation Use Systems Thinking • Analyze how parts of a whole interact with each other to produce overall outcomes in complex systems Make Judgments and Decisions • Effectively analyze and evaluate evidence, arguments, claims and beliefs • Analyze and evaluate major alternative points of view • Synthesize and make connections between information and arguments • Interpret information and draw conclusions based on the best analysis • Reflect critically on learning experiences and processes Solve Problems • Solve different kinds of non-familiar problems in both conventional and innovative ways • Identify and ask significant questions that clarify various points of view and lead to better solutions COMMUNICATION AND COLLABORATION Communicate Clearly • Articulate thoughts and ideas effectively using oral, written and nonverbal communication skills in a variety of forms and contexts • Listen effectively to decipher meaning, including knowledge, values, attitudes and intentions • Use communication for a range of purposes (e.g. to inform, instruct, motivate and persuade) • Utilize multiple media and technologies, and know how to judge their effectiveness a priori as well as assess their impact • Communicate effectively in diverse environments (including multi-lingual) Collaborate with Others • Demonstrate ability to work effectively and respectfully with diverse teams • Exercise flexibility and willingness to be helpful in making necessary compromises to accomplish a common goal • Assume shared responsibility for collaborative work, and value the individual contributions made by each team member INFORMATION, MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY SKILLS People in the 21st century live in a technology and media-suffused environment, marked by various characteristics, including: 1) access to an abundance of information, 2) rapid changes in technology tools, and 3) the ability to collaborate and make individual contributions on an unprecedented scale. To be effective in the 21st century, citizens and workers must be able to exhibit a range of functional and critical thinking skills related to information, media and technology. THE NODE FOLLOWING LISTS PRECISELY WEHAT THESE SKILLS ARE. PLEASE NOTE THAT THESE SKILLS ARE GOUPED INTO 3 OVERRIDING CATEGORIES ACCORDING TO THE FRAMEWORK FOR 21ST CENTURY SKILLS: INFORMATION LITERACY, MEDIA LITERACY, ICT (Information, Communications and Technology) LITERACY New node LIFE AND CAREER SKILLS Today’s life and work environments require far more than thinking skills and content knowledge. The ability to navigate the complex life and work environments in the globally competitive information age requires students to pay rigorous attention to developing adequate life and career skills. FLEXIBILITY AND ADAPTABILITY Adapt to Change • Adapt to varied roles, jobs responsibilities, schedules and contexts • Work effectively in a climate of ambiguity and changing priorities Be Flexible • Incorporate feedback effectively • Deal positively with praise, setbacks and criticism • Understand, negotiate and balance diverse views and beliefs to reach workable solutions, particularly in multi-cultural environments INITIATIVE AND SELF-DIRECTION Manage Goals and Time • Set goals with tangible and intangible success criteria • Balance tactical (short-term) and strategic (long-term) goals • Utilize time and manage workload efficiently Work Independently • Monitor, define, prioritize and complete tasks without direct oversight Be Self-directed Learners • Go beyond basic mastery of skills and/or curriculum to explore and expand one’s own learning and opportunities to gain expertise • Demonstrate initiative to advance skill levels towards a professional level • Demonstrate commitment to learning as a lifelong process • Reflect critically on past experiences in order to inform future progress SOCIAL AND CROSS-CULTURAL SKILLS Interact Effectively with Others • Know when it is appropriate to listen and when to speak • Conduct themselves in a respectable, professional manner Work Effectively in Diverse Teams • Respect cultural differences and work effectively with people from a range of social and cultural backgrounds • Respond open-mindedly to different ideas and values • Leverage social and cultural differences to create new ideas and increase both innovation and quality of work PRODUCTIVITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY Manage Projects • Set and meet goals, even in the face of obstacles and competing pressures • Prioritize, plan and manage work to achieve the intended result Produce Results • Demonstrate additional attributes associated with producing high quality products including the abilities to: - Work positively and ethically - Manage time and projects effectively - Multi-task - Participate actively, as well as be reliable and punctual - Present oneself professionally and with proper etiquette - Collaborate and cooperate effectively with teams - Respect and appreciate team diversity - Be accountable for results LEADERSHIP AND RESPONSIBILITY Guide and Lead Others • Use interpersonal and problem-solving skills to influence and guide others toward a goal • Leverage strengths of others to accomplish a common goal • Inspire others to reach their very best via example and selflessness • Demonstrate integrity and ethical behavior in using influence and power Be Responsible to Others • Act responsibly with the interests of the larger community in mind THE SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ALL THE ABOVE MENTIONED SETS OF SKILLS: The elements described below are the critical systems necessary to ensure student mastery of 21st century skills. 21st century standards, assessments, curriculum, instruction, professional development and learning environments must be aligned to produce a support system that produces 21st century outcomes for today’s students. 21st Century Standards • Focus on 21st century skills, content knowledge and expertise • Build understanding across and among core subjects as well as 21st century interdisciplinary themes • Emphasize deep understanding rather than shallow knowledge • Engage students with the real world data, tools and experts they will encounter in college, on the job, and in life; students learn best when actively engaged in solving meaningful problems • Allow for multiple measures of mastery Assessment of 21st Century Skills • Supports a balance of assessments, including high-quality standardized testing along with effective formative and summative classroom assessments • Emphasizes useful feedback on student performance that is embedded into everyday learning • Requires a balance of technology-enhanced, formative and summative assessments that measure student mastery of 21st century skills • Enables development of portfolios of student work that demonstrate mastery of 21st century skills to educators and prospective employers • Enables a balanced portfolio of measures to assess the educational system’s effectiveness in reaching high levels of student competency in 21st century skills 21st Century Curriculum and Instruction • Teaches 21st century skills discretely in the context of core subjects and 21st century interdisciplinary themes • Focuses on providing opportunities for applying 21st century skills across content areas and for a competency-based approach to learning • Enables innovative learning methods that integrate the use of supportive technologies, inquiry- and problem-based approaches and higher order thinking skills • Encourages the integration of community resources beyond school walls 21st Century Professional Development • Highlights ways teachers can seize opportunities for integrating 21st century skills, tools and teaching strategies into their classroom practice — and help them identify what activities they can replace/de-emphasize • Balances direct instruction with project-oriented teaching methods • Illustrates how a deeper understanding of subject matter can actually enhance problem-solving, critical thinking, and other 21st century skills • Enables 21st century professional learning communities for teachers that model the kinds of classroom learning that best promotes 21st century skills for students • Cultivates teachers’ ability to identify students’ particular learning styles, intelligences, strengths and weaknesses • Helps teachers develop their abilities to use various strategies (such as formative assessments) to reach diverse students and create environments that support differentiated teaching and learning • Supports the continuous evaluation of students’ 21st century skills development • Encourages knowledge sharing among communities of practitioners, using face-to-face, virtual and blended communications • Uses a scalable and sustainable model of professional development 21st Century Learning Environments • Create learning practices, human support and physical environments that will support the teaching and learning of 21st century skill outcomes • Support professional learning communities that enable educators to collaborate, share best practices and integrate 21st century skills into classroom practice • Enable students to learn in relevant, real world 21st century contexts (e.g., through project-based or other applied work) • Allow equitable access to quality learning tools, technologies and resources • Provide 21st century architectural and interior designs for group, team and individual learning • Support expanded community and international involvement in learning, both face-to-face and online New node

8.7.3. New node


10. more on ACHIEVING


12. What do we know about learning that is facilitated through digital tecvhnologies

12.1. the internet is a great EQUALISER of learning

12.1.1. "Hiemstra (2009)[8] suggests the Internet is a great equaliser of learning. He says that if adults have the motivation, drive, and patience they can learn by themselves. They do it through social networks, opinions presented in tools such as blogs and discussion forums, and through information available in accredited and non accredited sources the use of which can encourage the development of quite sophisticated evaluation skills." from Informal learning on the Internet and its importance to curriculum, Deirdre Wilmott, Ballarat University, Australia, 2011, page 1

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